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The earliest occasion upon the work. which friendly societies received the tion of either branch of the legislature was in 1773. From the returns of the registrar the number of friendly societies enrolled and certified, and now in existence in England and Wales, is about 20,000, and the number of the members exceed 2,000,000, with funds exceeding £9,000,000. We cannot follow Mr. Hardwick though his carefully-prepared account of the statistics of these societies. One of the most important chapters of the work is that entitled the "Danger of Insolvency;" it is one that deserves most careful attention on the part of present or intended members of friendly societies, and who are tempted to join impracticable ones, the liberal schemes of which must end in diappointment and loss. Figures represent very stubborn facts in our author's use of them, and prove in this chapter that for want of proper calculations many of the existing societies are, or soon will be, without proper reformation, in a state of bankruptcy. He points out the defects in their rules and organization which leads to this conclusion, and shows the means of averting and preventing it. According to the "pastgrand master of the Manchester Unity's" own showing, that society itself is not safe unless a reformation of its system is generally entered into by the various lodges; but, having shown in a very searching investigation of the accounts of an aggregate of twenty-four lodges, their financial prospects, and the errors in their executive he takes heart to observe that "the dictates of common sense and moral principle alike demand that we investigate calmly the cause of past error, aud regulate our future proceedings in accordance with our improved knowledge of the operation of natural laws. No ignorance of ours, either wilful or blind, can stultify a fact; but, if we boldly look the evil in the face, I for one fear not that patient labour and integrity of purpose will eventually accomplish all that is desired." Mr. Hardwick, under the heads of "Conditions of Security" and the " Future," deals almost exhaustively with his subject; and the chapters on education and social advantages are full of hope for the working-people of England. We congratulate not only the members of the Manchester Unity, bnt those of friendly societies generally, upon the anthor's earnest and honest inquisition of their existing defects, nd the sterling advantages to be derived from it. The work is one that will be regarded as an authority upon the matters of which it treats.

which the poor-laws are at present administered, he thus alluded to friendly societies:

But whatever was done, the future to be arrived at was an eradication of pauperism by the creation of self-dependence. Provident societies and kindred institutions must be fostered. He could not agree

What

with the allegation that the working classes were
improvident as a rule. (Hear, hear).
encouragement to be provident had they received from
Little or none.
the legislature and from society?
The workmen had received but cold encouragement
from without, and the blame, if any, should rest with
others, if he had not proved as self-reliant as could be
wished. The attention of the house had been called
to the fact that provident societies had doubled in
numbers since 1844, and it had been stated on good
authority that £2,000,000 per annum was saved to the
ratepayer by them. Ought not that to be sufficient to
induce the house to encourage the establishment of
such societies and their further development. Already
they supported their members in times of sickness,
but be would like to see them brought to such
In only one or two instances
perfection as to provide superannuation for members
aged from 60 to 65.
had this been attempted, and in these it had not worked
with perfect success.

QUARTERLY MAGAZINE OF ODDFELLOWS. ~(Manchester).-Apropos to the subject of Mr. Hardwick's "Manual," which we have just discussed, appears a paper in these pages by the same haud (the editor, by the way) on the subject of the "proposed Royal Commission on Friendly Societies," which are at length receiving from the legislature the attention which they mcrit. In a speech of Mr. Corrance, M.P., relative to the existing state of pauperism and vagrancy in Eugland, and the principles on

In brief, Mr. Corrance suggests that if the rates could in any way be applied to such societies, it would effect a saving at least of some portion of the charge. If there could be

A saving to the ratepayer of a third or a fourth, that, not to speak of moral considerations, ought to be a recommendation. A bill brought in by Lord Lansdowne, in 1839, contained a clause to the effect that where a parish should adopt the act and establish a friendly society, the vestry should direct to be paid out of the poor-rates such an amount as the guardians might determine, not exceeding 25 per cent of the annual contributions of such local society. It was said that the poor man would refuse contributions coming from such a source, but he would be hardly conscious whence they came. At the same time, he should be sorry to see the principle generally applied; it should be confined to particular parts of the country, where it

was most wanted.

