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ship of population to food supply, the effect of missionary enterprises, the study of race relations, standards of living, political and cultural institutions, religion, and other phases of national and international life.

The greatest difficulty in the Pacific is due to the inadequate contacts between the various nations. The more evident avenues of publicity are for the most part occupied by the exuberant and the unusual. Cable rates are high, yet not too high to send to the most distant country the high lights of an unusual murder trial or to over-emphasize the significance of an unfortunate or accidental racial or international incident. The difficulties are great enough when they concern only differences in language, race, custom, attitude to ward constituted law and culture, but when we add misinformation or incomplete information, jingoism and mischievous journalism, it is easy to appreciate the ease with which misunderstandings arise. Quack ideas, if they are spectacular, reach from shore to shore.

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As we look ahead we can see it is inevitable that there will be an increased number of relationships among the peoples of the Pacific. Our present contacts through the immigrant, the trader, the missionary, the official, the tourist and the educator, have shown themselves to be insufficient and have built up a tenuous web of uneven and fragile strands too weak to guarantee stability. The atmosphere of the great ocean is charged with the elements which lead to storm. Men and nations are looking askance at each other and are not in that receptive mood

which is needed to develop friendship and mutual understanding.

The Institute of Pacific Relations attempts to provide a background free from the ordinary inhibitions which keep us from seeing eye to eye with the other man. It is an equal forum for equals, open, regardless of race, creed or country, where men and women of good spirit seek to discover those things on which they can agree, rather than to make a cult of disagreement. One of the Oriental members at the first meeting said that until the advent of the Institute, his countrymen had never been approached by the foreigner except on the basis of buy, sell, borrow, teach or preach. The Institute hopes to develop the habit of speaking for ideas and presenting facts, rather than to encourage mere blind partizanship. Crusading seems to be a characteristic of many Americans as well as other nationals and with the growth of racial and national consciousness, it is certain that there will be many crusaders fired by patriotic instincts.

We all like frank discussion, particularly when we are doing the talking. The method of the Institute is to develop the capacity to listen. Its members are not official delegates. They cannot speak for any government or people. They can only present facts or near facts and ideas. Knowing no solutions, they have no patent formula with which to solve each international difficulty. No conclusions and no majority decisions are incorporated in the machinery of the Institute. As volunteers who see an idealized picture of what ought to be, they try to understand and solve things as they

are. The Institute was born in that spirit. Its record shows that Americans have no monopoly of the pioneer spirit. Other countries have many people who know that it is easier to allow things to drift, but who realize that some one has to take the initiative. Intangible as the results may be, they can at least bring about changes in thought and sentiment on vexed questions, and develop an attitude of good-will among the various Pacific countries in their mutual relationships. It is inevitable that people of the same country, as well as those of different countries, should look at problems about them in various and different ways in accordance with those points of view that spring from heredity and develop out of education. Men recognizing common issues, look at them together but from different angles. They are not unlike the young married couple whose firstborn had come. The father had purchased a beautiful-to himbaby carriage, and brought it home. The new baby was properly installed therein and the young couple stood, filled with interest and enthusiasm, bending over the little one. The mother said, "Can you believe it, that this belongs to us? Isn't it too wonderful?" He answered, "It sure is. I can't see how that fellow can sell a carriage like that for $7.25." It all depends upon what is being looked at, the baby or the baby carriage.

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Those who organized the Institute of Pacific Relations are men of the type who look at the kernel and are interested in ideas, growth and development and not in the more evi

dent shell. This has made it possible to cross the lines of language, race and nationality. Perhaps one can best gain an idea of the possibilities of such an "adventure in friendship" from this comment made by Viscount Eiichi Shibusawa in Tokio on April 5, 1926:

"My life covers the whole span of Japan's era of modern, foreign relationships. I can very clearly remember as a young boy, the coming of Commodore Perry's 'Black Ships' to Yedo Bay. With many other people I resented and opposed the idea of foreigners coming into Japan and of foreign intercourse. My family and my clan opposed the idea. Later I came to study the question of international relationships and also made one of a mission that was sent to America and Europe to study Western life and institutions. I gradually changed my point of view, and now for more than fifty years have been a strong supporter of the policy of full international intercourse and of friendships with the West. I have been an especial admirer of America and the spirit and leadership of American ideals and institutions.

"A succession of unfortunate events during the last few years has disappointed me in my estimate of America and has saddened, but I do not feel cast down or without hope that better understanding and juster relations can be established in the future between the two nations. The Institute of Pacific Relations impresses me as a timely and effective method of bringing about gradually a better understanding and a better relationship between the peoples of America and Japan.

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Honolulu has again been chosen as the place for the second, the 1927 meeting of the Institute, although it is thought that the subsequent meetings will rotate in the various countries of the Pacific. It has many advantages for such a gathering. Located on the trade routes of the Pacific, it has a population in which the descendants of more than twenty nationalities are living together in remarkable harmony and cordiality. The very isolation of the Hawaiian Islands has had a certain advantage in the early meetings of such a forum dealing with controversial subjects. The sensational press is a constant menace because of its willingness to exaggerate every appearance of dissension and controversy. After the 1927 meeting in Honolulu, where there is a sympathetic and understanding press, it is believed that the Institute will be able to ride such storms as are almost inevitable with the biased and the jingo publicity from which no public organization is immune.

At the coming meeting there will be a nucleus of the members of the previous Institute, but many new faces. Members have been invited from all of the larger Pacific countries and a number of the smaller ones. The British Commonwealth of Nations will be represented by

members from London as well as by those coming directly from Canada, Australia and New Zealand. A fiveinch shelf of publications, representing reports and research studies covering subjects varying from the Australian aborigines to the admission of aliens into the United States, will be available for each member.

