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country, but throughout the world, the project which his Royal Highness always had at heart of promoting industrial progress seems to me worthy of especial attention, as affording, perhaps, the most useful and important mode of perpetuating his memory to all time, and of constantly reminding all classes of his enlarged benevolence and practical wisdom. Having your Lordship's permission, I beg leave to submit for your consideration some observations in order to show how the project might be carried out.

"2. The supplemental charter of the 2nd of December, 1851, granted to the Commissioners of the Exhibition of 1851, empowers them to carry out a plan which in its general character should serve to increase the means of industrial education, and extend the influence of science and art upon unproductive industry.'

"3. This was the suggestion of his late Royal Highness the Prince Consort, and it was an aim and aspiration never absent from his mind. The second report of the Commissioners (pp. 40, 41) gives one version of the idea, but others are known to exist, drawn up by the Prince himself in great detail. It was proposed to carry this idea into effect by some combination of the various metropolitan and local institutions which promote industrial science and art, and by the centralisation of some of them in one locality; such centralisation, however, not being an essential part of the project. The chief object was to establish some system of combined action among scientific and artistic institutions which should increase the means of industrial education. This combination would, I conceive, afford a suitable memorial to the late Prince, without superseding other memorials of a monumental character.

"5. It might take the form of an Industrial University, to be known throughout the world as the Albert University. The specific object of the institution would be to grant degrees and honours in those particular sciences and arts which directly influence works of industry.

"6. In the words of the second report, such an University might become the centre of a system of local institutions aided by local exertions and association; thus securing to our manufacturing population sound industrial knowledge, while, by confining attention to technical instruction, and not extending it to general education in science and art, such an University would be adding to, without interfering with, the means of instruction already existing in schools and colleges.'

7. Such an University would differ from the London University in not requiring examination for matriculation, but perhaps accepting examination conducted by other authorities. The degrees and honours would be granted for specific success in subjects technically applied. A miner from Durham or Cornwall might acquire his degree in mining only; a chemist from Manchester, Bristol, Newcastle-on-Tyne, or the Staffordshire Potteries might take honours in chemistry only. So, the agriculturist in agriculture, the builder in construction, and the civil and mechanical engineer in engineering, &c. Degrees might be conferred in the fine arts of architecture, painting, and sculpture when combined with industrial application, and perhaps honour for musical acquirements should be given. The want of an authority to confer honours in mining knowledge has been already recognised by your Lordship. "8. The management might be confided to a Senate, consisting for the most part of representatives of each of the various institutions proposed to be brought into combination. The members of the University would be those who obtained its degrees and honours, and they might perhaps be considered worthy of having electoral rights. "9. Each representative of a scientific or artistic institution would be elected annually by his own society.

10. The Senate, as in other Universities, would name the examiners, whose responsibility would be insured by payment for their services.

11. The endowment should be partly from public scriptions and partly from Parliamentary funds.

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The following letter has been addressed to the Secretary of the Society of Arts :

SIR," A light is passed from the revolving year," and in the quiet contemplation which ever grows out of the serene sadness of those dim hours which follow the painful moments when dust is rendered back to dust, we ask ourselves what memorial shall we raise to mark our appreciation of the virtues of our departed friend.

The latent goodness which lives in every human heart, that spark of truth which cannot be crushed out of the soul of man, howsoever great may be the burthen of vice beneath which it lies buried, is ever and anon asserting its existence, by paying its tribute to the holiness of virtue. Hero-worship is but an outward manifestation of that inward feeling which compels all men to acknowledge the sovereignty of goodness,-using that term to embody the many traits which distinguish the benefactors of their race. That desire to possess the image of a departed friend, which is equally strong in the breast of the mendicant as it is in that of the monarch, and which in every age and clime has displayed its power, is one of those virtues which cannot be annihilated, and which proves the Heavenly origin of human love."

