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of absolute stability. This implied the neces- he accommodated the various offices of adminsity of procuring a pyramidal or culminating istration; the archways, pierced through the four effect; the whole composition, from bottom to cardinal sides of the octagon, being externally top, preparing for this effect by some process recessed between these pavilions, thus affordof diminution by stages upward. To this end ing two direct, broad passageways through the he enveloped his hall (which the conditions of building at right angles. These pavilions are area permitted him to make 120 feet in interior so treated as to be in scale with the other builddiameter) with two octagonal shells about 24 ings of the great court, and are carried to the feet apart, the space between being occupied same height of 60 feet, thus securing four wideby galleries, elevators, vestibules, and staircases. spreading abutments with flat, terraced roofs. Against the alternate or diagonal sides of the Above these the outer octagonal shell of the cenoctagon he erected four pavilions in the form tral mass detaches itself, and asserts its outline of wings 84 feet square, in four stories, in which against the sky through another stage, where it


stops in the form of a gallery, decorated with which (140 feet in diameter) is lighted only bronze flambeaux, and permits the inner shell by the circular hypethral opening 25 feet wide in turn to become outwardly manifest in a third at the apex of the dome, 140 feet from the stage of diminished diameter, rising in an octag- pavement. Inspired by this majestic example, onal drum, the whole mass finishing with the Mr. Hunt proposed in this respect to depend soaring lines of the central dome; which by ver- mainly upon such light as could be obtained tical growth, determined by conditions of pro- from the open eye of his lower dome, 50 feet portion, reaches the height of 275 feet from the wide and 190 feet from the pavement, which pavement. Enriched with decorated ribs and should in turn borrow its light from the illumisculptured panels, and made splendid with shin- nation of the space between his outer and ining gold, this noble dome rises far above the ner domes through a glazed hypethral opening other structures of the Exposition, proclaiming 38 feet wide, forming the summit of the building, afar the position of its monumental gateway. and taking the place of the lantern or belvedere

But as the inner surface of the outer dome which usually forms the finial of the greater would form a ceiling far too lofty to serve as domes of the Renaissance. a proper and effective cover for the hall, it be- In his decorative treatment of the problem came necessary, in order to give proper pro- thus evolved Mr. Hunt has exercised a fine portions to this monumental chamber, to con- spirit of scholarly reserve. The architectural struct an inner and lower dome, 190 feet high language employed is simple and stately, and from the pavement, with an open eye at the the composition as a whole is so free from comapex, through which from below could be seen plications, its structural articulations are so the upper structure, like the cope of a myste- frankly accentuated, that it is easy to read, and, rious sky beyond. This architectural device is being read, cannot fail to surprise the most unsimilar to those used by Mansart in the dome accustomed mind with a distinct and veritable of the Invalides at Paris, by Soufflot in the Pan- architectural impression. But to obtain this théon, and by Wren in St. Paul's at London, simplicity of result a far greater knowledge of which rank next to St. Peter's as the largest and design and far more ingenuity of adaptation most important of the great Renaissance tem- have been required than if the building had ples of Europe. It also appears in the rotunda been sophisticated with all the consciousness of the national Capitol at Washington. But, as and affectations of modern art. In order to conceived by Hunt, the exterior dome of the bring his design into the family of which, by vestibule of the Exposition is 42 feet higher than the adoption of a common module of proporthat of Mansart, 45 feet higher than that of Souf- tion, the other buildings of the groups around flot, about the same height as that of St. Paul's, the great court are members, Mr. Hunt's four and 57 feet higher than that of our national pavilions of administration, forming the lower Capitol, exclusive of the lantern in each case. story of the façades, are treated externally, like The interior dome has a height from the pave- them, with a single order raised upon a base

feet higher than that of the Invalides; ment. He has preferred the Doric in his case, it has about the same height as that of the so as to obtain by contrast with its neighbors French Panthéon; is 20 feet lower than that of an effect of severe dignity and what might be St. Paul's, and 10 feet higher than that of the called colossal repose, and to provide for a Capitol at Washington. In diameterit surpasses gradual increase of enrichment in the upper all these domes, being 38 feet wider than the parts of his monument. His second story is first, 56 feet wider than the second, 12 feet Ionic, with an open colonnade,or loggia,on each wider than the third, and 26 feet wider than the of the cardinal faces of the octagon, showing Washington example. Indeed, in this regard, the inner shell behind, and with domed circular it is only 20 feet less than that of St. Peter's at staircase pavilions of the same order on the narRome, which, however, in exterior height ex- rower alternate sides, niched between heavy ceeds the American model by 90 feet, and in corner piers, which bear groups of statuary, thus interior height by 143. Being thus in dimen- obtaining a certain degree of movement and sions inferior only to the work of Michelangelo, complication in the outlines of his design, and it may be considered, in this respect, at least, an enhancing its pyramidal effect. On all his exadequate vestibule to the Exposition of 1893. terior he has used conventional ornament with

The method of lighting the interior of this great reserve, depending for richness of effect vast domical chamber in a proper and adequate upon three colossal groups of statuary on each manner was a problem so important that Mr. of his administrative pavilions, upon two, flankHunt considered it one of the primary forma- ing each of his main entrances, and upon eight, tive influences controlling the evolution of his crowning the gallery below the drum of his architectural scheme. One of the noblest ef- dome. fects of interior illumination known in histori- This sculpture, the work of Mr. Karl Bitter cal art is in the Roman Pantheon, the area of of New York, is characterized by great breadth

