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coat stretched upon the portly form of the old French courtier. The pockets, too, of this wonderful coat are elaborate and crisp in touch, and as strangely beautiful as are the tight sleeves or the high color of the pink garment. Green embroidery, rich and varied as the leaves of a rose-bush, around these pockets, vary in color with bits of yellowgreen rose buds and the brownish stalk. The old, red-faced, wrinkled wearer of this fairy garment is by no means himself a rose, but he is a most amusing contrast to one. We wish that this picture by Fortuny might be exhibited in some more public place, that the lovers of this master might have the opportunity to learn that his marvelous grace of line is by no means combined with a dull and coarse use of the tints of the palette.

MR. JULIAN SCOTT has lately completed two cabinet pictures: one of which is an army scene, representing officers in their tent reading dispatches; the other depicts the duel between Burr and Hamilton. The "Reading of Dispatches" shows a group of four men. The senior officer is sitting with his legs resting on a brass-clamped armytrunk, and in his hands is spread out a large sheet of paper, while numerous letters are scattered about him on the floor. Half in shadow at his side a youth, with a bugle in his hand, is listening to the news, and the two other members of the party are close to him in front. The figure of the senior officer is very excellent in its easy attitude, and is better in this respect than in any picture of Mr. Scott's that we remember. The accessories of his dress, too, are painted with very careful elaboration, and the order on his breast and the epaulets on his shoulders are made out with great care. The composition and grouping of the picture are good, and its color is rich and mellow-toned. The picture which represents the duel between Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton is on a larger canvas than the first, and shows in the gray light an opening in the woods. Pale grass, that looks dank beneath the dark trees, fades off into a sickly distance. In the foreground is the figure of Burr, accompanied by the surgeon, and a few rods behind this pair Hamilton is indistinctly seen lying on the grass, with Pendleton, his second, near him. Burr is a portrait, but the faces of the men in the distance are too vague to appear. This painting is valuable as showing an historical event of importance, but scarcely so much interest attaches to it as to the "Reading of the Dispatches," with which class of scenes Mr. Scott's army experience made him personally familiar. Each of Mr. Scott's new pictures shows a precision and force superior to his former productions, and in the army-scene the composition stamps the artist as well developed in that most difficult branch of art.

CHARLES H. MILLER'S latest picture gives a view of "A Long Island Mill-Pond," drawn at mid-day, and in the summer-time. Like all of Mr. Miller's pictures of Long Island scenery, this subject has no picturesque features, but depends for its success solely upon its simplicity and truthful treatment as a

study from Nature. The old mill - pond spreads out in the foreground, fringed with willows and other shrubbery which thrive in marshy places, and its surface dotted with lily-pads and clumps of cats'-tails. The sky is flecked with transparent cloud-cumuli, and is in quiet harmony with the landscape which it shadows. There is an entire absence of the sensational in the delineation of this scene, and for this reason it is worthy of the highest commendation. Many artists, instead of resting satisfied with a subject so quiet and so poetical withal, would have introduced a boat with figures, or some other disturbing element, for the sake of obtaining the applause of the multitude; but, fortunately, Mr. Miller is not one of that class. He is satisfied with Nature as he finds it, and few lovers of art will deny that he is not, in feeling and sentiment, fully in accord with its most poetical phases. This work is noticeable as an example of perspective drawing, as its purity of tone and exquisite mastery of the details of local-color and atmosphere make it a lasting expression of the beautiful.

"An importa: t technical work," says the Academy, "entitled 'Einfache Möbel im Charakter der Renaissance' ('Simple Furniture in the Style of the Renaissance'), is being brought out in parts in Germany under the superintendence of the Austrian Minister for Trade.

It has been prepared by Professor Joseph Storck, and offers valuable help to teachers in art and industrial schools, as well as practical instruction to cabinet-makers and those engaged in the decoration and furnishing of our modern dwellings. The first number is devoted to the furniture of the dining-room, with its dining-table, seats, and buffets. The examples given are not merely of articles only suited for palaces, as is so often the case in works of this sort, but are generally simple pieces of furniture, suitable for moderate-sized houses, that might easily be obtained by any cording to the principles of Renaissance art." person desirous of furnishing his house ac

THE women artists of London have organized a series of meetings designed for mutual improvement, where a qualified painter is to offer criticisms. "It is proposed," says the Athenæum, "that pictures which are in progress for exhibition, by female painters, should be brought together, and their qualities, shortcomings, and, we presume, merits, pointed out, and advice for the remedying of errors proffered to the artists. It seems a capital idea to offer these facilities to tyros, who can hardly be expected to see their own mistakes until it is too late. Advanced artists may be thankful for candid criticism."

