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25. The tariff is remarkable for its simplicity, and with one exception (the export duty on gold) is consistent with sound principles of trade. All articles of foreign produce or manufacture are admitted free of duty, excepting the few consumed in "smoking and drinking;" these are fermented and spirituous liquors-tea, sugar, coffee, and chicory-tobacco and opium. Another feature in the tariff, is, that the trade is not hampered by those vexatious refinements of classification, which are still adhered to in England in the case of sugars, and have only been abandoned in the present session in the case of wines.

26. The present rates,† and the amount of duties paid under each head are as follows:

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Sugar-refined 6s. 8d., raw 5s. per cwt. Treacle and Molasses 3s. 4d.

Coffee and Chicory 2d. per lb.



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Export duty on gold 2s. 6d. per. oz.

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4,261, 0.7 42,635,, 6.6 The revenue from customs duties on the articles above enumerated was at the rate of £1 17s. 9d. per head of the population.

26. In an earlier portion of this paper it has been stated that the total area of the colony is computed at 207,000,000 aeres. Of this quantity 7,170,690 acres only have been alienated; this gives as nearly as possible an average of 20 acres per head of the population, and leaves 199,892,310 acres of which the fee is still in the hands of the crown.

In the last ten years (1851 to 1860), 1,062,058 acres of land have been sold at the aggregate price of £2,054,418, giving an average of £205,441 per annum.

About fifty million acres are held under lease by pastoral

occupants, who pay a present rental of £155,000 per annum, being at the rate of not quite of a penny per acre. By a colonial Act, passed in 1861, persons are allowed, under certain restrictions as to occupation and improvement, to select rural lands in any part of the colony at a fixed price of 20s. per acre; paying 5s. per acre down at the time of selection, and the remainder at the expiration of three years.

27. The amount of the public debt on the 31st of December, 1860, was £3,830,230, being at the rate of very nearly £11 per head of the population.

This sum is secured on the consolidated revenue of the country. The debentures are issued in sums not less than £100, having for the most part thirty years to run, and bearing interest at 5 per cent. per annum.


28. The present wages of skilled artizans are 8s. to 10s. per day, without board or lodging; and of farm labourers and shepherds, from £30 to £40 a year, with board and lodging. In the former class, the decline from the rates which ruled in 1854 is considerable, but the wages of persons engaged in agricultural and pastoral industry have suffered comparatively no diminution, and the demand is greater than the supply.

Female domestic servants get ready employment at wages ranging from £26 to £36 per annum.

29. If the artisan receives lower wages, he is in a great measure compensated by the diminished cost of living.

Bread, which in 1854 to 1856 ranged from 5d. to 6d. the 21b. loaf, is now down to 34d. Potatoes, which ranged as high as 20s. a hundredweight, are now down to 8s. Meat, which rose to 6d. and 7d. per lb., is now reduced to 3d. and 14d. per lb., according to quality. Rents have fallen at least 50 per cent., and, taking the expenditure of the family of an artisan, it may be said that the cost of living has been reduced by nearly one-half. 30. There were imported into New South Wales, and manufactured in the colony together, during the year 1860, 979,616 gallons of spirits, and there were exported 143,870 gallons, leaving 835,746 gallons for consumption, or nearly 24 gallons to each head of the population.

Of wine, beer, and cider, the excess of imports over exports was 1,700,000 gallons, or an average of 5 gallons to each person-man, woman, and child-in the colony. This is exclusive of wine and beer of colonial manufacture.

31. With regard to tea and sugar, which are largely consumed by the great mass of the people, there were imported into the colony in 1860 no less than 4,937,454 lbs. of tea, and 22,521,124 lbs. of sugar; and there were exported 1,640,520 lbs. of tea, and 6,385,456 lbs. of sugar, leaving a residue for consumption of 3,296,934 lbs. of tea, and 16,136,668 lbs. of sugar, being at the rate of nearly 10 lbs. of tea and 47 lbs. of sugar for each person in the colony.

