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SECESSION MOVEMENT DEVELOPED.
IMMEDIATELY thereupon, and clearly by concert of action previously arranged, various disunion Governors hastily took steps to procure the passage of ordinances of secession by Conventions of their States, artfully using the unsettled excitements of the Presidential canvass to that end.
These proceedings in brief were as follows:
November 6th, 1860. Legislature met to choose Presidential electors, who voted for Breckinridge and Lane for President and Vice President. Gov. WILLIAM H. GIST recommended in his message that in the event of ABRAHAM LINCOLN's election to the Presidency, a convention of the people of the State be immediately called to consider and determine for themselves the mode and measure of redress. He expressed the opinion that the only alternative left is the "secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union."
nouncing the repeal, Dec. 20th, 1860, by the good people of South Carolina." of the Ordinance of May 23d, 1788, and "the dissolution of the union between the State of South Carolina and other States under the name of the United States of America," and proclaiming to the world "that the State of South Carolina is, as she has a right to be, a separate, sovereign, free and independent State, and, as such, has a right to levy war, conclude peace, negotiate treaties, leagues, or covenants, and to do all acts whatsoever that rightfully appertain to a free and independent State.
"Done in the eighty-fifth year of the sovereignty and independence of South Carolina."
Jan. 3d, 1861. South Carolina Commissioners left Washington.
4th. Convention appointed T. J. Withers, L. M. Keitt, W.W. Boyce, Jas. Chesnut, Jr., R. B. Rhett, Jr., R. W. Barnwell, and C. G. Memminger, delegates to Southern Con
7th. United States officials resigned at gress. Charleston.
10th. U. S. Senators JAMES H. HAMMOND and JAMES CHESNUT, Jr., resigned their seats in the Senate. Convention called to meet Dec. 17th. Delegates to be elected Dec. 6th. 13th. Collection of debts due to citizens of non-slaveholding States stayed. FRANCIS W. PICKENS elected Governor, who appointed a cabinet consisting of A. G. MAGRATH Secretary of State, DAVID F. JAMISON Secretary of War, C. G. MEMMINGER Secretary of Treasury, W. W. HARLLEE P. M. General, ALBERT C. GARLINGTON Secretary of Interior.
17th. Ordinance of Secession adopted unanimously.
21st. Commissioners appointed (BARNWELL, ADAMS, and ORR) to proceed to Washington to treat for the possession of U. S. Government property within the limits of South Carolina. Commissioners appointed to the other Slaveholding States. Southern Congress proposed.
24th. Representatives in Congress with drew.
Gov. PICKENS issued a proclamation
5th. Convention adjourned, subject to the call of the Governor.
14th. Legislature declared that any attempt to reinforce Fort Sumter would be considered an open act of hostility and a declaration of war. Approved the Governor's action in firing on the Star of the West. Accepted the services of the Catawba Indians.
27th. Received Judge Robertson, Commissioner from Virginia, but rejected the proposition for a conference and co-operative action.*
The resolutions are:
Resolved unanimously, That the General Assembly of acknowledgment of the friendly motives which inspired South Carolina tenders to the Legislature of Virginia their the mission entrusted to Hon. Judge Robertson, her Commissioner.
Resolved unanimously. That candor, which is due to
the long-continued sympathy and respect which has subsisted between Virginia and South Carolina, induces the
Assembly to declare with frankness that they do not deem it advisable to initiate negotiations, when they have no
desire or intention to promote the ultimate object in view.
That object is declared, in the resolution of the Virginia Legislature, to be the procurement of amendments to, or an-new guarantees in, the Constitution of the United States
March 26th. Convention met in Charleston.
November 26th, 1860. Legislature met
April 3d. Ratified "Confederate" Consti- Nov. 26th, and adjourned Nov. 30th. Electution-yeas 114, nays 16.
tion for Convention fixed for Dec. 20th, Con
8th. Transferred forts, etc. to "Confeder-vention to meet Jan. 7th. Convention bills ate" government.
November 8th, 1860. Legislature met pursuant to previous arrangement.
18th. Convention called. Legislature appropriated $1,000,000 to arm the State.
Dec. 3d. Resolutions adopted in the Legislature proposing a Conference of the Southern States at Atlanta, Feb. 20th.