THE London Athenæum, upon the reappearauce of Mr. Jefferson as Rip Van Winkle, at the Princess's Theatre, gives this actor very high praise. It says: "No representation of the class during ten years has stirred equally an English audience. Yet none of the means to which the modern actor resorts is employed. There is no preposterous attire to win a laugh, no extravagance of gesture, no noise, no rant, no effort. Every thing moves as easily and as noiselessly as machinery, and the required effect is produced. It is a source of saddening reflection that we have scarcely a second instance of the kind to advance. Highly creditable performances are seen upon our stage, some of which have long held possession of

it. In no other case, however, in which lasting popularity is won, and a one-part piece has run for years, can the actor escape the charge of pandering to the tastes of the less educated portion of his audience, or venturing upon ground outside the domain of art."

From Abroad.

November 9, 1875,

OY order of the Minister of Public Instruc public libraries of Paris have recently published authentic statements of the books, manuscripts, etc., contained in each. We learn, therefore, that the Bibliothèque Nationale heads the list with 1,700,000 printed volumes, 80,000 manuscripts, 1,000,000 prints, maps, and engravings, and 120,000 medals. The Library of the Arse nal, which is under the charge of M. de Bornier, the author of "La Fille de Roland," contains 200,000 volumes and 8,000 manuscripts. The Mazarin Library numbers 200,000 volumes, 4,000 manuscripts, and 80 models, executed in relief, and representing the Pelasgic monnments of Italy, Greece, and Asia Minor. The Ste.-Geneviève Library possesses 160,000 printed works and 350,000 manuscripts. The Library of the Sorbonne contains 80,000 volumes, and that of the Medical School 85,000 Total, 2,375,000 printed volumes, 442,000 man scripts, and 1,120,000 prints, medals, etc.


There is talk of organizing an exhibition in Paris, which would be of great interest to book-collectors; namely, one of rare books and artistic bindings. It is to be hoped that the project will not be suffered to end in talk, as the exhibition would be a very curious and instructive one in many respects. The Jour nal Officiel consecrated lately an interesting article to book-binding, considered in its ar tistic aspects. The writer says: "The hi tory of book-binding has never yet been writ The art took its birth in the middle ages, as did so many others by which we profit to-day, in the cloisters of the monasti orders. Each monastery possessed a ball called the scriptorium, wherein the copyists and binders worked. These last were already real artists, and called to their aid the art of the lapidary and the goldsmith. One of them, named Herman, followed William the Con queror to England, and became Bishop of Salisbury. Among the celebrated bindings of that epoch, we may cite a Greek copy of the Evangelists, given to the Basilica of Monza by Theodelinde, Queen of the Lombard with a covering formed of two plates of gold enriched with colored stones and antique cameos; and above all the 'Livre d'Heures written in letters of gold upon purple-hned parchment, and bound in red velvet, whic was presented by Charlemagne to the city of Toulouse. This marvel belonged to the Li brary of the Louvre, and was destroyed in the conflagration of that edifice under the Con


"In the eleventh and twelfth centurie bindings were executed in enameled copper The Musée de Cluny possesses two magnit cent specimens of this work.

"Finally, the Arabs, at the period of the Crusades, taught to the Occidentals the of using leather, stamped with gold or silve for book-binding, and it is solely from th epoch that we date our modern bindings The sixteenth century was the epoch whe the art reached its apogee; it offers, so

speak, to our admiration, nothing but chefsd'œuvre. Among these are the 'Livre d'Heures' of Marguerite of Savoy; the books of Francis I., adorned with his device, a salamander; those of Henri II. and Diane de Poitiers, with crescents and ciphers of a rare elegance; and, finally, those of Henri III., which bear a death's-head as emblem.

"In the seventeenth century the art remained stationary, and declined, only to revive with incomparable éclat in the following one. Under the Empire and the Restoration it fell into a profound decadence, but in our own day was revived, thanks to the efforts of Thourenin, the elder and younger Simier, Keller, and of our contemporary artists. Thourenin, who was the most celebrated of all, was binder to Louis Philippe; his principal works may be found in the magnificent collection of the Duke d'Aumale.

