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aces of Igriculture and Machinery. This mi-condition of architecture in this country will be nor court will be closed toward the south by an looked for by foreign critics on the grounds of arhitectural screen in the form of an arcade the World's Columbian Exposition, but they on the tìrst story and a colonnade on the second, will find it rather in the latest commercial, eduwith a triumphal arch in the center, through cational, and domestic structures in and near which the visitor will enter the Department of our larger cities. By these our architecture Live Stuck, which constitutes the southernmost should be judged. It is true that the industrial leature of the Exposition. Opposite this canal, palaces of our Exposition will be larger in area on the same axis, is another of similar character, than any which have preceded them, and will retning northward between the Departments surpass in this respect even the imperial villas at Flettricity and the Liberal Arts, and connect- and baths of the ancient Romans. But they will the Is we have already seen, with the waters of be an unsubstantial pageant of which the conthe lagoon.
crete elements will be a series of vast covered This brief description, aided by the topo- inclosures, adjusted on architectural plans to gusahacal views which we present, may serve the most lucid classification and the most efto give in outline the general architectural fective arrangement of the materials of the Exscheme of the Exposition-grounds. The rela- position, and faced with a decorative mask of tante pasitions of the buildings being understood, plaster composition on frames of timber and we may now devote ourselves to a considera- iron, as the Romans of the Empire clothed tent of the architectural motives which under their rough structures of cement and brick with be the designs of the buildings, and confer upon magnificent architectural veneers of marbles, Whem character and significance as works of art. bronze, and sculpture. Mr. Burnham, the Chief In other words, we do not attempt a descrip- of Construction, rubs his wonderful lamp of tenon of these buildings, still less a criticism, - Aladdin in his office at Chicago, and the sudwhich would be premature,— but an analy- den result is an exhalation, a vast phantasm of ses of the principles according to which they architecture, glittering with domes, towers, and have been severally developed. We purpose, banners, like the vision of Norumbega, which in fact, to put ourselves in the position of the presently will fade and leave no trace behind. architect when first confronted by his problem, But these shapes do not make themselves. and, as far as possible, to outline some of the There is, it is true, a creative energy, followed processes of investigation and study through by an apparition of palaces and pavilions; but which his work gradually grew into its final between the energy and the apparition are the form. Of course it would be impracticable to consultations, the experiments, the studies of a indicate the numerous false starts, the erasures, very palpable board of representative architects the studies tried and abandoned, and all the of the nation, who have learned that this great long tentative processes which must in every architectural improvisation requires as much of case be labored through before the scheme of their zeal, labor, knowledge, and professional a building takes its ultimate shape. The main experience as if they were planning to build object of these papers will have been attained with monumental stone and marble. However if they may serve to show how a work of ar- temporary the buildings, the formative motives chitecture
, like any other work of art, is the re behind them will be on trial before the world; sult of logical processes studiously followed, for these motives, disembarrassed as they have and not a mere matter of taste, a following of been, to a great extent, of the usual control fashion, ot an accident of invention more or ling considerations of structure and cost, and
concentrated upon the evolution of purely
decorative forms, have made demands upon The highest claim which can be made for our resources of art such, perhaps, as have modelit tertitecture must rest on those char: been required by no previous emergency in acteristics of ornamented or ordered structure architecture. which theke grown out of the unprecedentedex.
The liberality exhibited by the management igendiat veli modern buildings. Wherever these and by the architects of Chicago toward their
stes have been met in such a spirit that brethren summoned from other cities has been Sexxijing development of style has been more than generous. To the latter were asviliseda justly differentiated from all other signed all the buildings around the great court,
one or contemporary styles not by caprice, a compliment which involved the most serious out by growth, there exists a living and pro- responsibilities, and of which the only adequate
art, which, like all other living arts in recognition could be an especial effort to justify will stand as the exponent of the civili. it. In view of the fact that these buildings had
er which it obtained its etmite form, a mutual dependence much more marked than The largest, the most deliberate, and any others on the grounds, and that the formal
expression of the present or architectural character of the court abso
FROM THE PAINTING BY CHARLES GRAHAM
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lutely required a perfect harmony of feeling façade on an ordinary city lot. In all other among the five structures which inclose it, it respects each of these gentlemen, influenced became immediately evident to these gentle- of course by mutual criticism, and subject to men that they must adopt, not only a uniform the approval of the executive of the Expoand ceremonious style,- a style evolved from, sition through its Committee on Grounds and and expressive of, the highest civilizations in Buildings, has been left perfectly free to develop, history, — in which each one could express him- within the area prescribed in each case, the deself with fluency, but also a common module sign of the building assigned to him, according of dimension. These considerations seemed to to his own convictions as to general outlines forbid the use of medieval or any other form and details of architectural expression. Under of