January 17th, 1861. Convention met. Received Commissioners from South Carolina
18th. Resolutions declaring it the right and duty of Georgia to secede, adoptedyeas 165, nays 130.
19th. Ordinance of Secession passedyeas 208, nays 89.
21st. Senators and Representatives in Congress withdrew.
24th. Elected Delegates to Southern Congress at Montgomery, Alabama.
28th. Elected Commissioners to other
and secession resolutions passed unanimously. Commissioners appointed to other ation in effecting measures for their common Slaveholding States to secure "their co-operdefence and safety."
Jan. 7th, 1861. Convention assembled. 9th. Ordinance of Secession passed-yeas nays 15.
In the ordinance the people of the State of Mississippi express their consent to form a federal union with such of the States as have seceded or may secede from the Union basis of the present Constitution of the of the United States of America, upon the United States, except such parts thereof as embrace other portions than such seceding States.
10th. Commissioners from other States received. Resolutions adopted, recognizing South Carolina as sovereign and independent. Jan. 12th. Representatives in Congress withdrew.
19th. The committee on the Confederacy
29th. Adopted an address "to the South in the Legislature reported resolutions to and the world."
March 7th. Convention reassembled.
16th. Ratified the "Confederate" Constitution-yeas 96, nays 5.
20th. Ordinance passed authorizing the "Confederate" government to occupy, use and possess the forts, navy yards, arsenals, and custom houses within the limits of said State.
April 26th. Governor Brown issued a proclamation ordering the repudiation by the citizens of Georgia of all debts due Northern men.
Resolved unanimously, That the separation of South Carolina from the Federal Unlon is final, and she has no further interest in the Constitution of the United States; and that the only appropriate negotiations between her
and the Federal Government are as to their mutual re
lations as foreign States.
Resolved unanimously, That this Assembly further owes it to her friendly relations with the State of Virginia to declare that they have no confidence in the Federal Government of the United States; that the most solemn pledges of that government have been disregarded; that under pretence of preserving property, hostile troops have been attempted to be introduced into one of the fortresses
of this State, concealed in the hold of a vessel of com
merce, with a view to subjugate the people of South Carolina, and that even since the authorities at Washington have been informed of the present mediation of Virginia, a vessel of war has been sent to the South, and troops and munitions of war concentrated on the soil of Virginia. Resolved unanimously, That in these circumstances this Assembly, with renewed assurances of cordial respect and esteem for the people of Virginia, and high consideration for her Commissioner, decline entering into the negotiations proposed.
The Charleston Mercury of an earlier date thus alluded to Border State embassies:
provide for a Southern Confederacy, and to establish a provisional government for seceding States and States hereafter seceding. 21st. Senators in Congress withdrew. March 30th. Ratified "Confederate" Constitution-yeas 78, nays 7.
Dec. 1st. Convention bill passed.
7th. Commissioners from South Carolina and Alabama received and heard.
10th. Ordinance of Secession passedyeas 62, nays 7.
Congress at Montgomery. 18th. Delegates appointed to Southern
21st. Senators and Representatives in Congress withdrew.
Feb. 14th. Act passed by the Legislature declaring that after any actual collision between Federal troops and those in the emunder the Federal government shall be deploy of Florida, the act of holding office clared treason, and the person convicted shall suffer death. Transferred control of government property captured, to the "Confederate" government.
December 10th, 1860. Legislature met. 11th. Convention called for Jan. 23d. Military bill passed.
Hear them, if you please; treat them with civility; feed them, and drench them in champagne-and let them go! Let us act as if they had never come, as if they had not spoken, as if they did not exist; and let them seek to preserve their Treasury pap through some more supple agency than ours. The time has gone by when the voice of a Virginia politician, though he coo like a dove, should be heard in the land of a patriotic people." Southern States.
12th. Commissioners from Mississippi received and heard. Governor instructed to communicate with Governors of other
January 23d, 1861. Convention met and yeas 87, nays 6. Transferred control of forts: organized. Received and heard Commis- arsenals, etc., to "Confederate" Government sioners from South Carolina and Alabama.
25th. Ordinance of Secession passedyeas 113, nays 17. Convention refused to submit the ordinance to the people by a vote of 84 to 45. This was subsequently reconsidered, and the ordinance was submitted. | The vote upon it as declared was 20,448 in favor, and 17,296 against.