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The money has been appropriated to railways and other 33. The coin and bullion in the mint, banks, and treapermanent public works, for the most part of a reproduc-sury, at the end of 1860, amounted to £1,647,265, and the tive character. notes in circulation to £949,849, making together, £2,597,114.


Revenue £3 17s. per head; Expenditure £3 17s. 2d. per †The duties paid in England on tea, sugar, and foreign manufactured tobacco of the same quality as that used by the masses

reigns, and 156,000 half-sovereigns. The coinage at the mint in 1860 was-1,573,500 sove.

* A skilful coal-hewer could, at the current rate of wages, in New South Wales, are several y 600, 250, and 475 per cent. earn more than 18s. per day if his earnings were not restricted higher than the colonial rates.

by the interference of the union clubs.

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Total............... £8,929,100

The paid-up capital of the banks was £5,804,600. The dividends for the year amounted to upwards of £800,000, or about 14 per cent. on the paid-up capital; and the amount of reserved profits at the time of declaring the dividends was-£1,258,201.*

The practice of allowing interests on fixed deposits, accounts for the large sum of £5,164,000 lying in the banks under the head of " deposits."


34. For the higher departments of education there are the University of Sydney, with its two affiliated residential colleges of St. Paul's and St. John's (the former for members of the Church of England, and the latter for Roman Catholics), the large Sydney Grammar School, and 388 private schools.

population) were receiving an education suited to their station in life, towards the expenses of which the State contributed the sum of £60,587, not far short of 5 per cent. of the whole public revenue of the colony, and at the rate of £1 14s. 11d. per scholar, the rate in England and Wales being 11s. 6d.

In addition to the above there are 329 Sunday schools, with an average attendance of 21,104 children.

In the large towns and populous districts of the colony, Schools of Art or associations for mutual improvement exist, and a sum of £25,000 has recently been voted by the Legislature for the foundation of a free public library in the city of Sydney-an institution much required, and already exercising the most beneficial influence in the sister capital of Melbourne.

37. The returns for 1860 show that there were 33 institutions established for objects of charity, such as hospitals, benevolent asylums, orphan and ragged schools, &c., &c., supported partly by State and partly by voluntary contributions, at a cost exceeding £50,000 per annum.*

38. The number of ministers of religion in 1860 was as follows:-Church of England-Bishops, 2; Clergy, 114; Total, 116. Roman Catholic Church-Archbishop, 1; Clergy, 59; Total 60. Presbyterians, 52; Wesleyans, 40; Independents, 12; Primitive Methodists, 8; Baptists, 5; Jews, 4; Unitarians, 1; Grand Total, 298.

Taking the estimated population at the middle of the year, this gives one minister to 1,140 persons. These ministers are supported partly from the public revenue which is charged with an annual payment of £28,000 distributed on a certain fixed scale, but principally from local voluntary contributions.

39. The large proportion inhabiting the metrothe inhabitants of London and its suburbs, in 1861, was polis, will not escape observation. The number of 2,803,034 out of a total population of England and Wales amounting to 20,205,504; that is, out of every 1000 persons inhabiting England and Wales, 143 were to be found in the metropolis, whereas in New South Wales, the The University is governed by a Provost, Vice-Provost, population. If the distribution of the population in Engnumbers inhabiting Sydney were 267 to every 1000 of the and Senate. The buildings, still incomplete, have been land and Wales were in the same ratio, the population in erected at a cost of £60,000, granted by the State; and London in 1851 would have been nearly 5,894,869. The the University enjoys from the same source an annual great preponderance of the metropolis in the location of subsidy of £5,000 by way of endowment. Professorships the colonial population is due to various causes, but in the three departments of classical literature, mathe-principally to the immense amount of exportable promatics, and experimental philosophy have been established; duce, the small number of persons employed to raise it, and in 1860, 32 students attended the lectures given by and the enormous business at the port of shipment. the eminent men who fill those chairs. Since the opening Whether this monopoly of population by the metropolis, of the University 110 students have matriculated, and 47 and this denudation of the rural districts, are signs of have graduated; the degrees taking rank, by the gracious healthy progress, is a question full of interest. Those permission of Her Majesty, with those conferred in the who look more to immediate results than to the gradual English universities. Towards the two affiliated colleges, and simultaneous development of the various elements private munificence has contributed nearly £50,000, and which constitute national stature, regard with unmixed the State has given £40,000, besides an annual endow-satisfaction the maturity of the colonial metropolis-the ment of £1,000, viz: £500 to each.

