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put on record 1 his testimony to the courage and de. form such a fleet, no European power would have any termination with which the really military black races more scruple in seeking its aid by alliance than the face any odds in battle. Our own civil war moreover Roman emperor had in accepting the tax from an unhas borne testimony to the superb fighting qualities of savory source, and for the same reason. the African. In the very month in which Wolseley's It may be, of course, that all such speculations are testimony appeared, it received striking confirmation less than idle; that the African is hopelessly a child in the affair at Suakin, in which the negro allies of the or a slave; that the destiny of the Dark Continent is English forces did so unfairly large a proportion of only to be exploited for the benefit of the other contithe fighting; and there are further confirmatory cases nents; and that the relations between Europe and in the African warfare of the past, familiar enough to Africa are always to be commercial only, and never in show that the Dark Continent has an abundance of any wise international. It is well to notice, however, the raw material for organized armies. And it is more that this last hypothesis has already been relied upon than probable that the militant African will be as com- in the case of China and Japan, and that it already petent as our American Indian to handle modern seems to be proving somewhat delusive. One cannot weapons and munitions.

feel certain that the other hypotheses above stated are Why, then, when educated leaders shall be devel. not equally or more delusive. Certainly Africa shows oped, should not Africa, in her turn, evolve govern. no signs of supine acquiescence in a commercial fate. ments as capable as China or Japan of throwing some Englishmen, Frenchmen, Germans, and Italians are weight into any general disturbance of the interna- still chipping at the edges of the Dark Continent, tional balance? The possible wealth of Africa is im- and seem to find advance into the interior unexpectmeasurably beyond that from which the far eastern edly difficult. There may yet be the seeds of stirring powers have armed themselves. When we hear of international episodes in the Basuto, the Zulu, or the Chinese and Japanese war fleets now, the conception Ashanti, as Wolseley describes them; or in the men of them has gradually become familiar; but the con- of whom he uses these astonishingly strong words : ception of them would have seemed about as strange “I am certain our men would much prefer to fight the thirty years ago as that of a Zulu squadron of iron-clads best European troops rather than the same number of would seem to us now. It is certain that if any Asri. African warriors who were under the influence of Mocan power should come to have ambition enough to hammedan fanaticism."

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OPEN LETTERS.

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American Literature.2

it gives, in general, longer extracts, and its material is chosen with a nicer taste and from a more modern point

а HOEVER will read through this big work, of of view.

which seven volumes are now issued, will have A glance at the contents of the successive volumes in gained a knowledge of American history, not so con- the series will enable the reader to follow the growth of nected, but much more vivid than he can get from Ban. the American mind and the development of a native crost or Hildreth. And the best way to study history society and a civilization which, if in the main derived is in the documents. The editors have given a liberal from Europe, is also in a degree original. In the first interpretation to the word literature; indeed, they have volume, as was to be expected, the place of honor is been forced to do so, for it is not much more than half a given to that delightful soldier of fortune, Captain John century that literature as a fine art has been practiced Smith, of the Virginia Adventurers; and the greater in this country with any success.

part of the book is allotted to narratives of voyages, reThe first two volumes cover the colonial period and ports of life in the New World sent back to England, follow the time division adopted by Tyler in his un. journals like Bradford's and Winthrop's, the sermons finished “ History of American Literature," being de- and theological writings of New England divines such voted respectively to the years 1607-1675, and 1676- as Hooker and Cotton, and descriptions of the Indians. 1764 (Tyler makes it 1607-1676 and 1677-1765). The This was the age of settlement and discovery, and the dividing line between the first and second colonial authors represented in this volume were all born in period is Bacon's Rebellion in Virginia and King England and in great part reared there. Perhaps the Philip's War in New England. These volumes, in fact, most important names after those already mentioned make an excellent supplement to Professor Tyler's are Roger Williams and John Eliot, the apostle to work without in the least taking its place, since they the Indians. In New England, theology seems to have consist merely of selections from colonial writers with formed the sole intellectual interest of the people and no comment, and no biographical matter beyond the almost the daily business of their lives. The Cambridge dates and places of birth and death. In this respect platform; the letters of persecuted Quakers,“ written in the “ Library” differs from such standard collections the common gaol in the bloody town of Boston"; the as Duyckinck’s and Griswold's. It is not a cyclopedia; punning epitaphs composed upon deceased ministers 1 “Fortnightly Review," December, 1888.

