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just so far beyond the man whose hope is be fewer institutions, for no numbers will stand bounded by his own pleasure; and yet, en- waiting to fill them; and there will be less need compassed by that future, the day that is passes for “palaces of pleasure," for men and women out of sight. "Deeper than any need recognized will have found that the "gate beautiful" is by charity in general lies the need of a justice within their own souls, and that earth and that asks, " What place, what right, have this sky - nay, the universe itself — makes the palman and this woman on the earth where we are ace. If this seem carping, or even a form of walking side by side ? How shall I help them hopelessness or pessimism, read again and find to that place? How shall I teach them to know if such words do not hold the only escape from it when it opens before them ? " When we have pessimism, the only sure hope for this or any learned how to answer this question, there will age.

Helen Campbell.

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SPINELLO ARETINO (1330–6–1410).

(ITALIAN OLD MASTERS.) N Spinello we have at least tion. That his early literary education was

the satisfaction of a clear much neglected by his father we know from the artistic genealogy which scraps of Latin that he left, for they are curigoes back to Giotto. He ously incorrect for one who must be supposed was the pupil, properly to have read the Bible continually for his subapprenticed, of Jacopo di jects. His love of painting, however, led to Casentino, who was the his being put early to study under Jacopo di pupil of Taddeo Gaddi, the Casentino, and his perseverance and talent were pupil of Giotto. Jacopo such that, by the time he was twenty years old,

was one of the founders of according to Vasari (who had a weakness for the Company of Painters of Florence, a similar prodigies), he had surpassed his teacher. His association to that which we have noticed 1 as early productions show also the influence of having at an early date been founded in Siena, Bernardo Daddi, one of the most eminent of and, like the Sienese, the Florentine Company the Giottesques, whose work is contemporary was the outgrowth of the religious feeling with that of Taddeo Gaddi, and who, though which was characteristic of the time as well conventional in design and somewhat heavy in as of its art. The preamble of their constitu- color, shows a certain sense of proportion and tion was the expression of the sentiment of the facility in the draping of his figures. Besides masses of the people of Florence as much as possessing these good qualities of his masters, of the Company of Painters :

Spinello manifested more freedom and energy in As it is our understanding that during this peril- his story-telling and was perhaps the best of ous pilgrimage on earth we should have St. Luke Giotto's followers at the end of the fourteenth the Evangelist for our special advocate before God and century, excelling all his contemporaries in the most blessed Virgin, and that at the same time vivacity of coloring and largeness of execution. his followers should be pure and without sin, we His frescos, as is frequently the case in this order that all who subscribe themselves members of period, are more interesting than his easel-picthis company, be they men or women, shall con- tures, owing probably in part to the fact that fess their sins or show that they intend doing so at the latter were often intrusted to his pupils, but the first opportunity, etc.

mainly to the fact that his style was better suited The dates for the biography of the artists of to a large scale. Very few of his works are dated, this epoch are mainly to be found in the records and this makes their classification difficult. of work done, in the entries of the books of It is probable that Spinello accompanied his convents and of communes, and in contracts master Jacopo to Florence about the year 1347, preserved by chance from the ravages of war and and that Jacopo worked with him there in from the consumption of parchment by the gold- decorating the church of Santa Maria Novella beaters. Of Spinello, as of others whom I have with many legends of the Virgin and of St. dealt with, we know little else than what comes Antonio. Very little remains of these paintto us in this way; but that little shows how ings, a few figures only having been discovered wide was his range of influence and his reputa- under the coating of whitewash with which they

1 See article on Duccio, in The Century for De were subsequently covered, and even those in cember, 1888.

very bad preservation. Vasari tells of frescos painted in various other churches of Florence, He was afterward beheaded. The three scenes but no trace of them remains, save in San underneath, representing the legend of St. Miniato. 1

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Potitus, with the exception of the scene of the After the democratic revolution at Arezzo saint's decapitation and the removal of the cofabout 1360, Spinello was called thither by the fin to Alexandria, are almost entirely defaced. governing body of citizens to decorate several The documents relating to this work are churches. In S. Francesco he executed an preserved in the archives of the Campo Santo,