"Besides the professional binders, there have existed in all ages amateurs, passionate book-lovers who had a taste for binding. Among the best known may be cited De Tune, of the Hague; the Abbé de Marolles; the Duke de Caumont, who established himself as a Pinder in London during the Revolution; and King Louis XVIII., who was very fond of rying his hand at the art, though his at2 empts in that line were never successful."

E. Plon & Co. announce the first volume f the "Military Correspondence of Napoleon , extracted from the General CorrespondEnce, and published by Order of the Minister f War;" also a work entitled "The Truth especting Foundlings," by Dr. Brochard, and a translatioh from the Dutch of Madame osboom Toussaint, called "Major Franscenes of Netherlandish Life," by Albert leville. Challamel has just published an interesting novelty for those who like such ings, in the shape of a "Dictionnaire Franais-Cambodgien," by E. Aymonier. Hachette as just issued "Public Law and Modern europe," by the Vicomte de la Guerronnière. acroix & Co. announce a work with the quant title of "Parisian Statues and Statutes," which is to include sketches of Patti, ilsson, Schneider, Theo, and other fair theerical celebrities of the day. It is by Charles iguet. Michel Lévy Bros. promise for this eek the "History of the Nineteenth Cenry," by J. Michelet, in three volumes, of ich the last two have never been before pubhed. These volumes are entitled respecely "The Origin of the Bonapartes," the 18th Brumaire," and "Until Waterloo." ctor Hugo's "Pendant l'Exil," announced the same firm, has not yet been published. te preface is to be issued separately under a title "Ce que c'est que l'Exil" (What ile really is). L'Evénement is now publish5, as a feuilleton, a very curious novel (from American point of view), entitled "Les evaliers de la Patrie." The scene is laid the United States during our Civil War, 1 John Wilkes Booth, whose theatrical car the author evidently confounds with that his brother Edwin, is the hero thereof. e same paper has commenced the publicaa of an admirable series of articles "On sace and Lorraine in 1875," by Jules Cla.ie.


They open with a spirited description the journey from Paris to Strasburg, bening with the little frontier village of Avourt, of which our traveler says: "This little village of Avricourt was, a years ago, nothing more than a station on Eastern Railway. It is to-day cut in two. is there that our frontier ends. Certain diers and engineers sat down one day bee a table on which lay a map; they traced

coldly and simply, and while conversing, some little red and blue lines on the paper, and hence it has arisen that certain human beings have become Germans and others have remained Freuch, merely because they lived on one side or the other of the little blue lines. Fatherland, thou art then but a vain word, if the right of force may suppress or tolerate thee at will!

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By the treaty of Frankfort there exists, therefore, a French Avricourt and an Avricourt-Deutsch" (such is the name that has been given to the station wherein is situated the German custom-house). "The village of Avricourt itself has remained almost entirely French, with the exception of some few houses which, by ill-luck, happened to be on the wrong side of the ink-line. Unfortunately, it has happened that the butcher was annexed, and it can readily be imagined how much trouble that fact has given to the inhabitants of Avricourt. They are obliged to cross the frontier to supply themselves with meat, and when they return they are forced to pass through the French custom-house, the officials of which, in accordance with their usual habit, are very disagreeable to the poor dwellers on the frontier. And those peasants who have remained French witnessed a strange and ironical spectacle; the people of the German Avricourt can obtain their groceries at a lower price than can those of French Avricourt, sugar and salt, for instance, being much cheaper."

He then gives a description of the new and splendid railway-station erected by the Germans on their side of the frontier, and sketches the following picture with a few telling strokes of his incisive pen:

"In a corner of the station, distinguished from the rest of the rough crowd by their boulevardian manners, are a young man and a young woman, thin, yellow, fatigued, used up, and very well dressed, who are going (so a chance-word overheard by me informs me) to Baden-Baden. They are French-Parisians-some idler and some girl. They are going to Baden, as in times past, to amuse themselves and to laugh. Yet, they look half ashamed, if the truth be told. They scarcely speak. They are bored. So must they have felt at Brussels while men were fighting on the Loire, dying amid the snows in the defiles of the Jura, and living on bread made of sand, in Paris. They are going to Baden because they used to go there. Habit is more than a second nature, it is a second fatherland. Yet, he and she are both young. They are at the age of love, of confidence, and of illusions. I look at her she is yawning. He drums, on the window-panes, an air from some opéra bouffe. When the German officials come to announce that the train is about to start, the man picks up his Russia-leather travelingbag, and says, smiling, to her who follows him, like a man that has just uttered some brilliant witticism, 'To horse, gentlemen, to horse!' She shrugs. her shoulders, stifles another yawn, casts around her, with a wearied air, a vague glance, the dull glance of a ruminating animal, and then follows her companion, trailing behind her her sullied skirt and the soiled laces of her petticoats.

"And I saw them go away, get into the railway-carriage, and disappear, as if I had had before me two personages of the past, lost in a new world, as though that woman and that man, those loveless lovers, had been the spectre of that thing which had slowly, surely, energetically, diminished the fatherland; of that demi-monde which has made the demi-France."

I shall return to this interesting series of papers in some future letter. Meanwhile, I will close with a curious fact from the article on Strasburg:

"On the Faubourg de Pierre a rich citizen of Strasburg has avenged himself as best he could on the authors of the war. When he rebuilt his house, which had been destroyed by the shells during the siege, he caused to be sculptured on the façade of his dwelling, grimacing and comic in the guise of grotesque masks, the faces of Napoleon III., of Bazaine, and of two other generals."

The dramatic events of the past week have been the production of Offenbach's new opera of "The Creole," at the Bouffes Parisiens, his third and last novelty for the season, and that of Adolphe Belot's drama of the "Venus de Gordes," at the Ambigu. The bright little operetta was a complete success, thanks to the. absurdity of the libretto, the freshness and sparkle of the music, and also a good deal to the witchery of the dark-eyed Judic, who made on that occasion her rentrée for the season. A young débutante, Mademoiselle Luce Couturier, in a minor rôle, gave much satisfaction and was warmly applauded. She is only seventeen years of age. The male characters were well filled by Daubray and Cooper-this last a transfer from the Variétés. As to the drama of Belot, the less said about it the better. It is simply a horror from a moral point of view, though written with much misdirected talent and vigor. The essentially unclean though powerful pen of Belot fairly reveled in the atrocities of his chosen subject. The piece is a tissue of murder and adultery, painted in the coarsest manner and with the most glaring colors. The Venus de Gordes, the beautiful Margai, is a married woman. She has a lover named Furbice, who is a married man. They conspire together to murder the unfortunate husband, Pascoul. At first they treat him to small doses of poison. Next Furbice tries to smother him with a pillow. Neither poisonings nor smotherings succeeding, the ferocious Furbice finally shoots him. Then the murderer throws an old beggarwoman, who was a witness of his crime, over a precipice, and he is shot himself by the police just as he is going to set fire to the farm. The fair Margai poisons herself; and, everybody being killed off, the piece naturally comes to an end. This tissue of abominations was remarkably well acted by Laferrière, Paul Deshayes, and Mademoiselle Constance Meyer, and so escaped immediate condemnation from the audience. There was a good deal of hissing on the first night, and several of the incidents met with a decidedly stormy reception. The scene of the drama is laid in Provence, and the representations of Provençal scenery, customs, costumes, etc., were very fine. The management even went so far as to engage a real Provençale, Mademoiselle Meyer, to personate the heroine. She is handsome and talented, and plays the part with all due energy and ferocity. It remains to be seen whether the Parisian public will set the stamp of their approbation on this last atrocity from the pen of the author of " Mademoiselle Giraud, ma Femme."

There are rumors afloat to the effect that Faure has totally lost his voice. It is certain that the date of his reappearance at the Grand Opéra has not yet been announced. Rossi is to appear in "Kean," a drama by the elder Dumas, to-night for the first time. It is whispered that his engagement here, though an immense artistic success, has not proved a financial one.