by their survivors; and the metrical horrors of the 2 A Library of American Literature from the Earliest Settle famous “ Bay Psalm Book” (1640), the first book ment to the Present Time. Compiled and Edited by Edmund printed in America, round out the picture of early Clarence Stedman and Ellen Mackay Hutchinson. New York: Charles L. Webster & Co. 1888.

colonial life in New England and deepen one's thank

ten vol

umes.

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fulness that one is only a descendant of the Puritans. menace to the advance of the English settlements, they But the great interest of their subject-matter and the were in some respects more formidable to outlying earnestness of their spirit redeem the work of these towns, like Deerfield, than they had been in the days ancient annalists and preachers from absolute dullness. of the Pequot and King Philip's wars, being organized Now and then there is a touch of quaintness, of sim- and supplied with fire-arms by their French allies. plicity or grave humor, or a bit of graphic narrative The opening up of the Carolinas and the survey of the which seems like a concession to worldly-mindedness Dismal Swamp furnish new fields to the literature of and engages the modern reader. Mistress Anne Brad- exploration and wild adventure. In the eighteenth street, “ The Tenth Muse,” our first if not really our century Puritanism finds its most spiritual and most worst poet, is not so amusing as the Sweet Singer of logical expression in Jonathan Edwards, who must be Michigan. Nathaniel Ward, “ The Simple Cobbler of pronounced, upon the whole, the greatest name in our Agawam,” is a humorist of that distressing variety strictly colonial period. Edwards's limpid style and which abounded in the generation of Thomas Fuller, “that inward sweetness"in his “sense of divine things” and is not to be compared with Artemus the Delicious. give a beauty to some of his pages which makes them But Captain John Underhill is a pleasant soul, and the nearest approach to pure literature in the writings Thomas Morton of Merrymount has some contempo- of American theologians before Channing. Copious raneous human interest as a foil to the Puritans, and, and judicious selections are given from Hubbard's if for no other reason, then because Hawthorne has “ History of New England” and from the Virginia made such good use of him in his “ Maypole of Merry- historians Beverly and Stith, whose more formal works mount." There is, in truth, a legendary and almost now began to take the place of contemporary journals mythological air about this Merrymount episode. like Bradford's and Winthrop's. Finally, towards the

In the second volume we reach the first native Amer. end of the volume, we reach the first American drama. ican writers. The Calvinistic gloom of the Puritans takes tist, Thomas Godfrey of Philadelphia, whose tragedy a still deeper tinge, and we are met on the threshold with “The Prince of Parthia” (1765) has nothing to recomMichael Wigglesworth's“ Day of Doom”- thatstrange mend it to curiosity except its date. New English Inferno which once made thousands of The third volume is devoted to the literature of the readers shudder and now makes an occasional one Revolution (1765-1787). Politics now takes the first laugh, or would make him laugh were it not for a cer- place, hitherto occupied by theology, and even the sertain intensity and sincerity, amounting almost to poetic mons of the time have a strong tinge of patriotism. imagination, under its hard, literal diction and doggerel Franklin is the great figure of the volume. He was the verse.

first American man of letters who gained a European Thirty years later and this Calvinistic blackness gets reputation, except, possibly, Edwards; the first intela streak of blood across it, and we come to the Salem lectual product of the New World that could be measwitch-killings — the internal, as Indian massacres were ured against those of the old by the same standards the external, tragedy of colonial New England. In- without allowances or qualifications. The selections crease and Cotton Mather — what Tyler calls “the from Franklin are fairly representative of his many. dynasty of the Mathers ”- are the prominent figures in sided activity. They include several of his papers the literature of this period. The “Magnalia” is the on electricity, letters on public questions and private great book of old New England. Its author was opinions, amusing trifles like “ The Whistler," and pedantic, vain, bigoted, and superstitious. His book is the “Dialogue between Franklin and the Gout,” and crabbed enough in style, but it is full of meat, and may passages from “Poor Richard's Almanac," and from be relished to-day by readers with a strong stomach. the still popular “ Autobiography,” the most humanly