Feb. 5th. Senators withdrew from Congress, also the Representatives, except John E. Bouligny. State flag adopted. Pilots at the Balize prohibited from bringing over the bar any United States vessels of war.
March 7th. Ordinance adopted in secret session transferring to "Confederate" States government $536,000, being the amount of bullion in the U. S. mint and customs seized by the State.*
16th. An ordinance voted down, submitting the "Confederate" Constitution to the people-yeas 26, nays 74.
21st. Ratified the "Confederate" Constitution-yeas 101, nays 7. Governor authorized to transfer the arms and property captured from the United States to the "Confederate" Government.
27th. Convention adjourned sine die.
19th. Delegates elected to the Southern Congress.
21st. Representatives and Senators in Congress withdrew.
26th. Commissioners appointed to treat with United States Government relative to the United States forts, arsenals, etc., within the State.
The Convention requested the people of the States of Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Tennessee, Kentucky and Missouri to meet the people of Alabama by their delegates in Convention, February 4th, 1861, at Montgomery, for the purpose of consulting as to the most effectual mode of securing concerted or harmonious action in whatever measures may be deemed most desirable for their common peace and security. Military Bill passed. Commissioners appointed to other Slaveholding States.
March 4th. Convention re-assembled. 13th. Ratified "Confederate" Constitution,
March 14th, 1861. The "Confederate" Congress passed, a resolution accepting these funds, with a high sense of the patriotic liberality of the State of Louisiana."
January 16th, 1861. Legislature passed
February 18th. Delegates elected.
18th. The Ordinance of Secession de feated-yeas 35, nays 39. The Convention effected a compromise by agreeing to submit the question of co-operation or secession to the people on the 1st Monday in August.
May 6th. Passed Secession Ordinanceyeas 69, nays 1. Authorized her delegates to the Provisional Congress, to transfer the arsenal at Little Rock and hospital at Napoleon to the "Confederate" Government. TEXAS.
January 21st, 1861. Legislature met. 28th. People's State Convention met. 29th. Legislature passed a resolution declaring that the Federal Government has no power to coerce a Sovereign State after she has pronounced her separation from the Federal Union.
February 1st. Ordinance of Secession passed in Convention-yeas 166, nays 7. Military Bill passed.
7th. Ordinance passed, forming the foundation of a Southern Confederacy. Delegates to the Southern Congress elected. Also an act passed submitting the Ordinance of Secession to a vote of the people.
23d. Secession Ordinance voted on by the people; adopted by a vote of 34,794 in favor, and 11,235 against it.
March 4th. Convention declared the State out of the Union. Gov. Houston issued a proclamation to that effect.
16th. Convention by a vote of 127 to 4 deposed Gov. Houston, declaring his seat vacant. Gov. Houston issued a proclamation to the people protesting against this action of the Convention.
20th. Legislature confirmed the action of the Convention in deposing Gov. Houston by a vote of 53 to 11. Transferred forts, etc., to "Confederate" Government.
23d. Ratified the "Confederate" Constitution-yeas 68, nays 2.
November 20th, 1860. Legislature met. Gov. Ellis recommended that the Legislature invite a conference of the Southern States, or failing in that, send one or more delegates to the neighboring States so as to secure concert of action. He recommended a thorough reorganization of the militia, and the enrolment of all persons between 18 and 45 years, and the organization of a corps of ten thousand men; also, a Convention, to assemble immediately after the proposed consultation with other Southern States shall have terminated.
December 9th. Joint Committee on Federal | Passed the Senate, yeas 14, nays 6, absent Relations agreed to report a Convention Bill. 17th. Bill appropriating $300,000 to arm the State, debated.
18th. Senate passed above bill-yeas 41, nays 3.
20th. Commissioners from Alabama and Mississippi received and heard-the latter, J. Thompson, by letter.
22d. Senate Bill to arm the State failed to pass the House.
22d. Adjourned till January 7th.
January 8th, 1861. Senate Bill arming the State passed the House, yeas 73, nays 26. 30th. Passed Convention Bill-election to take place February 28th. No Secession Ordinance to be valid without being ratified by a majority of the qualified voters of the State. 31st. Elected Thos. L. Clingman United States Senator.
and not voting 5; the House, yeas 42, nays 15, absent and not voting, 18.* Also a Declaration of Independence and Ordinance dissolving the Federal relations between Tennessee and the United States, and an ordinance adopting and ratifying the Confederate Constitution, these two latter to be voted on by the people on June 8th, were passed.