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and dignity of treatment, and by that expression as foils to the simple and stately architectural of heroic power and fitness which is derived lines of the dome, at the base of which they from knowing how to treat colossal subjects in stand, and so that they may aid it in its upward a colossal way, and how to model figures so spring. The subjects are apparently intended that they may assist the main architectural to typify, in a succession of groups, beginning thought and not compete with it. Thus the in the lower parts of the monument, the adgroups which crown the corner piers of the four vance of mankind from barbarism to civilizawings in the lower part of the building are in tion, and the final triumph of the arts of peace repose, and are so massed that they serve prop- and war. erly as monumental finials, while those sur- Unlike the other buildings of the Exposition, mounting the gallery above are more strongly Mr. Hunt's has two sets of façades, an exterior accentuated, so as to become intelligible at that and an interior. In the latter he has not regreat height, and are distinguished by far peated his exterior orders, and the same selfgreater animation of outline and lightness of denial which has chastened and purified the movement, by means of gesture, outspread exterior has left these inner walls large, simple, wings, and accessories, so that they may act and spacious, not even the angles of the inclos

VOL. XLIV.-13.

ing octagon being architecturally emphasized axis of the court, he will see a smaller circular at any point. Each of the eight sides of this basin 150 feet in diameter, on a level with the interior octagon is pierced with an archway oc- upper terrace, flanked by two lofty columns cupied by a screen of doors below and bronze bearing eagles. In the center of this, on an angrilles above; over these is a series of panels tique galley of bronze 60 feet long, eight colossal ħlled with sculpture and inscriptions, and upon rowers, portraying the Arts and Sciences, stand, the great interior cornice which crowns these four on a side, bending to their long sweeps; in walls is a balcony, like the whispering-gallery the prow.is poised the herald Fame, with trump of St. Paul's, by means of which the scene may and outspread wings; while aft, Time, the pilot, be viewed from above. An order of pilasters leans upon his helm; and, high aloft on a throne, directly under the inner dome irmounts this supported by cherubs, Columbia sits, a fair, gallery, and the dome itself is decorated with youthful figure, eager and alert, not reposing panels, the whole interior being enriched with upon the past, but poised in high expectation. color, so disposed as to complete and perfect Eight couriersprecede the barge, mounted upon the design.

marine horses ramping out of the water. The We have already said that this vestibule was whole triumphal pageant is seen through a mist intended to introduce the visitors to the Ex- of interlacing fountain-jets, and from the brimposition into a new world. As they emerge from ming basin the water falls 14 feet in a series of its east archway and enter the court, they must, steps into the greater sheet below, a half-circle if possible, receive a memorable impression of of dolphins spouting over the cascade. This architectural harmony on a vast scale. To this pompous allegory is the work of the sculptor end the forums, basilicas, and baths of the Frederick MacMonnies. At the outer end of the Roman Empire, the villas and gardens of the basin a colossus of the Republic, by the sculptor princes of the Italian Renaissance, the royal Daniel C. French, rises from the water. It is courtyards of the palaces of France and Spain, treated somewhat in the Greek archaic manmust yield to the architects, “ in that new world ner, with a strong accentuation of vertical lines, which is the old,” their rich inheritance of or- but with a simplicity and breadth which give dered beauty, to make possible the creation of to the figure an aspect of majesty and power. a bright picture of civic splendor such as this Beyond it, a double open colonnade, or perigreat function of modern civilization would style, 60 feet high, like that of Bernini in front seem to require.

of St. Peter's, forming three sides of a square, At the outset it was considered of the first closes in the great court toward the lake. Of importance that the people, in circulating the two wings of this colonnade one is a conaround the court and entering or leaving the cert-hall, and the other a casino or waiting-hall buildings, should so far as possible be protected for passengers by boat. Its columns typify the from the heat of the midsummer sun. To as- States of the Union. In the center of this arsist in accomplishing this object the great quad- chitectural screen is a triumphal arch thrown rangle will be closed in by a series of sheltered over the canal which connects the basin with ambulatories, like the Greek stoa, included in the harbor. Through this and through the open and forming a part of the façades of the palaces screen of the colonnade one may see the wideof Machinery and Agriculture on the right, and spreading lake, the watery horizon, and, still in of the Liberal Arts and Electricity on the left. the axis of the court and a thousand feet from The vast fronts of these buildings, far exceed- the shore, a lofty pharos with an island-casino ing in dimensions those of any other ancient at its base. Animating the whole, banners or modern architectural group, with their monu- and gonfalons flutter gaily from innumerable mental colonnaded pavilions, their sculptured staffs; people of all nations walk in the shadow enrichments, their statuary, domes, and towers, of the porches, linger on the bridges, crowd will appear in mellowed ivory marble, relieved along the broad pavement of the terraces, and by decorations in color in the shadowy recesses watch from the balustrades the incessant moveof the porticos. Immediately before him the ment of many-colored boats and electric barges stranger will behold the great basin 350 feet upon the water. wide and 1100 feet long, stretching eastward in the middle of the court, bordered with double The palace of Mechanic Arts, or, as it may walled terraces, of which the lower will be deco- be better known, Machinery Hall, occupies a rated with shrubbery and flowers, and the upper, frontage of 842 feet on the south side of the with balustrades, rostral columns, vases, and court, and a depth of 500 feet, thus covering, statuary. Broad stairs descend from the main with the main building of this department, 972 porticos of the buildings to the water, and the acres. These dimensions are nearly the same canals, which enter the basin on each side, as those of the palace of Diocletian at Spalatro, are crossed by monumental bridges. On the and larger than the Parliament House of Great nearer margin of the greater basin, and in the Britain in the proportion of 5 to 2. (The Capitol

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