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Which conveys its passengers safely through the breakers of the sea when life-boats are of no avail.
It gave safe
transit, in winter tempest on our coast, from the ships Ayrshire, 101; Georgia, 271; Cornelius Grinnell, 234;
Chauncy Jerome, 70; and from other vessels, in all nearly 4,000 people. This picture shows the Life-Car
on its first errand to save the shipwrecked when beyond the reach of any other aid. Invented by Captain
Douglass Ottinger, U. S. R. Marine. (This invention is not patented, but left free to be used everywhere.)

lows: The car that performed this service was at once retired with honors, and was one of the objects to which the inventor, Mr. Francis, pointed with pride when strangers visited his metallic life-boat factory in this city." The service to which we referred, the reader may remember, was the rescuing of two hundred or more souls from the wreck of the ship Ayrshire off Long Branch, and this account of special service was prefaced by a description of the life-car, its form, and method of use. Although at the time we were induced, from the nature of the testimony then at hand, to give the sole credit of this humane invention to Mr. Francis, evidence since obtained prompts us to again open the question in order that another claimant may be heard. As it is probable that we shall again hear from the other side in rebuttal, comment on this new evidence will be withheld, though we confess to a decided leaning toward the claims of Captain Douglass Ottinger of the United States Revenue Marine, by whom we have been furnished with the photographic illustrations from which the accompanying engravings have been made, and whose letter in defense of bis claims is herewith published: To the Editor of Appletons' Journal.

SIR: I notice, in your JOURNAL for the 3d of April, 1875, an illustrated article upon the American "Life or Surf Car," in which you credit the invention to one Joseph Francis. Believing it is the intention of journalists to do good and promulgate truth, rather than do wrong by publishing what is not true, I ask you to print in your JOURNAL the following:

The life or surf car is the most effective contrivance for rescuing people from vessels wrecked near land when the storm is so fierce

and put into methodical working condition such means as in my judgment would be best adapted to the desired end.

While on that service, I employed Joseph Francis to make a boat of corrugated iron for each of the eight life-saving stations. A fullsized model of the kind required was constructed at my request by a committee of intelligent "surf-men," whom I called together for that purpose, and one of them superintended the building of the boat at Mr. Francis's boat-shop, where the iron was put in place and

er, also under my individual and specific directions. He was not the architect, but the operator. He was employed by me, and was entirely ignorant of the manner in which my invention was to be used. This appears in the sworn testimony of Mr. Samuel Metcalf, of Erie, Pennsylvania, a manly Christian, who, when examining the life-car in the boat-shop, was told by Mr. Joseph Francis that he did not know what Captain Ottinger was going to do with the thing he was then making for him, and that he (Francis) could not understand it. Captain John McGowan, United States Revenue Marine Service, who succeeded me as superintendent in building and equip ping life-saving stations, says: "I was often in the boat-shop of Mr. Francis, who built the same kind of surf-boats and life-cars for the stations I equipped as Captain Ottinger had made for the original stations, but on all occasions he (Francis) spoke of the life-car as Captain Ottinger's contrivance."

The testimony of Mr. Penfield, of New York, is also on file at the Patent-Office, and agrees with that of Mr. Metcalf. The fact that I am on record at the Patent-Office as the inventor of the "Life or Surf Car," ought to be sufficient to guard persons, who would take pains to investigate, against the misrep resentations of any unscrupulous individual. In addition to the certificate from the PatentOffice, Congress acknowledged me as the inventor of the "Life or Surf Car," and in consideration of its efficiency in rescuing not only men, but women and children, from wrecked vessels, appropriated to me, for producing it, ten thousand dollars. Not only the Patent Office, but the committee of the House of Representatives, and the committee Senate of the United States, were entird satisfied with the proof laid before them the I was the sole inventor of the life-car. A most every one knows that committees of Congress scan personal claims with much care



This car, and also an invention which i devised for overcoming the inertia of a rope when jerked suddenly from rest by a cannot ball, to be carried from land to a wrecked ship, had continued as I placed them at the life-saving stations for nearly two years, whe they were used for the first time as a last r

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nothing in the shape of an "improvement" can be added without detracting from its effectiveness. An attempt was once made to fasten something of the kind upon it, as may be seen from a woodcut in Harper's Magazine, volume of 1852. But that attempt only demonstrated the fact that the "improvement"man, Joseph Francis, had no understanding whatever of the resistance the life-car had to overcome in passing through the surf; for the most notable feature of his "improvement" was an opposing surface against which the waves would constantly break with a force which science demonstrated would have more than twelve thousand pounds' resistance-a resistance fatal to the people on board a wrecked ship trying to drag the car, with his improvement attached, to their rescue.