Since the aim of the Institute is to make its work practical and to be of direct service in the removal of difficulties and in promoting constructive measures of mutual assistance, a large amount of work has to be done by each member. As a result of training certain selected citizens in the background of international affairs, it is hoped that each member on his return from Honolulu will become a center from which will radiate information and interest, and that the national councils which have been built up will enlarge in membership, increase in branches and serve as instruments for the spread of facts and of understanding on disputed Pacific questions.

We do not expect to bring about any startling changes, but we hope that there can gradually be built up friendships based on mutual respect, among men and women of different countries possessed of sound information and good spirit. The love of justice and of fair dealing knows no barrier of race or creed. Frank discussion by informed individuals offers, in the minds of those interested in the Institute, one of the best opportunities for cementing many of those crevices always present in the structure of international relations and which may, if not attended to, readily become open breaches menacing the welfare of the world.

T

THE STORY OF FRANCES PERKINS

Her Fight Against Selfishness, Prejudice and Vested Interests

A. W. HINSHAW

HE afternoon blue of a chill March sky shot into flame. The dignity of Washington Square shuddered before shrieking sirens and gibbering gongs as engines and hose-carts rushed to a neighboring street, Washington Place, where New Yorkers of the Square vaguely realized sweat-shops had crept.

Spending the tea hour in one of the quiet and distinguished old drawing-rooms overlooking the Square was the young woman who, largely through events growing out of the incidence, was to become chairman of the New York State Industrial Board. Frances Perkins was telling her friends of her winter's work at the 1910-11 session of the legislature on behalf of the fiftyfour hour bill for working women.

When the alarm sounded she hurried into the street to find the fire already a conflagration, for it was what firemen call a "flash fire," —that is, the disaster had happened in less than three minutes. Starting in a shirt-waist factory occupying the eighth, ninth and tenth floors of a loft building, the fire was beyond the effective reach of water from streetlevel mains.

Since the shirt-waist makers were working overtime, the other floors of the building had been vacated

earlier, a circumstance to which those who escaped, no doubt, owed their lives. One hundred and fortysix of them suffocated, burned or already wrapped in flame, jumped to a death which seemed easier than burning.

Chances of escape had been cut to a hair's breadth by the time the workers were aware of their danger. The fire-escape, quickly cluttered with falling iron shutters, grew too hot for use in the early minutes of the fire-besides it led to a walled-in court which soon became a furnace.

The elevator operator fled at the first alarm and his car, run by a volunteer, carried out refugees until the bodies of women who had jumped into the shaft and to the top of the car made running it impossible. A proprietor and some employees escaped from the tenth floor by way of the roof. Many of those on the eighth succeeded in getting out. It was on the ninth floor that firemen found the bodies of fifty-eight girls piled in a little anteroom against the door of exit-which was locked.

On the sidewalks there were other piles of lifeless bodies-those who had jumped. One fell with such force as to break through the heavy sidewalk glass and carry the fire from the victim's burning clothes into the

basement. A girl hung from a window sill and dropped only when the flames reached out to clasp her hands.

The story of Rosey Safran, one of the workers who escaped, was published in the New York Independent. Rosey said that virtually none of the girls jumped until her clothing was actually burning. Their mouths and eyes full of smoke, many were saying their prayers. Some had covered their eyes with rags that they might not see their comrades leap to death, for no fire nets can be made to withstand the impact of bodies falling from such a height.

But if the lives of 146 girls were sacrificed at seventy-five dollars each, as was later asserted in a conservative periodical, they were lost in a great cause, for the moral awakening of the community was commensurate with the wrong.

The New York Committee on Public Safety was formed at a citizens' indignation meeting at the Metropolitan Opera House, and got a bill creating the Factory Investigating Commission through the legislature before the close of the session.

And a friendly fate had placed as an eye-witness of the great tragedy a social idealist who already had learned to make practical politics serve her cause.

Frances Perkins is that fine product of the twentieth century, a gentlewoman with the common touch. Sophistication has not robbed her of zest, nor extended academic training of the common-sense essential to the solution of practical problems.

Underlying her quiet poise is a rich reserve of decision and action. Her high seriousness in the cause of

industrial maladjustments is tempered by an alert sense of humor, deeply sparkling in extraordinarily sympathetic eyes; and the judicial formality of her decorum is lost in the acuteness of her observations.

In her the New England conscience has shed its puritanical habiliments and put on a business suit of ethics; its fanaticisms are refined to a modern practical perseverance in bringing to the nth degree the productive potentialities of labor; its conservatism appears in her regard for the profits she realizes industry must make, if there be any industry to regulate; its propriety appears in her person.

During the vogue of long narrow skirts, hers were short enough to permit clambering through every part of a building and all its fire exits. To-day when every woman under sixty wears skirts just below the knee, hers are of a decorous length suited to the judicial dignity of her office. A becoming tricorn hat seems to be a part of her-winter and summer-never in nor out of style, always chic and carrying a Bostonian air of well-groomed modesty.

When Miss Perkins was confronted with the approaching fullness of the fair, fat forties, instead of resorting to inadequate food or any other hysterical subversion of nature, she no doubt noted on her desk pad, "Sedentary habits require balance; golf impossible" at any rate she joined a gymnasium class.

She has a rich maternal enjoyment of her young daughter, meeting fully every obligation of motherhood. With the Woman's Party she has little in common beyond the use of her maiden name, for although

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