The Sydney Grammar School has been built at the public cost, and receives an annual subsidy of £1,500. In 1860 the number of pupils receiving instruction was 144. At the 383 private schools the number of resident pupils in 1860 was 9,318.

35. In addition to these schools the Public Treasury supports two systems of primary education-the Denominational and Irish National. In 1860 there were 264 Denominational schools with 15,267 scholars, receiving from the State a contribution of £20,031, and from other sources £12,465. In the same year there were 144 National Schools educating 9,305 scholars; receiving from the State £23,445, and from other sources £7,838.

36. Taking the whole of these establishments together, we find that in 1860, 34,769 scholars (about 1 in 10 of the

These figures would lead to erroneous conclusions, unless -it is borne in mind that they represent the total amount of capital, dividends, and reserved profits, not only of the banks which are confined to New South Wales, but of those in which that colony forms only one part of their field of operation.

and the mental activity produced by the aggregation of
complete division of labour, the organization of industry,
so large a portion of the population into one centre.
are calculated to show that the colony of New South
Under any view, however, of the facts above stated they
population of the old world. Millions of acres are open
Wales offers a home of comfort and plenty to the surplus
to free selection even before survey, and with deferred
payment at a uniform price of 20s. per acre.
is unequalled for salubrity, wages are high, food is cheap
and abundant, taxation is light, the educational and reli-
gious wants of the community are provided for, the laws
are impartially administered, and the country is governed
tants of the United Kingdom regard as their indefeasible
under a constitution analogous to that which the inhabi-

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The climate

£37,683 13,734


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At the conversazione recently given by the Society of Mansion House, a very interesting model was shown by Mechanical Engineers, in the Egyptian Hall, at the Mr. Asprey, illustrating an ingenious plan devised by that


gentleman for connecting all the railways north and south | 60° 27′ 40′′, the index error of the sextant minus 20′′, and of the Thames, relieving London-bridge entirely of all the height of the eye above the sea 24 feet. Find the traffic going to or from the various railway stations. latitude.

2. For May 17th, 1862, at 9 h. 45 m. 33 s., A.M., local mean time, find the sun's true altitude at a place in latitude 47° 40′ N., and longitude 36° 15′ 45′′ W.


11 h. 2 m. 27 s.

2 43

2 59

The wood-cut (see preceding page) shows the general features of the plan. Mr. Asprey proposes to run a line of railway from the London-bridge Station to the Fenchurch-street Station, crossing the Thames by the side of London-bridge on the east, with branch on the south side to the Charingcross line, and a passenger station near the Monument, 1. On April 7th, 1862, in latitude by account 52° 20 either with or without an hotel connected. N, and longitude 12° 25′ W., the mean of the observed The through traffic might thus be accomplished with-altitudes of the sun's lower limb, very near noon, was out changing carriages. This plan would render un- 44° 30′ 40." The times of the several observations, innecessary the bridge and extension from the Charing-cross dicated by the chronometer, wereline to Cannon-street, for which an Act of Parliament has been granted, and the works commenced, the same objects being obtained at an immense saving of cost, with the important advantages gained of not only carrying the Westend traffic into the City, but right through to the Blackwall and all other lines in connection without changing carriages, forming a connecting link between the whole system of railways North and South of London. This would entirely effect the one great necessity of the day, viz., the relief of the traffic of London-bridge. Not one person, or conveyance of any kind for goods or passengers, would be required to cross the bridge for either of the railways, whether the destination were far or near, home or continental; the stations remaining as they now are, with the addition of one new passenger station on the Monument side, between Thames-street and the River, or at any other more convenient point.