A people united in the bonds of a common sorrow inquire what memorial shall we raise which shall perpetuate the memory of the Prince whom we have lost for ever? The first idea is the common one-we desire to possess his likeness-and statues of the Prince Consort will decorate many towns of the British isles, and our children's children will thus be made familiar with his face and form. But while we thus create, as it were, the material outness of the good man whom we have lost, is it not possible to give a living reality to his thoughts which we have not lost, and to mould a form which, when quickened by the ideas promulgated from time to time by the Prince Consort, will become a ruling intellectual Power in the land? I turn to the collection of speeches and addresses of II.R.H. the Prince Albert, and they inform me that the dominant idea in his fine mind was "the realisation of the unity of mankind."

The following elegant paragraphs beautifully express important truths:

"Man is approaching a more complete fulfilment of that great and sacred mission which he has to perform in this world. His reason being created after the image of God, he has to use it to discover the laws by which the Almighty governs his creation, and, by making these laws his standard of action, to conquer nature to his use, himself a divine instrument.

"Science discovers these laws of power, motion, and transformation; industry applies them to raw matter, which the earth yields in abundance, but which becomes valuable only by knowledge.

"Art teaches us the immutable laws of beauty and sub-symmetry, and gives to our productions forms in accordance with them."

12. The site of the proposed University should be at South Kensington.

Whenever the occasion presented itself, the Prince Consort never failed to express his desire that the amelio

rating powers of science should be extended to places where
ignorance, and consequently superstition, still hold rule,
and that the sweet amenities of art should exert their re-
fining influences throughout the world.
These were his ever present thoughts, and when the
question of a “ Memorial of the Great Exhibition" was
submitted to the Prince, we find the following reply :-
It might, probably, be done by the endowment of one
or more professorships, by the institution of periodical
exhibitions, by the purchase of fine works of art for the
national museums, or by the endowment of prizes for
specific objects. But that which strikes his Royal
Highness, at this moment, as the simplest and most
effectual method, would be to found scholarships, as
prizes for proficiency in certain branches of study con-
nected with art and science. * *
* ** The
competition for such prizes, as being immediately
connected with the objects of the Great Exhibition,
might, if so wished, be conducted under the auspices of
the Royal Commissioners, who might meet publicly each
year, on the anniversary of the opening of the Exhibition,
to announce the successful competitors, when the reports
of the preceeding year, which the scholars might be
instructed to furnish, might also be read, and their pub-
lication for general use afterwards undertaken by the

Mr. Henry Cole having addressed a letter to the Earl Granville on the establishment of an Industrial University, which it is proposed shall embody the suggestions of his late Royal Highness, it may appear that I am guilty of presumption in offering these remarks. If so, allow me to presume yet further, and use the words of the Prince as my apology.-"I conceive it to be the duty of every educated person, closely to watch and study the time in which he lives, and, as far as in him lies, to add his humble mite of individual exertion to further the accomplishment of what he believes providence to have ordained."

port on Industrial Instruction." Many valuable thoughts occur therein, but hitherto they have been barreu of results.

I would urge upon all the importance of making our great memorial of the departed Prince a realisation of his leading thought. To do this effectively, aid must be given to all those Institutions which desire to work for the benefit of the localities in which they are placed, and an earnest effort must be made to restore to all an educational system, using that term in its most liberal, its most extended acceptation. Then the Senate of the contemplated University of Industrial Science, when they "met publicly each year, on the anniversary of the opening of the Exhibition," might really proclaim that they were working out that idea of the Prince Consort which pro mises to lead to "the realisation of the unity of mankind." I am, &c., ROBERT HUNT.

STEAM TELEGRAPHIC AND FOG SIGNALS. The system of signalling, described below, is invented by Mr. Delabere Barker, and is principally intended for communicating signals in foggy and other weather from the land to vessels at sea, but is also applicable for use in signalling on board vessels, and on railways, and to and from railway trains, as well as for other purposes.