. The editors have done well in giving among their other interesting American book of the last century. The selections from Cotton Mather his account of Captain spirit of Franklin and of his age was very different

Phips's adventure in raising the wreck of a Spanish from that of Mather or of Jonathan Edwards. He was . treasure ship from a reef near Hispaniola. The whole émancipé-a deist and a utilitarian, distinctly secular

life of Phips, as told in the “Magnalia,” reads like a and unspiritual. In his inventiveness, thrift, common romance. Judge Sewall's confession of his guilt in the sense, and practicality he stands out as the “primal witchcraft matter is given, and also the indignant ex- Yankee.” Matthew Arnold, who praised the crystal posure of the whole business of Mather's “Invisible clearness of his English, thought him the most characWorld," by Robert Calef, a Boston merchant, whose teristic American in literature. sanity, in contrast with the wretched credulity of the The eighteenth-century rebound from the religious ministers and magistrates, imports a little of the eigh- tension of the seventeenth is seen also in the writings teenth-century éclaircissement into the darkness of the of other American deists, like Jefferson, "Tom" Paine, seventeenth. The editors, for some reason, have not and Ethan Allen. The political writings and speeches included the fine passage from Sewall's “ Phænom- of these and other patriots, such as Otis, Washington, mena" which Whittier has versified and which Pro. the Adamses, Patrick Henry, Jay, Josiah Quincy, etc., fessor Tyler quotes in his “ History.” Room might make up the bulk of the volume. Revolutionary songs have been made, too, for an extract from Higginson's and ballads, both Whig and Tory, and documents like “Attestation to Cotton Mather's Magnalia,” which the Declaration of Independence, give fullness to the contains some really eloquent writing.

historic view of the period. The Loyalist side is repreNarratives of captivity among the Indians, and sented by extracts from Governor Hutchinson, James ballads of Lovewell's Fight and of the French and Rivington, the official Tory printer ofthe“Gazette,” and Indian War, continue, in this volume, the history of the famous “ History of Connecticut,” by Rev. Samuel the gradual extinction of the aborigines begun in the Peters, the source of unnumbered slanders on the first. Although the Indians had ceased to be a serious land of steady habits. There are eight pages from

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the diary of John Woolman, that ancient New Jersey Tyler's novel, “ The Algerine Captive,” suggests Friend and abolitionist, whose quaint sweetness of Smollett and Le Sage, and a passage given from his spirit made Charles Lamb fall in love with the early “The Yankey in London " (1809) shows that the difQuakers. In the prose and verse of Francis Hopkinson ferentiation between English English and American of Philadelphia, in Trumbull's “M’Fingal” and the pas. English (as in the use of guess and clever), which forms quinades of the other “Hartford wits,” we encounter so large a part of the stock in trade of our “internasatire and humor not entirely devoid of point even at this tional” novelists, had already become noticeable. distance of time. And in Philip Freneau we reach the Brown's uncanny romances have recently been repubfirst real American poet. The editors would have done lished entire. He was not without genius, and faintly well, perhaps, to include among their selections from foretokens Hawthorne. Shelley, as is well known, fed Hopkinson the description of a salt-box in his “College upon his novels, and contributed to the same school of Examination,” which is better known than anything of fiction his youthful performances, “ Zastrozzi” and “St. his except the “ Battle of the Kegs.” The selections Irvyne, or the Rosicrucian." There is a native touch from Freneau are good, but “ The Indian Student” is in such anonymous ballads as “ The Country School" more deserving of a place in the volume than any of the and “Sleighing Song,” the latter slightly reminding author's political or satirical verses, which are all one of a very popular sleighing idyl by one of the worthless, except “ Eutaw Springs.”