The goods stations in the Minories and at the Bricklayers Arms might remain the same, if both were required, all delay in the transmission of goods from one station to the other would be avoided, and much labour and money saved by sending all direct through by the rail. This would bring all fish (from either coast) direct to Billingsgate, and also give direct communication with Leadenhall Market, the Coal Exchange, Custom House, Mark-lane, the Borough Market, &c., &c., with easy access to the Bank of England, the Royal Exchange-indeed, affording great convenience to all parts, bringing the many thousands who go in and out of the City daily from the south side to a more central point, saving much valuable time, and avoiding the crowded and disagreeable walk, or ride, over London-bridge. This would also avoid the tedious journey from the West-end to the Fenchurch-street station, and relieve the City to some extent of the traffic.

The model, which is about three feet square, scale five feet to the mile, has recently been placed in the International Exhibition, Class 10, by the advice of several eminent engineers, and others, who have passed very high eulogiums on the plan, and believe that it would afford immense public benefits, questioning whether its importance is not worthy of consideration before proceeding further with the before-mentioned works just commenced.


The following are the Examination Papers set in the various subjects at the Society's Final Examinations, held in May last:

(Continued from page 571.)



One Question only in each Section to be answered.


1. On February 3rd, 1862, in longitude 22° 30' E., the observed meridian altitude of the moon's lower limb was



3 57

ship, 50 m. 18 s. The index error of the sextant minus The chronometer was slow, on apparent time, at the 1' 20", and the height of the eye 20 feet. Find the


2. On April 19th, 1862, at 3 h. 15 m. 20 s., P.M., local mean time, in latitude 20° 19' S., longitude 85° 15′ E., the sun bore by compass N., 52° 51′ W. Required, the variation of the compass.

510 25' 30" S., and longitude by account 143° 25′ E., the 3. January 3rd, 1862, at 10 h. 15 m., A.M., in latitude following lunar was taken :—

Index error

Obs. alt. of Sun.
54° 29′ 50′′

Obs. alt. of Moon.
28° 1' 50"
3 13
+ 33
Height of the eye 18 feet.

Find the longitude.


Distance. 82° 28' 50"

+ 1 21

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1. Find the compass course and the distance from A to B by middle latitude and Mercator's sailings:

Latitude of A, 27° 16' N.; Longitude, 55° 20′ W. Latitude of B, 38° 18′ N.; Longitude, 51° 30′ W. The variation of the compass 14° 30, W., and the local deviation due to the position of the ship's head, 7° 30′ E.

2 A ship steams seven knots an hour, and her apparent course is W.N.W., what is her true course and distance in 54 hours, supposing a current drifting S.b.E. two knots per hour?


Given two sides and their contained angle in a spherical triangle; demonstrate a formula for the direct computation of the other side.

2. Prove that in a spherical triangle

Cot. A Sin. B Cot. a Sin. c- Cos. B Cos. C.


1. Find the time which will be shewn by a chronometer which is fast for G.M.T. 3 h. 4 m. 52 s., when the sun is on the meridian of 45° W., on May 1st, 1862.

2. Find the meridian distance of Capella at 8 h. P.M., June 7th, 1862, for a place 90° East of Greenwich.


1. Investigate the method given in the "Nautical

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1. Define force. How is it measured statically, and how dynamically?

2. Find the resultant of two parallel forces acting in the same plane on a rigid body. Two parallel forces, which are as 3 to 5, act on a line, in opposite directions, at a distance of 12 inches; required the magnitude and position of the third force which will balance them.

8. State and prove the conditions of equilibrium of forces applied in any manner to a lever. What are the respective weights borne by two men who carry a burden of 200 lbs. slung from a pole 4 feet long, the weight being 6 inches from the middle?

