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Branches and Associations," and "College Associations," and the reports of the latter are especially significant in this inquiry. They enumerate 170 Young Men's Christian Associations in as many colleges in the United States. These embrace 9250 members, out of 33,000 students in these colleges, and these are the working, as distinct from the professing, Christians. One thousand five hundred students in these colleges professed conversion during the past year. Dr. Ashbel Green said, in A. D. 1813, that there were only two or three students in Princeton College who professed to be religious men. When Dr. Dwight became president of Yale College, in A. D. 1795, only four or five students were members of the church. The reports of 1883 give: in Princeton, 270 professing Christians, who include the great majority of the higher scholars, out of a total of 578 students; and in Yale, 290, out of a total of 611; in Williams, 147, out of 248; and in Amherst, 233, out of 352. In many other colleges the proportions are still more favorable to the prospects of Christianity. It certainly appears as if our "cultured" friends gave too much credit to "the intelligent common sense of the mass of mankind.”

Third. The third point asserted without proof is, that morality is entirely independent of religious opinion, and will survive without impairment when all positive opinion on religious questions is abandoned. It is obvious that such a question cannot be debated in the limits afforded for this discussion. It will be sufficient if the following points are noted in rebuttal of the absolutely unsupported assertion of our respondent:

(1.) The contention, as determined by our respondent himself, relates to the independence of morals (not only its idea, but its practical realization in the mass of a civilized community) of all the postulates of natural as well as of revealed religion.

(2.) We on our side, instead of denying, affirm that man is essentially a moral being. That "the law written on his heart" and "the light of nature" render him a moral agent, capable of doing right in many relations and responsible in all known relations, irrespective of any supernatural revelation whatsoever.

(3.) The burden of proof rests upon our respondents, and they labor against the presumption created by the whole unqualified mass of human experience in the past. Morality, as predicable of any community of mankind, never has been separated from religious dogmas and practices. The Buddhists of Siam, Burmah, and China have a low form of religion to which

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the morality of those communities corresponds. The princes of heathen morals, Seneca, Epictetus, Marcus Aurelius, Plutarch (A. D. 50-125), all based their morality upon their theology. The latter states the sum of human experience, ancient and modern, when he says: "There has never been a state of atheists. You may travel over the world, and you may find cities without walls, without king, without mint, without theater or gymnasium, but you will never find a city without God, without prayer, without oracle, without sacrifice. Sooner may a city stand without foundations than a state without belief in the gods. This is the bond of all society, the pillar of all legislation." We do not deny the existence, in this day, of exceptionably lovely characters who are skeptical-often most sadly so-as to all religious truth, natural and revealed. We deny, however, that these prove that morality is independent of religion. Morality in them, as in all others, has its root in theology, and their cases are easily explainable on the scientific principles of heredity, education, and environment. The examples of prominent emancipated moralists, male and female,- as John Stuart Mill and George Eliot, etc., do not re-assure us. The experiments made by communities of atheists in the Reign of Terror and in the Commune in Paris, and the proclaimed principles of the "International Society" of Communists, who declare at once the abolition of God, of marriage, and of property, do not re-assure us. The "cultured" must give us proof, not assertion, for their contention that morality is independent of religion.

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(4.) Morality is, as to its essence, authoritative. It is the categorical imperative. It is ultimate, incapable of analysis. There has been no success in the attempt to confound it with utility, nor in the more recent and more pretentious attempts to trace its genesis out of associated sensations or animal impulses. It is sovereign over all these and dominates them from above. It necessarily presupposes personality, moral intuitions, and rational and responsible spontaneity. It has existed, as an ultimate fact, just as we find it, throughout all stages of human history. Hence, it is as spiritual and transcendental as religion itself. The same paralysis of faith which tends to render ineffectual the abundant evidences of religion, natural and revealed, would necessarily tend equally to render obscure and ineffectual genuine moral distinctions and obligations.

(5.) Even natural religion, much more the facts and doctrines of the Christian revelation, beyond all controversy





North American Review.