The apparatus for signalling from the land to vessels at sea, and for other purposes where a stationary apparatus is used, consists of a steam boiler or superheating apparatus suitable for generating steam to a very high pressure; that which has been found most suitable for the purpose is a small vertical tubular boiler surmounted by a high steam chest, into which some of the fire-tubes from the furnace are carried for the purpose of superheating the steam therein to a pressure of about 150 lbs. on the square inch. Connected with a steam pipe from the said boiler is a powerful steam whistle or whistles for signalling, and the said whistle is furnished with a sound reflector and conducting tube or tubes for concentrating and directing the sound of the whistle in any required direction. The whistle is operated upon by means of a suitable automatic

In 1840 I became the Secretary of the Royal Cornwall Polytechnic Society, which still lives in vigour, doing its excellent work of rewarding annually every meritorious effort of human thought and human industry which may be submitted to its judges. From that time to the pre-apparatus connected to the boiler, which opens the valves sent moment, I have been intimately connected with, what I will call, the People's Institutions throughout the land. Hence, I venture to offer some suggestions which occur to me, these being the result of a full knowledge of the state of our popular institutions. I have worked with them when flourishing as educational establishments, and I have grieved when I have seen them yielding to that race for popularity which has made them rivals of the concert room and the theatre.

A large number of the Institutions in Union with the Society of Arts-perhaps all-are most desirous of returning to the path from whence they have deviated. They have ted their members with stimulating food so long, that they complain if a less exciting but more healthful diet is offered to them, and cease to subscribe; consequently, to maintain their position, the Institutions are compelled to persevere in that career which is fatal to their permanent existence.

To render effective the "Albert University," which Mr. Cole, with the Royal Commissioners, thinks " might become the centre of a system of local Institutions, aided by local exertions and association," it is essential that the institutions of the people, by whatever name they may be known, should be reorganised. A new educational system must be introduced amongst them. The difficulties are many-the progress may be slow-in some places the opposition will be keen, but any effort made with a singleness of purpose towards the diffusion of sound information on nature's works and nature's laws, and the cultivation of a knowledge of the beautiful, must eventually succeed. I cannot pretend to offer any suggestions at present relative to the methods by which this idea may be carried out. The Society of Arts has already published a "Re- |

for sounding it at regulated periods; the apparatus to be wound up every hour, and furnished with a movement to enable it to work while it is being wound up. The boiler is fitted up with a pump and the necessary apparatus for supplying it with water. By using more than one whistle, sounding different notes on the same apparatus, an identity may be given to the locality in which the apparatus is placed, for example, a 6-in., 54-in., and a 5-in. whistle, each sounding alternately and forming a chord, may be gone over exactly in a minute of time, and forms a suitable arrangement with a distinct musical cadence for signalling from the land to vessels out at sea; the name of the place at which the apparatus is fixed thus serving the purpose of a lighthouse in the densest fog, or by means of a properly arranged code of signals, telegraphic communications of much greater length may be sent, not only in signalling out to sea, but in signalling between vessels at sea, or from one fixed station to another, as may be desired.

On rocks and prominent headlands, where lighthouses and beacons are deemed essential to the safety of the maritime and commercial interests, these signals are said to be capable of identifying the rock or headland with the utmost clearness and certainty to all vessels on the sea, in the densest fog and in the wildest storm, to a considerable distance, varying from six to twelve miles in any one direction required, and maintained at an expense about one-half of the lights now in use. The signals may be used between two vessels when meeting, being easily exchangeable to a distance of five miles, at the rate of about ten syllables in a minute. The news-press of New York, for instance, expends from £1,000 to £1,500 per annum in intercepting the mail

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In the illustrations, Fig. 1 is an elevation of a superheating boiler fitted with apparatus according to the invention; Fig. 2 is a vertical section of the boiler; Fig. 3 is a section in plan on the line A, B; and Fig. 4 section on the line C, D. a is the boiler shell, b is the furnace; c is the fire-tube; d is the steam-chest; e is the whistle (the reflector and conducting tubes not being shown); fis the automatic apparatus operating on the valves for sounding the whistle; and g is the feed-pump apparatus.

