Puslapio vaizdai
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LECTURE VII. THE SENSES. FEELING, p. 164 to 175.

Whether animals have other fenfes ?-feeling general-throughout all
tanks of creatures-fifh-cold-blooded land animals-quadrupeds-man
—its feat-its accuracy-the nerves-strange kind of feeling-the hand,
&c.-regulations of it-by regulating the nerves.

LECTURE VIII. SEEING, p. 176 to 195.

Moft extensive in birds-and most accurate-vifion of quadrupeds-
of fish-of infects-microscopic-fascination-seat of fight-not equally
accurate as feeling-fome of its imperfections and deceptions-its mode
of action-nature of the eye-its feat-and parts-three humors-con-
vergence of the rays of light-eye-lid-pupil-cornea-variations of
these parts in animals-birds' nictitating membrane-owls-double fight
-numbers of organs-its advantages.

LECTURE IX. HEARING, p. 196 to 207.

Sound-not equally extenfive as fight-intense found-gravities of
found-cause of found-hearing in creatures-fifh-beafts-birds-
fong-birds-uses-feat-the ear-placed deeply-rays of found con-
verged-parts of the ear-variations of the parts-bad ear-mufic-
notes-effects of its supposed absence.

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LECTURE X. SMELLING, p. 208 to 220.
Smelling, purveyor to tafting-in fimplicity-inftances of acute fmell
-the air-some smells pleasant but noxious-differs in perfons-and na-
tions-perfumes-medicinal-antipathies-perfect in dogs-birds of
paffage-heat enfeebles fcents-variations in fcents, why-fineness of
odoriferous particles-feat of the sense-in animals-its advantages:

LECTURE XI. TASTING, p. 221.

Its property in creatures-relishes-reconciled to its former averfion-
variety-its progrefs among mankind-inftinctive in animals-not al-
ways determinative of falubrity-injured by epicurifm-its feat-its va-
riations-moderation-conclufion.

Two plates of Glacieres, p. 235.-one of the Eye, p. 236.-one of the
Ear, p. 238.

ADDENDA TO THE FIRST VOLUME, P. 241 to 252.

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PREFACE.

IT

T has long been the opinion of the Author of the following Discourses, that to treat scientific fubjects in an easy and familiar manner, is to render very effential service to those persons in general who are defirous of acquiring information without deeply ftudying fuch fubjects; and especially to the younger part of the community, to whom entertainment is ever welcome. Upon this principle the Author conducted the LECTURES in the ARTIST's REPOSITORY and DRAWING MAGAZINE, and the fatisfaction of the Public with that performance has amply jus tified the idea; in fact, it is to the favourable reception of that work the prefent owes its appearance: It is presumed, it will not be found less worthy of favour, or lefs agreeable in its nature. It would give its Author great pain to think that public encouragement had rendered him careless, or that his fucceeding labours were no improvement on his former; on the contrary, as the principles now adopted are the fame as before, and the fubjects more general and interefting, he flatters himself, the execution will be found proportionally fuperior and valuable.

It is his defire that deep or abftrufe difquifitions may not be expected, nor any mathematical calculations, or foluA

tions;

tions; nothing but what is free, general, and of eafy conception to the reader; though to render it fo, has often been more difficult to the Author than if he had written it in a technical manner.

He begs leave to conclude, by repeating his former fentiments, (only changing the name of the performance) from the ARTIST'S REPOSITORY.

66

Upon the whole, it is hoped the Public will receive from the SURVEYS of NATURE both inftruction and entertainment, united in a compendious fyftem: if, in its progrefs, profeffed Artists should sometimes think it passes too flightly over objects usually fuppofed of confequence, they are requested to recollect the perfons to whom it is chiefly addreffed; if, on the other hand, it should some-. times be thought too learned, the public will excuse this error (if fuch it be) in a performance, whofe Editor is defirous of imparting knowledge and information, which will certainly prove of advantage to his readers, and perhaps ultimately to philofophy itself.".

The course intended by the Author, and which feems most regular for fuch a work, is, to confider (i.) the celestial phenomena, Sun, Moon, &c. whofe influences have great effect on (ii.) terrestrial phenomena, Light, Air, Clouds, Rainbow, &c. then to survey (iii.) the Earth, then (iv.) its inhabitants, Man, Animals, Reptiles, Infects, &c. down to (v.) the minutest discoveries of the microscope.

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INTRODUCTORY LECTURE.

ΤΗ

HE most noble and valuable prerogative of mankind above surrounding creatures, is, that reasoning faculty whereby we investigate the properties, the actions, and the relations of natural objects; whereby we survey the works of wisdom, and diftinguish their importance and defign. To what purpose has the Great Author of Nature diversified the operations of his hand; fometimes proportioning them on a scale of immense magnitude, sometimes animating the most diminutive atoms; to some beings imparting aftonishing faculties, bestowing on others bare existence? To what purpose is this variety?-That it might excite our attention, gratitude, veneration, and love.

To survey the wonders of Nature without admiration, without thankfulness, without piety, implies frigidity of fpirit, or ignorance of mind, little less than brutal: Such a man (if fuch a man there be) is unworthy the name he bears, and rather fhould be degraded beneath humanity; for humanity is diftinguished by faculties more excellent than any we difcern in the creation around us.

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