editors of this “ Library.” Under John Quincy Adams In this volume, as in the latter part of the second and we miss the clever and rather well-known verses enthroughout the fourth, the changes in style keep pace titled “ The Wants of Man,” which are a sort of anticiwith the advancing literary fashions of the mother coun- pation of Dr. Holmes's “ Contentment," as Thomas try. There is the same difference between the prose Green Fessenden's ballad “The Country Lovers," here of Cotton Mather and that of Jonathan Edwards as be given, is of Lowell's “ The Courtin'.” The beginnings tween the prose of Burton and that of Locke. Dryden of Knickerbocker literature are illustrated by passages and Butler, a little later Addison and Pope, a little later from William Irving and J. K. Paulding; and the still Johnson and Goldsmith, become the models of our approach of a finer culture in New England by speci. lighter literature in prose and verse. “M'Fingal” mens from the novels, lectures, and poems of Washimitates Hudibras; William Livingston, afterwards ington Allston. Of pieces still current and gengovernor of New Jersey, in his poem “ Philosophical erally familiar we may note, as falling within this Solitude” (1747), tells in the manner of the “ Rape of period, Hopkinson's “Hail, Columbia,” Moore's the Lock” of the coquetries of “nymphs” like Sylvia “ Visit from St. Nicholas,” and Key's “Star-Spangled and Chloe :

Banner.” A feature of this volume, repeated in some Then parrots, lapdogs, monkeys, squirrels, beaux,

of the later ones, is a collection of “Noted Sayings," Fans, ribbons, tuckers, patches, furbelows,

such as Commodore Perry's “We have met the enemy, In quick succession through their fancies run, and they are ours," and Pinckney's “ Millions for de. And dance incessant on the flippant tongue.

fence, but not one cent for tribute.” (What he really In President Dwight's “ Triumph of Infidelity” did say was, “Not a penny, not a penny!”) (1788) and Mercy Warren's poems (1790), Pope contin- With volume five (1821–1834) we enter upon the be. ues to give the law, though Dwight's “Greenfield Hill” ginning of American literature in the stricter sense shows some influence of Goldsmith and Cowper. of the word. There was little or nothing before this Franklin's “Busybody” (1729) was an imitation of the in the nature of creative or imaginative work of any “Spectator.” Freneau shows distinct traces of Gray's permanent importance. But now we come upon the and Collins's elegiac verse. There was little or nothing names of Irving and Cooper; of historians like Prescott; as yet of original value in our polite literature. naturalists like Audubon ; poets like Pierpont, Dana,

The literature of the Republic begins with the fourth Halleck, Bryant, Percival, and Drake; orators and volume (1788–1820). This was the era of constitution- lecturers like Everett and Choate. None of these is making and constitutional interpretation in American quite forgotten, and several of them are as fresh in political history, and here the important names are interest as ever. And though the volume is in general a those of Hamilton, Marshall, Gallatin (in finance), depository of faded reputations, it holds many single Fisher Ames, and later, as the points at issue between pieces which are still retained in the anthologies and the Federalists and the States-Rights party developed preserved in popular recollection. Such are “The and the slavery question loomed ominous, John Quincy Old Oaken Bucket” of Samuel Woodworth, Mrs. Wil. Adams, Josiah Quincy, and that line of great orators, lard's Rocked in the Cradle of the Deep,” Wilde's Randolph, Clay, Webster, and Calhoun. It was the “My Life is like the Summer Rose," Payne's “ Home, golden age of American eloquence, and the most im- Sweet Home!” Dr. Muhlenberg's “I Would not Live posing figure in the volume is that of Daniel Webster. Alway,” and others, less known but equally worthy of Theology retires more and more into the background, remembrance, like Lavinia Stoddard's “The Soul's and general literature, though still imitative, puts forth Defiance,” the spirited anonymous ballad entitled “The brave attempts. The forms of our first comedian, Royall Yankee Man-of-War," and Grenville Mellen's fine Tyler, our first lexicographer, Noah Webster, and our

poem, “The Bugle.” Mellen's battle-piece, with its first professional novelist, Charles Brockden Brown, noble closing line: come into view. Tyler was, in his day, a versatile and even brilliant figure, though his work has not worn

High over all the lonely bugle grieves, well. His “ Contrast,” the first American comedy which Emerson admired and inserted in his “ Par. regularly produced, was acted at the John Street Thea- nassus," is not given here. The volume opens fittingly ter in New York in 1786, and is somewhat after the with the name of Dr. Channing, whose “ Remarks manner — as to the dialogue — of Sheridan's plays. on National Literature" (1823) was the first formal

ume seven.