To this the writer of the article from which we
quote the above very pertinently observes,
"We are inclined to the opinion that, whenever
any given number of men once understand the
necessity of providing for future uncertain pe-
riods of affliction, and have given practical ex-
hibition of their conviction, by forming them-
selves into a friendly society, of however im-
perfect a character, that the first and most pow
erful element found to underlie and sus-
tain their commendable effort will be the
special horror with which they regard a pau
per's social and moral condition, and a strong
repugnance to any parochial officers' aid or in-
terference in their provident affairs. Between
habitual pauperism and habitual self-reliance,"
he goes on to say, "there ever has, and ever will
be, an impassable gulf." And he very rightly
believes, that "all practical efforts in the direc
tion indicated would lead to disappointment and
disgust." To our own mind such an attempt
would be one to overthrow the grandest move-

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ment the working men have made in their onward march of social progress. The very corner-stone of self-respect is self-dependence, and the first attempt to mix the poor-rate with the hard-earned savings which represent so much industry, self-denial, and manly effort should be discountenanced-the two things do not go together. We agree with the writer, that there is one thing

Which overseers or boards of guardians might perhaps do to effectually encourage the independent action of the self-reliant men to whom we have referred. They might, nay, we think both in wisdom and duty, they ought, to regard and treat with some lenity the few exceptional cases where, through excess of misfortune and ill-health, the members of friendly societies, or their dependent families, have, often after a hard, nay, heroic struggle, which has not only pinched their bodies, but wrung with bitter anguish their once

contented minds, been compelled, by dire necessity, to apply for parish relief. In such cases, we say, they might encourage the provident instincts of the masses by regarding and treating such individuals as a separate

and distinct class from the idle and the dissolute."

Besides this well-timed and well-written paper, there are excellent articles by H. Owgan, L.L.D., Edwin Goadly, &c., &c. "A Peep at the Past" is a pleasant article, which might, however, be much more so. We congratulate Eliza Cook upon her "Hill-side Home," and the freshness of her pretty poem thereon.

NEKROSOZOIE: Process for the Preservation or Embalming of the Human Body.-W. Garstin & Co., London: 5, Welbeck Street, Cavendish Square.-Notwithstanding that our own bias is in favour of cineration as being the mode least

LEAVES FOR THE LITTLE ONES.

JACK, THE GIANT-KILLER.

injurious to the interests of the living of disposing of the dead, destroying at once the seeds of disease, the pollution of the air, and the monopoly of large tracts of land, the need of which, as population increases, is ever more largely felt, we can still sympathize with those who, on the other hand, are anxious to retain as long as possible the lineaments and form of their deceased friends; and from the simplicity of the operation, and the efficacy of the antiseptic which gives its name to this pamphlet, it would seem that there is no longer any question of the practicability of such a wish. The perfectness of the result is vouched for by reports from Dr. Francis Delafield, Proff. James R. Wood, Proff. R. Ogden Doremus, Proff. A. Flint, junr., and extracts from the press. After 103 days, the body of a woman, preserved by the Nekrosozric process, exhibited no sign of decomposition, and one which had been prepared by it after 107 days, is reported to have been in a fine state of preservation. In cases of death on board ship, or at a distance from home or country, we can well understand the value of this discovery, which will enable the survivors to see and recognize the friends they have lost before resigning them to the grave. The process consists in washing the skin and injecting the fluid through the natural apertures of the body. There are no incisions made, so that all that was repugnant in the old system of emmbalment is done away with, anyone may perform the operation. The inventor is Mr. W. R. C. Clark., of New York, and his agents for London, Messrs. Garstin, of 5, Welbeck Street, Cavendish Square, where packages of the fluid may be obtained.

BY M. D. R. B.

Jack was a pretty little boy about ten years old, and his father and mother were very fond of him. But their affection was of the true kind. They loved him too much to be blind to his faults, and were very unwilling to see him become a slave to his own evil habits and appetites, which are the real giants that attack, and so often overcome, us poor mortals. And so you will understand that the enemies Jack had to deal with were the Giants Sloth, Ill-Temper, Mischief, Selfishness, and others of their kith and kin.