If the mode of operating the car, as explained in the picture (Fig. 2-first proposition), had been known to the captain of the foundering steamship Central America, and to the captains of the vessels that came in her ce and took the women and children out of ner boat, it is not a departure from practical Beamanship to say that the four hundred men who sank with her could and would have been rescued. And so in the case of the wrecked nd helpless steamer San Francisco. Her Passengers and crew could have been taken ff at once, without the great hazard they had o encounter from being compelled to remain on the wreck for more than two days after the means of relief were at hand, on account of he terrible sea, in which no boat could be 'aunched. By an application of the first propsition they could have been taken off at once in safety. And if the second propoition (Fig. 8) had been understood and put n practice when the ship Powhatan was wrecked on the coast of New Jersey, it is nore than probable that many if not all of

rescue in a storm, even with the best lifeboats with which our ships are now supplied. DOUGLASS OTTINGER, Captain U. S. Revenue Marine.

We have chosen to give with the illustrations the full descriptive titles, as by that means the text of Captain Ottinger's letter may be the more clearly understood, since they embody the "propositions" to which

he refers.

AFTER the sewing and knitting machine, the patent washer and wringer, the appleparer and potato-peeler, and a score or more of devices for bringing rest to the industrious American housewife, comes the "stockingdarner," and, according to the Scientific American, it repairs the hugest darn in much less time than the operation can be described, and how soon that is can be calculated from the following description of the machine which does it: "Two small plates, one stationary and the other movable, are placed one above the other. The faces are corrugated, and between them the 'holy' portion of the stocking is laid. Twelve long, eye-pointed needles are arranged side by side in a frame, which last is carried forward so that the needles penetrate opposite edges of the hole, passing in the corrugations between the plates. Hinged just in front of the plate is an upright bar, and on this is a cross-piece carrying twelve knobs. The yarn is secured to an end-knob, and then, with a bit of flat wire, pushed through the needleeyes. Then the loop between each needle is caught by the hand and hooked over the opposite knob, so that each needle carries really two threads. Now the needles are carried back to their first position, and, in so doing, they draw the threads, which slip off the knobs through the edges of the fabric. A little push

forward again brings the sharp rear edges of the needle-eye against the threads, cutting all at once. This is repeated until the darn is finished, and beautifully finished it is. The inventor is Mr. O. S. Hosmer, of Boston, and we predict for him the blessings of the entire feminine community. The cost of the machine is but ten dollars."

THE Constantly-increasing demand for paper, induced by its use in departments where wood has hitherto been solely employed, has led to a varied series of experiments with crude materials. We recently gave a long list of substances from which paper of differing qualities might be made, and would now direct attention to bamboo, from which material much of the fine, tough papers of Japan and China are made, but which has as yet been little in demand in England or America. As there seems to be no doubt that the fibrous stalks of the bamboo can be made to furnish a fine quality of paper-pulp, the question becomes one of supply merely, and this may be favorably answered when the rapid growth of the bamboo is considered. It is said that certain of these plants in the gardens of the Khédive of Egypt have been known to grow nine inches in a single night, and a plant (Bambusa vulgaris) at the gardens at Kew, England, is recorded as growing in favorable seasons at the rate of eighteen inches a day! In view of these facts, and considering the feasibility of cultivating in their native countries plantations of bamboo, which could be gathered in season and shipped to England or America, the question arises, if the bamboo is of such established value for this use, why could not the American cane be made to serve a like purpose? If so, it is possible that the movement in favor of the bamboo may result in the establishment of a new and active home-industry.

THE Italian African Exploring Expedition bids fair to soon start on its journeys. The Italian Geographical Society has already raised over fifteen thousand dollars, and this sum, it is hoped, will be increased to twenty thousand through the efforts of its president, Prince Humbert. It is the present purpose to divide the expedition into two parties: the course of one party will be from the Gulf of Aden to Tajurra or Berbera, or some other port on the eastern coast, entering the unexplored regions by the way of Shoa and Kaffa; the other party start from Khartoum and explore the region lying between Monbuttoo and the Victoria N'yanza, including, if possible, a survey of the great valley of Lualaba. The first party will be commanded by Marquis Antinori, and the second by Ademoli. The former of these leaders is an old traveler, who has already spent many years in Central Africa, and is distinguished as an ornithologist. He is at present one of the vice-presidents of the society. The second leader, Ademoli, is described as a young, brave, and strong man, an enthusiast in the work of discovery, being also familiar with the regions he is about to reenter. In addition to the interest which the expedition has to science, its success is to be desired in the hope that it may result in securing for the cause of popular enlightenment the services of a nation which has been too long a mere looker-on, but which will, it is hoped, under its more enlightened and liberal government, again assume the aggressive in matters that pertain to the world's progress.