4. Investigate the ratio of power to weight on the inclined plane, and hence show under what circumstances the mechanical advantage is greatest. A power of 50 acts at an angle of 45° with the incline of a plane, whose height is to its length as 1 to 2; required the weight which it will support.

5. What are the conditions requisite for the equilibrium of a vertical frame-work of jointed beams?

6. Show how to express the motion of a body on an inclined plane.

7. A body is projected up an inclined plane, whose height is th of its length, with a velocity of 50 feet per second; find its place and velocity after the lapse of 6 seconds.

8. If a body describe an ellipse under the action of a central force tending towards a focus of the ellipse, then the force varies inversely as the square of the distance.

9. Show how to find the limits within which the velocity of a fly-wheel varies, when the force of the piston is


10. State the difference between the effects of a pressure applied to a solid and a fluid respectively. What hydrostatical facts result from this difference?

11. Explain the meaning of the terms "whole pressure," "resultant pressure," on a surface immersed in a fluid. Find the amounts of these two pressures on a globe, 1 foot in diameter, just immersed in a trough of mercury, whose specific gravity is 13.58.

12. Describe a fire engine, and explain its mode of working.

13. Show how the barometer is used to ascertain the

been introduced by Watt into the construction of the steam-engine.

3. Sketch the slide-valve commonly used in locomotive engines, and explain its action. What is the meaning of the terms, "lap," and "lead," as applied to a slidevalve?

4. Describe some form of equilibrium valve. 5. Explain any arrangement of mechanism suitable for actuating the slide-valve of a steam-engine.

6. Describe in general terms the construction of a "lathe." What is the principle of the slide-rest? How is the slow motion given to the mandril of a lathe ?

7. Explain the use of change-wheels in a screw-cutting lathe.

8. In a machine for planing iron, mention some of the methods employed for imparting a reciprocrating motion to the table, and point out which of these methods allow of the motion in one direction being made more rapid than that in the other.

9. In the operation of drilling, the spindle which carries the cutter revolves, and at the same time advances slowly in the direction of its length: how can this movement be obtained in a self-acting drilling-machine? 10. Describe the anchor-escapement, and point out its use in a clock.

11. Explain the contrivance known as "Hooke's universal joint."

12. It is often desirable to record, mechanically, the number of impressions taken in a printing-machine: in what manner may counting-wheels be constructed and arranged so as to effect this object?



1. Explain the poles of a magnet, and state their properties.

2. Can magnetism be justly called an attractive force? Prove your answer by experiment.

3. Explain the best mode of constructing a mariner's compass, and the kind of error of deviation that may be thereby avoided.

4. State the three elements of the earth's magnetic force, and the means by which their changes have been observed and recorded.

5. Describe the peculiar magnetic properties possessed by the metal bismuth.

6. Explain the kinds of electricity, and the means by which they may be respectively recognised.

7. Distinguish between an electrometer and an electroscope. Describe the construction of Coulomb's torsion electrometer.

8. When the free electricity of any body is disturbed by the proximity of an electrified body, what is the action called? Give some experimental illustration.

9. Explain the theory of the different effects produced, when a point, or a knob, is presented to an electrified body.

10. State the conditions on which the efficiency of a lightning conductor depends.

heights of objects. What corrections are used in the calculations, and on what grounds are they introduced? 11. Describe the origin and nature of a voltaic current, Illustrate your remarks by a case of your own supposi-and the actions which take place in the battery-cell.




1. Describe Newcomen's atmospheric steam-engine, and explain the method of working it. What radical defects are inherent in an engine of this description?

2. State briefly the principal improvements which have

12. Explain the construction and relative advantages and disadvantages of the batteries of Daniell, Smee, and Grove.

13. What is the construction of the apparatus for obtaining electricity of high tension, by the agency of a voltaic current?

14. Explain the construction and use of Wheatstone's magneto-electric telegraph.

15. What is the nature and construction of the apparatus by means of which the most delicate experiments on heat may be made?

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