First, there was Giant Sloth; and he was about the hardest to conquer of all. Jack liked to adsorb himself in the pages of a story-book, when he ought rather to have been learning his lessons; he hated to get up early in the morn

ing, and so was almost always late at breakfast, and received many a mark for tardiness from his teacher, besides being hurried and flurried in consequence all through the day. It soon became a serious matter; and in order to help Jack to break loose from the soft, luxurious web which this insidious monster weaves about his captives, his father promised that he should go with him by train the next morning to town, if he could possibly be up and ready dressed in time for the early train.

Little Jack was in high spirits. This was just what he had been wanting so long. Two cousins had lately paid him a visit, and had boasted no little of the sights, and crowed over the advantages which they asserted it possessed over his own native city. So Jack wanted to see for himself. Besides, he had overheard his mother whisper about the panorama of "Niagara, and what a treat it would be for Jack." And she told Susan, the chambermaid, to put his best

suit into a little satchel, and set it by his father's | very wide, and looking about the room a little valise in the hall, ready for the cabman when he should call in the morning.

frightened; "why, mamma, what do you

mean ?"

Now, as Mischief is the offspring of Idleness, it was no wonder that Jack, for want of something better to do, should fall into some of his old tricks, and prove very annoying to all upon whom he chose to bestow his company. First, he disturbed his mamma, who was writing a letter, by creaking the door backwards and forwards, just sufficiently to irritate her nerves; and when that was forbidden, he began to teaze his sister May, and pull her about more boisterously than the gentle little girl liked. Jack's mamma had to speak to him very decidedly before he could be persuaded to let the child alone. But it was not long before a string was slyly fastened to the large doll, which May was making believe to be taking a ride in her little waggon, and pretty Flora was rudely thrown on her face, thereby considerably injuring her waxen nose.

This was too bad; aud master Jack was summarily expelled from the room, with a request that he should not return until he could behave with more propriety. But, being by this time in a high state of excitement, he only shifted the scene of his operations from the parlour to the kitchen, where he soon raised such a disturbance that mamma was obliged to "take him in hand," as cook expressed it-a punishment which consisted in making Jack sit still for a whole hour on a little footstool at his mamma's feet, without occupation of any kind.

Jack thought this was very hard; but, looking into his mamma's face, he saw she was resolute, and submitted with as good a grace as he possibly could.

"Oh dear!" sighed Jack, piteously, "I wish I had something to do. Mayn't I talk a little,

mamma ?"

"Not while I am writing," said his mamma. "And I believe talking is not the bargain at all. But if you keep quiet until I have finished my letter, you may tell me what you have been thinking about in the meantime."

|

Jack waited until he saw the closely-written sheet placed in its neat envelope, and directed in his mamma's clear, firm handwriting, and then he burst out with, "I was wishing all the time I was like Jack, the Giant-Killer."

Cunning Jack! He expected to hear his mamma laugh at his droll speech, as she had been used to do when he said anything remarkably funny, and then he thought his peace would be made, and his offences forgotten. Bnt, instead of this, his mamma did not smile at all; and she said very gravely, "I wish you were, Jack; and, indeed, I think you can be."

""

Why, mamma," cried Jack, astonished, "how can I be? And, besides, where are the giants? There are none about here that I know of; and I mightn't meet with any if I travelled a thousand miles, even."

"You have no need to travel far to find them. They are here with you all the time, my little Jack."

66

Why, mamma," said Jack, opening his eyes

"Just what I say, my son. When you are mischievous, and obstinate, and self-indulgent, as you have been to-day, then I think what bad, wicked giants have got hold of my little Jack. And I am afraid these naughty monsters will conquer him entirely some time, if he does not fight them back again, and get the victory. There's Giant Sloth, who keeps you in bed in the morning, and will not let you jump out, though I call ever so loudly. He lurks in the pages of your story-books, and he is very fond of the cushions of the great arm-chair. Sometimes it takes a big pull to get you out of the net he has woven around you.'

"Oh, mamma," said Jack, laughing, "does he have a net around me? I never felt it."

"That is because it is so soft and yielding, that few suspect they are in its meshes until he fastens his web securely about them, like a spider does to a silly fly. And this is what makes Giant Sloth so powerful, because he lulls instead of showing open fight."