A NEW substitute for leather has made its appearance in England, and, as it met with

ters of an inch in height. The cylinder is
one-eighth of an inch bore, and three-six-
teenths of an inch stroke. The valve moves
one thirty-second of an inch. The materials
of which it is made are gold, silver, and steel.
A special miniature lathe was made to turn
out its several parts.

favor at the recent Maritime Exhibition in
Paris, a brief description of the process of its
manufacture may be of interest. From an ex-
tended description of this product, we learn
the following regarding its compositon and
uses: Simple sheets of thin cork are painted
over with a solution of India-rubber on one
side, and, when the coating has dried, a sec-
ond is applied over the first. A piece of ja- IT has been proposed to construct a ship-
panned cloth canvas, thin leather, or other canal from Bayonne, in the bay of Biscay,
material possessing similar qualities, is then through Toulouse, to Agde, on the Mediter-
dressed with two coats of the India-rubber ranean. This, it is said, would open an al-
solution on one side, and the cooled surfaces most straight line from Plymouth to Malta,
of the fabric and the cloth are then pressed to- and would save the whole distance of the coast
gether. The uncoated surface of the cork is of Portugal, and the south of Spain. The
now dressed with two applications of the In-length of the canal would be about two hun-
dia-rubber solution, and a piece of linen, cot-
ton, or other fabric, is similarly treated. When
the solution on the cork and piece of fabric is
thoroughly dry, the two surfaces are brought
together, and the compound sheet is submit-
ted to great pressure between rollers under a
stamper or press. The result is a perfect
blending of the several sheets, which thus
form. a new mixed fabric of great strength,
and yet flexible and easily worked. Thus
prepared, it can be made into bags, harnesses,
boots, etc.; indeed, it can be substituted in
almost every case where leather is now used.
Being thoroughly water-proof, it may also be
used in the manufacture of buckets and other
vessels designed to contain water.

IN a recent "note" it was announced that the Swedish Arctic Fxpedition had returned to Hammerfest, having left Professor Nordenskiold and party to make their way home by land from the mouth of the Yenisei River. This company has now arrived at Ekaterinburg, on the eastern slope of the Ural Mountains, and the report of their journey is such as is said "to have caused quite a sensation in Russia." From the meagre information at hand, we learn that the voyage up the Yenisei was performed in a Nordland boat-thus proving the practicability of opening Siberia to the sea-and it is this information which has been received with such rejoicing in Russia, since it will not only give a new impetus to Siberian exploration, but will open a new road to commerce. At a meeting of the Society for the Encouragement of Commerce and Industry, M. Sidorof said that "the journey was to be ranked in importance with the discovery of a new world, as it would, in all probability, lead to the establishment of a regular line of communication between Northern Europe and Siberia, and the vast resources of the latter country would thus at last find an outlet along her great fluvial highways."

AMONG the recent novel American inventions is one which is described as consisting

of a telescopic arrangement of tubes projecting from the front of a locomotive-engine, and so arranged that when pushed in by contact with any object-a cow on the track, for instancea valve is opened, and a series of projectiles are thrown out, which quickly remove the obstruction. The Engineer, commenting on this product of American genius, suggests as an improvement that the tubes be replaced by a projecting spar, to the end of which a torpedo might be attached, which may be exploded by electricity under the beast, and so accelerate its movement !

A MINIATURE steam-engine has recently been exhibited in San Francisco which is described as a triumph of mechanical skill. The whole thing will stand on a gold dollar, and can be covered by a number-six thimble. It is of the vertical type, and is but three-quar

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dred miles.

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In addition to a section of one of the great trees" of California, which will be one of the features of the Centennial Exhibition, an Oregon mill-owner proposes to furnish for exhibition a fir-plank, twelve feet wide and one hundred feet long; a spruce-plank eight feet wide; a cedar seven feet; a larch seven feet; and a hemlock five feet.