June 24th. Gov. Isham G. Harris declared Tennessee out of the Union, the vote for Separation being 104,019 against 47,238.
January 7th, 1861. Legislature convened. 8th. Anti-coercion resolution passed. 9th. Resolution passed, asking that the status quo be maintained.
10th. The Governor transmitted a despatch from the Mississippi Convention, an
February 13th. Commissioners from Geor-nouncing its unconditional secession from gia publicly received.
20th. Mr. Hoke elected Adjutant General of the State. Military Bill passed.
28th. Election of Delegates to Convention took place.
28th. The vote for a Convention was 46,671; against 47,333-majority against a Convention 661.
May 1st. Extra session of the Legislature met at the call of Gov. Ellis. The same day they passed a Convention Bill, ordering the election of delegates on the 15th.
2d. Legislature adjourned.
13th. Election of delegates to the Convention took place.
20th. Convention met at Raleigh. 21st. Ordinance of Secession passed; also the Confederate" Constitution ratified.
June 5th. Ordinance passed, ceded the arsenal at Fayetteville, and transferred magazines, etc., to the "Confederate" Government.
January 6th, 1861. Legislature met. 12th. Passed Convention Bill. 30th. Commissioners to Washington appointed.
February 8th. People voted no Convention: 67,360 to 54,156.
May 1st. Legislature passed a joint resolution authorizing the Governor to appoint Commissioners to enter into a military league with the authorities of the "Confederate" States.
the Union, and desiring on the basis of the old Constitution to form a new union with the seceding States. The House adoptedyeas 77, nays 61,-an amendment submitting to a vote of the people the question of referring for their decision any action of the Convention dissolving Virginia's connection with the Union, or changing its organic law. The Richmond Enquirer denounced "the emasculation of the Convention Bill as imperilling all that Virginians hold most sacred and dear."
16th. Commissioners Hopkins and Gilmer of Alabama received in the Legislature.
17th. Resolutions passed proposing the Crittenden resolutions as a basis for adjustment, and requesting General Government to avoid collision with Southern States. Gov. Letcher communicated the Resolutions of the Legislature of New York, expressing the utmost disdain, and saying that "the threat conveyed can inspire no terror in freemen." The resolutions were directed to be returned to the Governor of New York. 18th. $1,000,000 appropriated for the defence of the State.
19th. Passed resolve that if all efforts to reconcile the differences of the country
*The following is the vote in the Senate on the adoption of the league:
YEAS.-Messrs. Allen, Horn, Hunter, Johnson, Lane,
Minnis, McClellan, McNeilley, Payne, Peters, Stanton,
Absent and not voting.-Messrs. Bumpass, Mickley, New-
The following is the vote in the Honse:
YEAS.-Messrs. Baker of Perry, Baker of Weakley,
7th. Legislature in secret session ratified the league entered into by A. O. W. Totten, Gustavus A. Henry, Washington Barrow, Bayless, Bicknell, Bledsoe, Cheatham, Cowden, Davidson, Commissioners for Tennessee, and Henry Gantt, Guy. Havron, Hart, Ingram, Jones, Kenner, Davis, Dudley, Ewing, Farley, Farrelly, Ford, Frazie, W. Hilliard, Commissioner for "Confed- McCabe, Morphies, Nall, Hickett, Porter, Richardson, erate" States, stipulating that Tennessee Roberts, Shield, Smith, Sewel, Trevitt, Vaughn, Whitmore, Woods, and Speaker Whitthorne. NAYS-MessTS. until she became a member of the Con- Armstrong, Brazelton, Butler, Caldwell, Gorman, Greene, federacy placed the whole military force of Morris, Norman, Russell, Senter, Strewsbury, White of the State under the control of the President Davidson, Williams of Knox, Wisener, and Woodard. Absent and not voting-Messrs. Barksdale, Beaty, Benof the "Confederate" States, and turned over nett, Britton, Critz, Doak, East, Gillespie, Harris, Hebb, to the Confederate" States all the public Trewhitt, White of Dickson, Williams of Franklin, WilJohnson, Kincaid of Anderson, Kincaid of Claiborne, property, naval stores and munitions of war.liams of Hickman, and Williamsou.