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declaration of our intellectual independence of England. said so many good things and wrote so little. Such It shows how young our genuinely American literature also the two poems from the little known volume of still is, that some of the writers represented in this Sam Ward, the King of the Lobby, prince of good volume have died within the last decade. Bryant, e. g., fellows, most accomplished of talkers and of diners. died in 1878; R. H. Dana and General Dix in 1879; It was over the mahogany, indeed, that we first heard Palfrey, the historian of New England, in 1881; Dr. from his own lips his little poem “ Edelweiss,” and a few Orville Dewey and Thurlow Weed in 1882.

stanzas of his clever French translation of “ Locksley The sixth volume (1835-1860) covers what still Hall,” remains the great period of American literature — the

C'est bien toi, manoir de Locksley, generation that preceded the civil war. This is crowded with names of the first importance : Emerson, either one of which would have graced a page in volHawthorne, Longfellow, Whittier, Poe, and Bancroft, whose works still form our favorite and daily reading; their task with excellent judgment, knowledge, and

Mr. Stedman and Miss Hutchinson have performed and with others, whose writings, though less familiar, are yet significant, and in part, at least, survive: Alcott,

care. We do not see how any student of American Pinkney, Prentice, Willis, Simms, and Margaret Fuller. history or literature - unless he has a very full library Although the period was rich in pure literature, the of Americana of his own — can afford to be without this

collection. selections continue to take in a wide range and to illustrate American thought on many sides. The speeches

Henry A. Beers. and political writings of public men, such as Lincoln, Seward, Garrison, Chase, John Brown, Jefferson Davis,

Buchanan, Lincoln, and Duff Green. Robert Toombs, and Caleb Cushing; the work of theo.

In December, 1860, President Buchanan sent to logians, like Horace Bushnell, Theodore Parker, Mark President-elect Lincoln, by General Duff Green, an Hopkins, and Orestes Brownson; of scholars in many urgent invitation to come immediately to Washingdepartments, such as Lieber, Woolsey, Marsh, Hedge, ton, with assurances that he would be received and Felton, Barnard, and Peirce; of literary critics, like treated with all due courtesy; the object of the invitaRipley and Hillard ; and of historians, like Gayarré tion being that they might consult and act in concert and Hildreth — all these are amply presented. In this period the national mind seems first to reach maturity. In The Century for November, 1887, page 87, the

save the Union without bloodshed," if possible. The authors above named are distinguished, in general, authors of the Life of Lincoln say: from their predecessors: in belles lettres, by a stronger and finer art, a greater native impulse, and a freedom Whether this proposition came by authority or not, from the influence of foreign and especially of English the envoy or the motive of the mission. In either case

Lincoln could not publicly either question the truth of models; in the literature of knowledge, by a wider the appeal was most adroitly laid. Of course it was learning and a nicer scholarship, which testify to the impossible to accept or even to entertain it.. improvements in American education; in divinity, by a

His (General Green's) whole aim had been to induce

Lincoln tacitly to assume responsibility for the Southern more liberal spirit and a disposition to attend more to

revolt. religious philosophy and less to dogmatic theology, which shows the influence of Unitarian dissent in New Mrs. Green's nephew, Ninian W. Edwards, and Mr. England and the growth of a more cosmopolitan popu- Lincoln married sisters. This family alliance led to a lation in the country at large; and in political literature, warm personal friendship between Mr. Lincoln and by a plainer style, a more earnest and sincere convic- General Green, which continued down to their last tion, and a higher moral tone in the discussion of party meeting, on board the Malvern, at Richmond, Virginia, issues, particularly of the slavery question.