WE gave, two weeks since, a few ex

tracts from "Teresina in America,"
which were amusing enough to warrant a
few more gleanings from the vivacious and
very veracious volumes. Teresina is, of
course, very much shocked at love and mar-
riage making in America. She says:

Girls, as I have mentioned, make their own
marriages-and unmake them also. They go
about with their lovers at all times and places
-to concerts, theatres, balls, tête-à-tête sup-
pers, moonlight sleigh-riding, buggy-driving,
and any other pleasure in vogue. Indeed, in
many parts of New England the "keeping
company' " is such a recognized institution
that a room is set apart for the betrothed to
receive alone the visits of her lover in the
evening, and the delightful tête-à-tête is often
prolonged beyond midnight without any re-
mark from the lady's family beyond, "I guess
they'll not make a long spell of this courting,
and they are sitting up together.""
this sage prediction turns out true enough:
the lover hates to leave the warm fireside of
his fiancée at one or two in the morning, and
thinks he had better transplant her to his



Oye mères de France and matrons of Eng

land, think of this atrocity! A brightly glow-
ing fire, sofa drawn up close, room made snug,
your daughter and her lover as happy as an-
gels in heaven! It is the manner and custom
of the country-the course of love running
smoothly, and they enjoying it—and if the girl
were wise she would prolong the enjoyment as
much as possible.

In America a woman is supposed to be able
to take care of herself, and, as a general rule,
it must be confessed she is competent to the
task. A man does not believe in a woman's
virtue any more than his own. Inclination is
the only power he acknowledges. There are
no distracted lovers, heart-broken damsels or

"If you love me, why don't you take me?" says the impatient admirer.

The lady gives a pertinent reason such as, her parents are not willing" (which he

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scorns utterly), or, "she has a husband already!"

"Well, get rid of him. What's the good
of a man a thousand miles away-and you
don't care if he keeps that distance?"
"But he is my husband."

"He need not be long. Go to Indiana."
"Then there are the children."
"How many?"

"Let him provide for one half, and I'll take the other. Come, fix it any hour you like to."

Such conversations may often be heard; indeed, what conversation may not be heard in America? The partitions are so thin, the bedrooms so small, and plentiful ventilation, the doors so badly hung, so universal the voice-so high-pitched-that one would need to wear corks in the ears not to overhear one's neighbor's conversations.

Teresina goes South, and relates the following instance of the ignorance of negro legislators:

A negro was a member of committee in Louisiana Legislature, where a scheme for a canal was under discussion. "Gen'l'men," said this darkey, probably not understanding either the words "scheme" or "canal," "hold hard a bit. Wouldn't it be better to wait util de machine come on from New York, den we be better able to decide about it?" Evidently he had confounded "scheme" and machine," ," and thought them one and the same thing.

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The following anecdote is given to illus trate the profound ignorance of the negro class:

One of the most practical and intelligent negro servants I have met was cook and house-keeper to some friends to whom I was paying a visit. She could read, write, and sew, and studied her Bible every Sunday. She became very much interested in my travels, wishing to know the names of the various places to which I had been-all of them "Greek" to her. Finding that she read her Bible, I thought she might feel interested to hear about Egypt, the land of the Pharaohs. "Missie been there?" she exclaimed, her eyes glittering with wonder and delight; "I reckon now missie been everywhere, pretty near." Then, as if a sudden thought had struck her, "I 'spects missie's been as far as heaven now, and seen all de angels, and tell all 'bout it!" Rather nonplussed, I remained silent, and she continued: "Warn't de sing ing beautiful, and warn't de angels' wings all golden? I'spects missie knows all abou it." On relating this story to her mistress, she laughed, and remarked that, like the rest, she could never grasp an immaterial idea; but that, as far as every-day life went, she was nevertheless the best negro she had ever had, and far more intelligent than most of them.

One of our queer customs is as follows: I can safely say that out of the hundreds of calls made by strangers upon me in this coun try, very few occurred at a private house, when I had been fortunate enough to get into one. It would almost appear as though the inhabitants of a city thought it their duty to sustain the proprietor of the principal hotel, by calling upon any guests of distinction be may have, and telling them, as they alway do, of the merits of the establishment. They congratulate you on being "well located;" "Very fine house, the Tremont House," i

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