ALLEN, G. An American Wild Flower,

America, Early Man in, 338.
American Wild Flower, An, 296.
ANDERSON, G. Science and Prayer,

Astronomical Collisions, 350.

BLAKE, L. D. Dr. Hammond's Esti-
mate of Woman, 495.
Board of Trade Morality, 372.
Bread, Making it Dear, 118.
BROCKWAY, Z. R. Needed Reforms in

Prison Management, 40.

Brown, John, of Osawatomie, 435.
Caucus and the Primary, Facts about
the, 257.

Causes of Felicity, 536.
Church Attendance, 76.

Class Distinctions in the United
States, 231.

Collisions, Astronomical, 350.
Conversations with a Solitary. Part
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CONWAY, M. D. The St. Patrick Myth,

COOLEY, T. M. State Regulation of
Corporate Profits, 205.
Coöperative Distribution, 327.
Crude Methods in Legislation, 158.
Cruelty to Children, 68.
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Day of Judgment, The, 565.
Defense, National, 594.
Democracy and Moral Progress, 28.
Democracy in England, Some Aspects
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Morality, 372.

DICEY, A. V. Some Aspects of De-
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Distribution, Cooperative, 327.
Dr. Hammond's Estimate of Woman,

Drainage, Sanitary, 57.

Dynamite as a Factor in Civilization,


Early Man in America, 338.

England, Some Aspects of Democracy
in, 317.

Evils of the Sub-Treasury System,

Expenditures, Public, The Increase
of, 19.

Explosives, Modern, 459.

Facts about the Caucus and the Pri-
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Felicity, Causes of, 536.

Forces, Social, in the United States,

FRANKLIN, W. B. National Defense,

Freethinking, The Limitations of,

French Revolution, Histories of the,

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George, Henry. His Social Falla-
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GERRY, E. T. Cruelty to Children, 68.
Gold and Silver as Standards of Value,

Government, The, and the Telegraph,

Government Control of the Tele-
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Social Forces in the

United States, 403.
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Dr., his Estimate of

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Imagination, Science and the, 49.
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Instruction, Moral, in the Public
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JACKSON, J. Shooting at Sight, 247.
John Brown of Osawatomie, 435.
KASSON, J. A. Municipal Reform;


KIDDER, F. A. Morality and Religion,

Last Days, The, of the Rebellion, 8.
LAUGHLIN, J. L. Evils of the Sub-
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Legislation, Crude Methods in, 158.
Limitations, The, of Freethinking,

Limited Suffrage in Rhode Island,

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Man, Early, in America, 338.
Modern Explosives, 459.
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Moral Instruction in the Public
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Moral Progress, Democracy and, 28.
Morality and Religion, 610.

Municipal Reform, 218.
National Defense, 594.

Needed Reforms in Prison Manage-
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NEWTON, R. H. Moral Instruction in
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Overproduction, 584.

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PERRY, T. S. Science and the Imagi-
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PHELAN, D. S. The Limitations of
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Politics, Woman in, 137.
Prayer, Science and, 185.

Prison Management, Needed Reforms
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Progress, Moral, Democracy and, 28.
Public Expenditures, The Increase
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Public Service, Suggestions in Re-
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PULLMAN, J. H. Church Attendance,

Railroad and Public Time, 605.
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Reform, Municipal, 218.

Reforms, Needed, in Prison Manage-
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Regulation, State, of Corporate Prof-
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Religion and Morality, 610.

Rhode Island, Limited Suffrage in,


RICHARDSON, B. W. Causes of Felic-
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RYLANCE, J. H. Church Attendance,

St. Patrick Myth, The, 358.
Sanitary Drainage, 57.

Schools, Moral Instruction in the Pub-
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Science and the Imagination, 49.
Science and Prayer, 185.

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SHERIDAN, P. H. The Last Days of
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Silver, Gold and, as Standards of
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Social Fallacies, Henry George's,


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