April 5, 1865, when Mr. Lincoln sprung forward to The seventh volume continues the literary history of greet General Green with the exclamation, “My dear the same generation (1835-1860) and adds the names old friend, can I do anything for you ?” of Mrs. Stowe, Holmes, Motley, Thoreau, Lowell, Walt When Mr. Lincoln came to Washington as a memWhitman, and of their less famous contemporaries, ber of Congress he took lodgings in Carroll Place, many of whom are still living and writing. Politics then more commonly called “ Green's Row,” that he and political journalism - the latter not ignored in might be near General Green, and his wife near Mrs. previous volumes – are represented mainly by passages Green. The following, which is one of many letters to from the writings of Charles Sumner, Wendell Phillips, General Green, illustrates their friendly and confidenHorace Greeley, Alexander H. Stephens, Henry J. Ray- tial relations. This letter was “confidential” in 1849, mond, and Generals Grant and Sherman; and liberal ex- but the lapse of time, the death of both parties, and the tracts are given from Beecher's sermons, lectures, and reference to General Green in the Life of Lincoln public addresses, and several pages of characteristic justify its publication now: sentences and paragraphs from his extemporaneous

SPRINGFIELD, ILLS., May 18, 1849. discourses. One hundred and thirty-eight authors are

DEAR GENERAL: drawn upon in this seventh volume, whose contents

I learn from Washington that a man by the name of exhibit a greater variety than any one of the preced- Butterfield I will probably be appointed Commissioner of ing. The majority of these are fairly well known, but the General Land Office. This ought not to be. That now and then a selection occurs which will strike the is about the only crumb of patronage which Illinois exgeneral reader as something of a rarity or a literary here would quite as lief see it go east of the Alleghanies, getting office. In the great contest of '40 he was not

pects; and I am sure the mass of General Taylor's friends curiosity. Such is the passage from Delia Bacon, the or west of the Rocky Mountains, as into that man's originator of the “ Baconian theory” of Shakspere. hands. They are already sore on the subject of his Such the “Table-Talk" of Thomas Gold Appleton, who 1 Justin Butterfield, who was appointed. - EDITOR.

Sea-Coast and Lake Defenses. seen or heard of; but when the victory came, three or four old drones, including him, got all the valuable offices, through what influence no one has yet been able to tell.

GLANCING through the great four-volume report of I believe the only time he has been very active was the Chief of Engineers, United States Army, with which last spring a year, in opposition to General Taylor's I have just been favored through the courtesy of that nomination.

Now cannot you get the car of General Taylor? Officer, I find one page, out of its three thousand pages
Ewing is for B., and therefore he must be avoided. of business-like statements of work done during the
Preston I think will favor you. Mr. Edwards has written year reported upon, which, if none other, ought to in.
me offering to decline, but I advised him not to do so.
Some kind friends think I ought to be an applicant; but

terest and impress every patriotic citizen. I am for Mr. Edwards. Try to defeat B., and in doing

Describing the condition of our so-called" sea-coast so use Mr. Edwards, J. L. D. Morrison, or myself

, and lake frontier defenses,” this officer remarks,“ The whichever you can to best advantage. Write me, and wisdom of providing for the public defense in time of let this be confidential. Yours truly,

A. LINCOLN.

peace and while the Government is in a condition of

financial prosperity would appear to be too evident to Mr. Buchanan knew of these friendly relations, and need further demonstration.” The matter has been retherefore chose General Green as his “envoy.” When peatedly reported upon, and the result has been the the proposition was submitted to Mr. Lincoln, he not annual expenditure, years ago, of about $100,000 per only expressed his willingness to accept it, but mani. annum, until 1885; since which date absolutely nothing fested an eagerness to start at once for Washington. has been done. The consequence of this miserable state He regretted being detained by an appointment with of affairs is thus graphically stated by the Chief of En. Senator Ben. Wade, whom he was expecting by every

gineers; and could anything be more pitiful ? train, and said that he would start for Washington as Neglect of any structure, however massive or well soon as he had met that appointment. Senator Wade built, results in more or less rapid deterioration, and we came and opposed the proposition successfully. Mr. fenses, which are dependent upon annual appropriations

find to-day everything connected with our permanent deLincoln changed his mind and declined Mr. Buchanan's for the maintenance and repair, going to rack and ruin: invitation.