One of these signals has been for some time in use at the Partridge Island Light-house Station, at the entrance to the harbour of St. John, New Brunswick, and the strongest

testimony has been given of its efficiency. The following is an extract from a notice to mariners issued by the Admiralty:

"In order to warn vessels of danger when approaching Partridge Island, near St. John, in the Bay of Fundy, a steam-whistle has been fitted at the light-house on that island, and will be used during fog. The shrill sound of this whistle once a minute having been heard from a position eight miles to windward of it, has proved the efficiency and utility of this addition."

A company is being established for carrying out this invention, and they propose to erect one of these signals,

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in the first instance, at some light-house station on the
English coast, and to bring it immediately under the
notice of the Trinity Board. Application has been already
made for this purpose, and it is not improbable that
Dungeness will be the point selected for the first trial.
For its introduction to the notice of the railway companies
a similar arrangement will in all probability be carried out.ditions and other particulars may be ascertained.
A portion of the patent has been applied to the ordinary
signal now in general use on the railway locomotive, so as
to concentrate the sound and throw it in the only one
direction required, with the view of sparing the passengers
and surrounding neighbourhoods the great annoyance they
are now compelled to tolerate.

held, according to the merit of the works. The Scholar-
ship may be held for a second and third year, provided a
work of adequate merit be produced in each year.

All works must be delivered before two o'clock on Saturday, 1st November, 1862, at the house of the Royal Dublin Society, Kildare-street, Dublin, where the con



The Athenæum says: "The importance of consolidating and improving the management of the British Museum, by making it more responsible, has often been discussed in these columns, and there seems some likeliThese are the names of the new metals discovered by being realised. hood of the views we have several times expressed at last spectrum analysis by MM. Bunsen and Kirchoff. The that at the end of last session of Parliament, Lord Henry It has hitherto escaped public notice Academy of Sciences has received a communication from Lennox, who had made himself master of the National M. Grandeau, who states that he has had the advantage Gallery question, and successfully prevented further exof making his researches almost under the eyes of M. penditure in temporary patch-work of the edifice, gave Bunsen. M. Grandeau began by examining the various notice of his intention to bring before the House of Commineral waters and minerals, presenting some analogy with the waters of Durkheim, which have yielded casium, sibility for the expenditure of public money hitherto enmons the importance of ensuring a Parliamentary responand with the lepidolite of Rozena, from which the illus-trusted to trustees of various institutions. He specified trious chemist of Heidelberg has extracted rubidium. The in his notice the British Museum, where Parliament mother waters of the salt-pits of the basin of the Meurthe, contributes about seventy times the amount which the of the Mediterranean, the Ocean, the Dead Sea, and the Trustees hold as a private corporation; also, the National mineral waters of Bourbonne-les-Bains and Vichy were Gallery, where the management is divided between the successively subjected to analysis. Sea water and the salt Treasury and the Trustees; also, the National Portraitwater of the Meurthe only yielded lithia; that of the Gallery, where the same system obtains. The year of the Dead Sea lithia and strontian; but the waters of Vichy, International Exhibition is particularly appropriate for the of which several thousand litres had to be evaporated, discussion of subjects of Science and art, and it is to be yielded about two grammes of the double chloride of platinum and casium, and another of platinum and rubi- hoped that the House will apply some remedy to our predium, the proportion of which was not ascertained. The the greatest responsibility, and in the words of John sent system. The first step in any reform is to ensure quantity of the new metals contained in the waters of Stuart Mill, make it apparent to all the world who did Vichy is, therefore, very small; but forty hectolitres of the waters of Bourbonne-les-bains yielded, besides chloride everything, and through whose default anything was left

of sodium, various calcareous salts and lithia, a considerable quantity of the chlorides of cæsium and rubidium. Some years ago M. Troost had prepared several kilogrammes of salts of lithia, and preserved all the residues. These, examined by M. Grandeau, furnished him with a considerable quantity of a mixture of the two metals in nearly equally proportions. The same result was obtained from a lepidolite of Prague, infinitely richer in cæsium than that of Rozena. Lastly, among the artificial productions examined by M. Grandeau, there were the residues of the saltpetre manufactory of Paris. From these Captain Caron had extracted a salt of platinum, in which considerable quantities of the new metals were discovered by M. Grandeau in equal proportions. The refuse of a Belgian saltpetre manufactory contained much rubidium without a trace of cæsium. From all this it would appear that the two new elements are much more widely diffused through nature than was previously suspected.