. Annunciation, which is considerably damaged and from them we learn that, having comby the damp and by retouching; and near it pleted the frescos in the spring of 1392, Spihave recently been discovered, under the white- nello received 150 florins (about $330) for the wash, remains of another fresco, evidently by life of St. Ephesius, and 120 for that of St. the same hand, representing a bishop and a Potitus. In 1391 he had painted for the figure holding a young child. In the chapel church of San Andrea in Lucca the panel of St. Michael he painted a fantastic com- of the Madonna and Saints which is now in position of the archangel driving Lucifer from the Academy of Florence. From Pisa, Spiheaven. The evil spirits are in the form of nello, always accompanied by his family, went hideous serpents. This fresco was afterward back to Florence, then to Arezzo again, where repeated by him in the same city for the guild Vasari makes him die of fright at a horrible of St. Angelo. On the other wall of the dream of the Lucifer which he himself had chapel is the vision of Pope Gregory when painted. But in 1404 we find him writing to Michael appeared to him. In a shrine over Caterino Cosimo of Siena to say that he will the gate of the Misericordia is a Trinity, which fulfill his promise of going there, although his Vasari praises very highly. In Spinello's own countrymen are unwilling to let him leave

them. shop is a half-figure of the Virgin and a Christ In October of that year father and son arrived crucified, with wings, as he appeared to St. at Siena, where they were lodged and fed at Francis. In 1361 Spinello painted a panel the expense of their hosts, receiving besides for the Abbey of the Camaldolesi in the Casen- 11 florins (about $25] a month, while they tino. The side-pieces of an altar-piece painted worked in the Duomo. This they did uninterfor the altar of Monte Oliveto Maggiore of ruptedly till August 17 of the next year, save Chiusi, illustrating the life and martyrdom of for a short visit Spinello paid to Arezzo; yet various saints, are to be found, according to no trace of this work remains. Cavalcaselle, at Cologne in a private collection, They returned to Florence, where at each of bearing the names of the builder and carver of his visits Spinello received new commissions ; the frame 2 and the date MCCCLXXX.

and in 1407 we find him again with his son In 1384, Arezzo having been sacked, Spi- Parri in Siena, where they painted the walls nello took refuge in Florence, with his family, of the council-room in the town hall, while among whom was his son Parri, who painted Bartolomeo, a Sienese painter, decorated the with him. There, in the sacristy of San Miniato, ceiling. The subject chosen was the struggle Spinello painted scenes from the life of St. between Venice and Barbarossa, and the Benedict. They are, according to Cavalcaselle, frescos illustrate the triumphs of the Republic very much in the manner of Giotto, though in and of Pope Alexander III., and the humiliaattitude and expression they reveal a slight in- tions and defeats of the Emperor and his son. fluence from the Sienese school.

One represents the naval battle in which Otho Spinello's fame was now great, and he was was taken prisoner; another, Barbarossa prossoon after called to Pisa to fill in the empty trating himself at the feet of the Pope, the spaces in the Campo Santo there. He set to work latter blessing the Emperor; while the best of in 1391. In one compartment was represented the whole series, which includes many scenes the legend of St. Ephesius, who, being sent by of the same nature, shows the Pope on horseDiocletian at the head of an army to persecute back, his bridle held by the Doge Ziani and the Christians, was converted by a vision of Barbarossa. The last we hear of Spinello in Christ and turned his forces against the Siena is in 1408, after which time he probaheathen of Sardinia. St. Michael gave him bly returned to his birthplace, where he died the banner which afterward became the stand- in March, 1410. He was buried at Morello. ard of the Pisans. Ephesius was condemned to He had two sons, of whom the elder, Parri, the stake, from which his prayers saved him. was, as we have seen, a painter.

1 The frescos from the history of St. Cecilia and formerly in Santa Maria Novella. See Encyclopædia St. Urban, in the sacristy of Santa Maria del Carmine, Britannica, article “ Spinello Aretino." - EDITOR. Florence, which were discovered in 1858 and are 2 The frames of these altar-pieces were generally attributed by Baedeker to Spinello, are now thought complicated architectural designs comprising many to be the work of his master Jacopo di Casentino, in separate subjects. I have mentioned heretofore a which Spinello assisted. The same relation no doubt capital example in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. existed in the work which has been mentioned as (See THE CENTURY for February, 1889, p. 543.)