"Well, he shan't conquer me, I'm determined," said Jack, resolutely. "I'll soon bring you his head, mamma.'

"We shall see," said his mamma, quietly. "Time enough to boast when the battle is won."

"But are these all my giants, mamma ?" asked Jack, who was greatly amused; and, being a bright boy, readily understood his mamma's meaning.

"By no means," said his mamma. "There is Giant Ill-Temper, who makes you so cross to little May sometimes, and only the other day helped to push her down, when you came home in a bad humour because you were kept in at school. The poor child cried herself to sleep, after I had bathed the great black bruise on her arm."

66

Well, mamma, but I was sorry as soon as I had pushed her. And then she needn't have come running to meet me when she might have known I would be in a bad humour. It's hard enough for a fellow to be punished and lose his dinner, without being plagued as soon as he comes in."

"She had been watching for you a whole hour at the window, to ask if she might play with your box of soldiers. And, before I could stop her, she had slipped down the stairs, and was away to the hall-door to meet you, as soon as she caught a glimpse of you running up the steps. She little expected to find you in such a savage mood."

"Dear little May!" said Jack, in a penitent tone; "she is such a sweet-tempered little thing, mamma. She put up her pretty mouth to kiss me when she saw I was sorry about her poor little arm, and said, 'Don't cry, brother Jack, you didn't do it on purpose, I know.' I don't believe Giant Ill-temper ever disturbs her a bit. And as soon as she got over her nap, I gave her my box of soldiers io keep for her own. Wasn't that fighting Giant Ill-Temper, mamma ?"

"Why, no, I think not, Jack. He was off by that time, and you were worsted in the fight. He is very apt to leave Sorrow and Remorse bebind him. Had you controlled your inclination to be ill-humoured at the moment you felt him coming, and made a strong effort to be gentle and loving, instead of violent and rude, then I would say you had gained a victory. And as to your giving little May the box of soldiers, I have heard you say over and over again that you were quite tired of them, and did not care who had them."

Then there is Giant Selfishness," she continued. "Who was it the other day, when I gave him two apples, one large and the other small, to divide with his little sister, bestowed the less beautiful fruit on May, and greedily devoured the whole of the fiue one himself ?"

"Oh, now mamma, you are too bad, as you said I was a while ago. I am sure, May is so little, the small apple was quite enough for her, and the large one suited me best. Besides, she was duite pleased with the one I gave her."

"So Giant Selfishness told you; and this ugly habit will make you in time greedy, and sensual, and self-indulgent. Fight the giants while you are young, Jack, or they will so get the mastery of you that when you grow up you will find yorself bound as with fetters of iron; and will have to be their slave as long as you live."

"I won't be their slave, I'm determined; so there, now," cried Jack, hotly. "And you'll see, mamma, if I don't conquer them every one. I intend to begin this very day, and knock them down as fast as they come on.'

""

Poor Jack! he was full of boasting, as many a one is who has not "proved his armour." That same evening he had a strong tussle with Giants Ill-Temper and Disobedience, and, as usual, they came off conquerors.

His mind was so full of his expected journey, and the sights he should probably see on the way, that he gave no heed to his mamma's gentle admonition that he had better retire sooner than usual, so as to be prepared for an early start in the morning. Indeed, when bed-time came, he was absorbed in his favourite book, "The Hundred Wonders of the World," and had become so excited over a description of Niagara Falls, that he behaved in a very ugly and disrepectful manner to his mamma, and was in consequence not only severely reprimanded by his papa, but ordered at once to put away the temping volume, and go to his room and to bed.

bing his eyes, "I wish you wouldn't bother me, Susan. I know it's too early. Why, it's quite dark yet, ain't it?"

"No," said Susan; "your window shutters are closed, and the blinds down. Jump up and open the window, and then you will see the bright daylight coming in. And mind, the train starts at six, and you have only an hour to dress and eat your breakfast."

"Only an hour!" repeated Jack, turning over on his pillow, as Susan's footsteps were heard descending the stairs; "as if it would take me more than ten minutes to dress! And I know that tiresome Susan has awakened me ever so much too soon. She thinks to pay me back for some of my tricks yesterday, as she said she would. No, indeed, I shan't get up to please you, Miss Susan !"