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(Continued from page 102.)

THE PRESENT STATE OF SEVILLE.-Seville (says Mr. Consul Williams) is situated principally on the left bank of the River Guadalquivir, about fifty-four English miles from the sea; the navigation is perfectly safe, except in time of inundations, there being no rock in the whole course of the river. The water is sufficiently deep for any kind of vessels, except on passing three sand banks, which might easily be removed; but in their present neglected state cannot be passed with more than ten-and-ahalf feet of water, even at spring tides, so that the far greater number of vessels have to be lightened at a place called the New Cut, about sixteen miles below, to enable them to come up abreast of the town. The port or part of the river usually occupied by the shipping will contain about 100 sail of vessels, but the mole is not of a sufficient extent for the present augmented state of trade, consequently ships are obliged to lay along the banks of the river to take in their cargoes.

the Spanish Government, for improving the state of the A plan has been formed which has been sanctioned by river, of which the principal works in contemplation are the continuation of the mole from its present limits along the bank as far as the iron bridge, which will augment its extent by about 600 yards, and the cutting of a new channel through two distinct points where the river makes a very winding turn, forcing it to take a direct course, which will shorten the distance by at least seven miles, and leave out two sand-banks. The remaining sandbank is to be removed by a dredging machine, brought from England, which is now nearly completed, and will soon commence working.

The Guadalquivir is only navigable above the bridge for flat-bottomed boats, which are principally employed in bringing coals from the mines of Villanueva, a place about six leagues from Seville, but the coals are of a quality only to be used by the blacksmiths. The steamers and steam engines cannot work without English coals.

On arrival at Seville from St. Lucar, the city is nearly concealed from the view, as it is built on a part of that immense plain which extends from Cordova nearly to the sea. The principal objects seen on the left bank are the cathedral and the palace and gardens of the Dukes of Montpensier, and on the right the suburb of Triana; the iron bridge, seen in the distance, which is of modern construction, occupies precisely the same place as the old bridge of boats which had subsisted from the time of the Moors. The place is surrounded by Moorish tapia walls, extending about four English miles, in general well preserved, and in some parts quite perfect. On the outside of these walls are rows of trees and walks which make the entire circle, and are a great comfort to those who have to move about during the heat of the day.

great part of Spain with earthenware, though inferior in quality to the English. They employ about 400 persons. The other has scarcely made a commencement. These potteries are also dependent on England for their supplies of clay and ground flint. Four iron foundries have been established (though on a small scale), which are actively employed in casting for the railroads and mining districts.