slopes overgrown with grass and weeds and gullied by

the rain ; walks and roads ragged and untrimmed and Failing in this, General Green then sought to obtain

full of holes and breaks; ditches and drains filled up or from Mr. Lincoln a letter which could be used at the fallen in, and pools of stagnant water on the parades and South as an antidote to his Cooper Institute speech and in the casemates; the sewers in bad order with the conhis speech of the 16th of June, 1858, before the State sequent evils ; mortar and cement fall from the joints of convention at Springfield, Illinois (see THE CENTURY ammunition platforms rotten or decayed; and perma

masonry for the want of repointing ; timber gun and for July, 1887, p. 386), in which he took the ground nent concrete or masonry platforms settling or out of that “this Government cannot endure permanently, plumb, thus preventing the proper service of the guns; half slave and half free,” and which had led the South able; magazines damp and useless; revetment walls and

casements and quarters leaky, unhealthy, and uninhabitto believe that he and his party would be satisfied water fronts falling down, and waves making serious and with nothing short of the “ extinction ” of slavery. rapid encroachments on valuable land, thus impairing So far from his "whole aim ” being to throw on Mr. eligible sites for future works; and generally about the

ungarrisoned forts an appearance of total abandonment Lincoln the “responsibility for the Southern revolt,” and decay; and from the commanders of garrisoned forts General Green's only aim was to relieve him of that continued and urgent appeals to keep the works in order responsibility by satisfying the South that they had no

for the comfort and convenience of the garrison and the

efficient use of the armaments. reason to fear that he would make or countenance in others any attempt to emancipate their slaves. In Was there ever a more extraordinary picture of the this he also sailed. The letter sent by Mr. Lincoln to inefficiency of our legislative body or of the shiftless. Senator Trumbull, to be delivered “if, on consulta

ness that may sometimes characterize the administration, our friends, including yourself, think it can do tion of such trusts? What facts or what circumstances no harm," never reached General Green.

could give the enemies of the republican system of General Green's own account of his mission to government a better argument against government by Springfield and of his interview with Mr. Lincoln in representatives chosen by the people? A great nation Richmond after its occupation by the Federal troops like ours permits every material guarantee of the permay be found in “ Facts and Suggestions," by Duff

manence of its institutions to be absolutely neglected; Green, published in 1866 by Richardson & Co., New pays not the slightest attention to its most important York, and Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia.

defensive armaments; allows its army and navy to be. At Richmond, Mr. Lincoln told General Green that come weakened, demoralized, and incapable of doing Mr. Corwin's resolution, prohibiting Congress from the work assigned, and placidly sees the smallest of any interference with slavery in the slaveholding States, those nations with which it is liable at any time, through was passed on the last night of the session at his the fault of the stranger or the incapacity of its own ad(Lincoln's) request. Commenting on this, General ministrations, to be forced into conflict, providing itGreen wrote as follows:

self with fleets and armies such as give the enemy the

power to inflict incalculable and irremediable damage This resolution was unaniinously adopted on the 3d on our coasts before we can even make a fair beginMarch, 1861, by both houses of Congress, and, as it now appears, upon the recommendation of Mr. Lincoln, as a

ning in the work of rehabilitating our defenses. Great means of arresting the secession movement. Who can Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, even the smalldoubt that, if he had come to Washington in December, est of the South American republics, in case of the 1860, as I urged him to do, and had then exerted a like sudden outbreak of such hostilities as may result from influence, it . . . would have prevented the war.

any folly of the least among our foreign representatives, DALTON, Georgia.

Ben, E. Green. of the pettiest consul, could to-day bombard New York

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