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" BATTLE OF ST. EPHESIUS AGAINST THE PAGANS OF SARDINIA," BY SPINELLO.

(IN THE CAMPO SANTO, PISA.)

Spinello may be counted as in one sense the the work of the Giottesques, of one figure in a most important of the Giottesques, in that he was picture throwing a shadow on another, or even the last great and individual painter who fol- on the ground. Nothing is thought of but the lowed throughout the precepts and traditions telling of the story, and with Spinello this is alof the master, and his immense fertility and read- ways done intelligibly. Of all his works known iness of invention are surpassed only by Giotto to me, the frescos at Pisa are the most instruchimself. The naturalistic element had not tive and characteristic, and are, moreover, in made its appearance, and the supreme creative the upper line of subjects, well preserved; and power of Giotto descended on none of his of these the piece which Mr. Cole has engraved school; but in the distinctly scholarly (i. e., is, on the whole, the most interesting. In the school-like) manner of composition, in which church of St. Dominic at Arezzo, which was much is clearly artificial and even conventional entirely painted by Spinello, there remain only as it is scholarly, which manner is the domi- two noble figures of apostles, framed separately nant characteristic of the school of Giotto as in painted architectural framings characteristic opposed to the spontaneous and vision-like of the time, and a few fragments, a head here character of the compositions of the master him- and part of a figure there; but of these, one is self

, Spinello was, I conceive, the foremost of his an angel's head so beautiful in its profile that followers. The color in the school remains al- I am half inclined to attribute it to Piero della ways the same in system- broad surfaces were Francesca, who painted many things at Arezzo to be covered with lovely tints which should at a later time; but I have only this beauty furnish relief by their variation alone, as the to justify me in this attribution, and one of churches were dark and the work required the Spinello's heads in the Annunziata in the same high key and the opaque surface of the fresco city (which I have not been able to see) is to be distinguishable; and the general effect spoken of as of extreme beauty. was much the same as in mosaic. There can It is in the composition of single figures — be no attempt at tone, nor at what I must be the casting of broad draperies where no action allowed to call orchestration of color, even in is involved - that we see the best quality of the simple form of harmonies which we shall Spinello's ability. In his groups he seems infind a little later in the Florentine school and different to harmony of line, as were his lesser of which a hint may be found in a picture by and greater school-fellows; and the “MartyrAmbrogio Lorenzetti in the Academy -a hint, dom of St. Ephesius,” the companion of the however, so slight, and so alone, that I fear combat from which Mr. Cole's example is to give it too great importance. The land- taken, shows most violent defiance of the acascape throughout is absolutely conventional demical in its repetitions of lines. But this is and shows not even a recollection of the aspect better than the extreme artificiality of some of of nature; and the drawing is, to use a familiar the later schools, for it is the result of one of the expression, “done out of the artist's head," as most precious qualities in art -- naïveté --- and all rightly ideal work must be. The relief de- it is more or less characteristic of all archaic pends entirely on variety of color, as there is no art. Art for art's sake was an object of study instance, so far as I can remember, in any of that had not yet dawned on the Italian schools.

W. J. Stillman,

NOTES BY T. COLE, ENGRAVER. TUR THE block represents a portion of a fresco in the a line. I have chosen the thickest portion of the fight,

Campo Santo, Pisa. It is the first one on the right where the action is most lively and where two angels as one enters, and measures about ten feet high by appear fighting on the side of the Christians. The twenty feet long, and is known as the “ Battle of St. coloring of the whole is light and vivacious, delicate Ephesius against the Pagans of Sardinia.” The lines greenish, yellowish, brownish, and gray tints prevailthat I have put on three sides of the block define the ing. The upper right-hand corner of the fresco is extent of the fresco in those directions, so that the somewhat obliterated. In black and white it looks like continuation is in the direction of the side left without a blank portion of the wall that runs around the city.

VOL. XXXVIII.-31.

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