He was only just falling asleep, as he thought, although he had really been many hours in bed, when Susan's tap was heard at the door.

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sorrow.

But as it was everything went wrong, and each article of his wardrobe seemed to be out of place and out of sorts, just because he was so impatient. He pulled off his buttons, broke his shoe-ties, and finally got angry, and threw his clothes into various parts of the room. Then he had to scramble and gather them up again; but just as he had succeeded in getting "all right," he heard the sound of wheels, and, running to the window, had the disappointment of seeing the cab drive rapidly away from the door, his father having waited for him until the last possible moment.

It was frightful to see the fit of passion into which Jack was thrown by this blighting of all his hopes. He raised the window and screamed, then stamped, and beat the door with his fists until he was quite exhausted, and had to sit down on the floor to take breath. It was a sorrowful sight, too, for his mamma to find her little son vanquished by the dreadful giants, and, as it were, lying bleeding at her feet, when she came up to console him for his disappointment. But,

Jack obeyed this command but partially. He left the apartment, indeed, but contrived to carry his book with him; and remained so long read-seeing him yet obstinate and naughty, she was ing it by his bed-room burner, that it was no obliged to punish him still further by keeping wonder Giant Sloth found him an easy prey to him in his room until he should become penitent bis blandishments the next morning. and gentle.

It was late in the afternoon before the conflict was over, and the "good feel" came again. Jack felt subdued and humble enough, as he sat down at his mamma's feet and confessed his shortcomings.

"I shall never kill the giants, mamma-I

"Please to get up, Master Jack. Your mamma says you will have plenty of time to dress, if you start up at once." “Oh,” said Jack, in a sleepy voice, and rub-may as well give it up."

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"Oh, no, Jack; for then you must be their slave for life. But see here my son, you have not on the right armour.'

""

"I don't know what you mean, mamma.” "Why, you have been trying entirely in your own strength. But you must apply to the Great Captain to help you in this warfare. If you ask Him, he will give you the shield of Faith, gauntlet hand with Good Resolutions, and gird your you with the sword of Perseverance. Then there is an oil called All-Prayer, which will keep your armour always bright and burnished. But you must ask for all these things before you can re

ceive them."

"Oh, now I know, mamma," cried Jack, with a sober face. "I must pray to God to help me

conquer my evil passions and inclinations; and then I must resolve and persevere until I do it." "That is it, dear Jack. It is just as your little hymn-book says:

Scarce a fortnight has past since I was saying good-bye, and taking a last shake of the hand from my old friend Percy Dalton, and his pretty young wife, as they stood on the deck of the vessel which was to bear them and their fortune (no inconsiderable one) to India. Dalton has always been my greatest friend, and had proved a delightful companion on all occasions, from his exuberant spirits, and well-stored repository of tale and anecdote; but none of his stories approach in excellence one which he told me shortly before his departure for India, and which same story was nothing more than the true narrative of his fortunate wooing and wedding.

Now if my young readers think this story is too much about "the giants conquering Jack," let them resolve as he did, to apply for help in the right quarter, and watch as well as pray; and then they will know exactly how Jack conquered the giants, and gained the title of GIANT KILLER.

DOUBLE LOVE; OR, THE TWIN SISTERS.

BY WILMOT BUXTON.

..

"O, watch, and fight, and pray, The battle ne'er give o'er; Renew it boldly evey day,

And help divine implore."

"Utrum horum mavis accipe."-Latin Grammar.

I had accompanied Dalton to the former home of his wife, at Twickenham, and in the evening we were strolling in the garden together, when my friend said suddenly, "I have had something to tell you for some time, old fellow, and had determined to write you an account of it from India, but, as the sight of your wondering face will be half the fun of the whole matter, I will tell you my story now, if you like; it is not very long, and has the advantage of being

true."

"An advantage which all your stories do not possess, certainly," replied I, laughing, "but let us hear it by all means, and here is the very erbour designed for such a moving narrative of real life as yours will doubtless prove."

"You may laugh," said my friend, as he

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