There is at present a great rage for mining. Besides the famous quicksilver mines of Almaden, which are monopolised by the Government, there are numerous mines now at work. The iron mines of Pedroso are making great progress, and produce an immense quantity of iron, and of a very good quality; but the want of machinery to give it a convenient form prevents its being applied, except for certain purposes of the coarser kind, consequently a supply of English iron is required. The lead mines begin to produce large quantities of that metal, the greater part of which is exported for France and England. Besides the copper mines, copper is produced in abundance in a rivulet called Rio-Tinto. Besides the Government establishment, a number of private individuals have established themselves in the vicinity, Besides the space within the walls, the city has acquired and take advantage of the same waters; and having considerable extent on the outside, comprehending the been very successful, they have exported large quansuburbs of Triana, San Benardo, La Calzada, La tities of that article and have increased the importaMacarena, and Los Humeros. The streets are very irre- tion of English pig iron, which they require to immerse in gular, having undergone scarcely any alteration in their the water. There are also silver mines, but these have not ground plan since the time of the Moors, but the place is yet had the same success. The wart of good roads is a fast losing its Moorish character owing to the many new great drawback to these mining establishments, for, with buildings and improvements. No place in Spain can the exception of the turnpike roads from Seville to Madrid boast of so many fine public buildings, and it may be cal. and Cadiz, and from Seville to Badajoz, all the others are culated that a quarter of the ground inside the walls is as bad as those in Barbary. With good 10ads, Seville Occupied by churches, convents, hospitals, and Govern- might be amply supplied with timber of all kinds; but in ment establishments. The cathedral is undoubtedly the their present state the numerous oaks, chesnut, and pinefinest in Spain. Seville is the see of an archbishop, the woods within the distance of fifteen or twenty leagues are residence of the Captain-General of the Fourth Military of no avail, and nearly all the timber required is obliged District, comprehending the provinces of the same name, to be imported from Russia, Sweden, and Norway. The Cordova, Huelva, and Cadiz; the seat of the Audiuncia, projected railroads, when carried into effect, will remedy or Superior Court of Justice of the same district, and the the evil. That from Madrid to Badajoz, Cordova, and University. There are two public libraries, an Academy Seville, passing through the coal mines of Belmez and of the Fine Arts, and several colleges and other places Espiel, in the Sierra de Cordova, will render those mines of public instruction. The Government establishments, available, and enable the coal, as well as all the produce besides the Royal Palace, are the Cannon Foundry, the of Estremadura to be brought down at a reasonable expense. Military Arsenal, the manufactory of muskets and per- The part from Cordova to Seville is making progress, cussion caps, the cigar and snuff manufactory, the Mint, and now employs about 6,000 workmen; the first seven the Lonja (or archives of the colonies), and the quick-leagues, which extend from Seville to Lora, are to be silver stores. These establishments give occupation gene- opened in all shortly, and will be a great advantage to the rally to about 6,000 persons, which is a great advantage mines of Pedroso, Villanueva, and many others situated to the place. The population is at least 130,000 persons, in that direction. The railroad from Seville to Cadiz but no exact census has ever been taken. Seville has is also advancing rapidly, and is engaged to be finished in augmented greatly in riches and trade during the last two years. twenty years, which may be partly attributed to the constant immigration of opulent mercantile houses from South America. Landed property and dwelling-houses have doubled their value during the same period, which I consider the natural consequence of the increase of capital and speculation, and the prosperous state of this part of Spain.

The soil in both the provinces of Seville and Cordova is very rich, particularly the plains of the Guadalquivir, and there is scarce any part that cannot be rendered available for some purpose or other. I calculate that full one-half of the land in these provinces is uncultivated, and only serves for pasture ground for the numerous herds of cattle of all kinds that abound in this part of the country. One The manufacture of silks is carried on here to a great quarter is occupied by the olive plantations, and the reextent, and though not equal to the French in the superior maining quarter applied to the sowing of corn and grain, kinds, they rival those of Valencia, and serve to supply which is always the best land. The uncultivated is, in great part of the south of Spain and Estremadura. The many districts, completely covered with oaks (of which manufacture of all kinds of coarse linen is also very con- there are three different kinds), chesnut trees, elms, wild siderable, and has completely excluded the English and olive trees, and many others; but the greatest extent is of German linens, with the exception of the very superior pine wood, which tree thrives in the light sandy soil. classes. But these are entirely dependent on their sup- The most important branch of agricultural produce I conplies of English yarns, and in case of a war would be at sider to be oil, which is obtained to such an extent as not an end. Soap is also made here in great perfection for only to supply the wants of the population, who concommon purposes, and this place supplies with that article sume a very large quantity, particularly among the lower great part of Spain, and considerable shipments are made classes, who may be said to live on bread and oil, but to for the Havana and South America. There are also export all that is required for Biscay and the northern promanufactories of coarse woollens and sacking; of horn and vinces, and a considerable portion for Cataluna and the tortoise-shell combs, and some kinds of inferior hardware. eastern coast of Spain, as well as for Marseilles, England, Two potteries have been established by British subjects. Russia, and the Spanish colonies. Of wheat I calculate That of Messrs. Pickman and Co., which is of some that one-half the quantity produced is sufficient for the years' standing, has made great progress, and supplies | home consumption, which is also the case with Estre

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