romantic, archæological, or picturesque art. these circumstances, therefore, it may fairly be The style should be distinctly secular and pom- anticipated that the great palaces of the court pous, restrained from license by historical au- will illustrate the vital principle of unity in thority, and organized by academical discipline. variety on a scale never before attempted in It was not difficult, therefore, to agree upon the modern times. use of Roman classic forms, correctly and loy- It must be borne in mind, however, that all ally interpreted, but permitting variations sug- this is not architecture in its highest sense, but gested not only by the Italians, but by the other rather a scenic display of architecture, commasters of the Renaissance. It was considered posed (to use a theatrical term) of“ practicathat a series of pure classic models, in each case ble” models, executed on a colossal stage, and contrasting in character according to the per- with a degree of apparent pomp and splendor sonal equation of the architect, and according which, if set forth in marbles and bronze, might to the practical conditions to be accommodated recall the era of Augustus or Nero. We have in each, but uniform in respect to scale and not, it is true, the inexhaustible resources of language of form, all set forth with the utmost the museums and schools and gardens of Paris amount of luxury and opulence of decoration to people this great industrial court with statues permitted by the best usage, and on a theater and vases, set against rich backgrounds of exotic of almost unprecedented magnitude, would foliage; but the opportunity will possibly enpresent to the profession here an object-lesson able us to prove that whatever characteristics so impressive of the practical value of architec- of audacious invention or adaptation are exhibtural scholarship and of strict subordination to ited in the best buildings of modern America, the formulas of the schools, that it would serve it is not because our architects are untrained in as a timely corrective to the national tendency the organization of structural forms, ignorant to experiments in design. It is not desired or of historical precedent, or wanting in respect expected that this display, however successful for the works of the masters, nor yet because it may prove to be in execution, should make they do not know how on occasion to express a new revival or a new school in the archi- themselves in the language of the most venertecture of our country, or interfere with any able traditions of art. But these great Doric, healthy advance on classic or romantic lines Ionic, Corinthian, and Composite orders, with which may be evolving here. There are many their arches, porticos, pavilions, attics, domes, uneducated and untrained men practising as and campaniles, do not express actual structure architects, and still maintaining, especially in in any sense, as was the case with Paxton's the remote regions of the country, an impure apotheosis of the greenhouse in the great glass and unhealthy vernacular, incapable of pro- and iron building of the first London Exposigress; men who have never seen a pure classic tion; they rather serve as architectural screens, monument executed on a great scale, and who of which only the main divisions and articulaare ignorant of the emotions which it must ex- tions have been suggested by the temporary cite in any breast accessible to the influences framework of iron and timber which they mask, of art. To such it is hoped that these great and which, in itself, is incapable of expression models, inspired as they have been by a pro- in any terms of monumental dignity. If each found respect for the masters of classic art, architect of the board had been permitted or will prove such a revelation that they will learn encouraged to make his especial screen an unat last that true architecture cannot be based restricted exhibition of his archæological knowon undisciplined invention, illiterate original. ledge or ingenuity in design, we should have ity, or, indeed, upon any audacity of ignorance. had a curious, and in some respects perhaps
It was further agreed by the architects of an interesting and instructive, polyglot or conthe court that the module of proportion for the fusion of tongues, such as in the early scriptural composition of their façades should be a bay times on the plains of Shinar was so detrimental not exceeding twenty-five feet in width and to architectural success. The show might have sixty feet in height to the top of the main cor- contained some elements of the great " Amerinice, which is about the size of a five-storied can Style"; but as a whole it would have been
FROM OFFICIAL DRAWING, BY H. G. RIPLEY.
a hazardous experiment, and it certainly would have perplexed the critics. In respect to the architecture of the great court, therefore, it seemed at least safer to proceed according to established formulas, and to let the special use and object of each building, and the personal equation of the architect employed on it, do what they properly could, within these limits, to secure variety and movement.
It is a fashion of the times, following Mr. Ruskin, to stigmatize the marvelous multiplication of mechanical appliances to life in the nineteenth century as degrading to its higher civilization and destructive of its art. Mr. Frederic Harrison agrees with these philosophers of discontent so far as to say that if machinery were really the last word of the century we should all be rushing violently down a steep place, like the herd of swine. But he says:
To decry steam and electricity, inventions and products, is hardly more foolish than to deny the price which civilization itself has to pay for the use of them. There are forces at work now, forces more unwearied than steam, and brighter than the electric arc, to rehumanize the dehumanized members of society; to assert the old, immutable truths; forces yearning for rest, grace, and harmony; rallying all that is organic in men's social nature, and proclaiming the value of spiritual life over material life.
GENERAL VIEW OF THE COURT, LOOKING TOWARD THE LAKE.
In order, therefore, to present a complete and symmetrical picture of modern civilization, it is necessary that the Columbian Exposition should not only bring together evidences of the amazing material productiveness which, within the century, has effected a complete transformation in the external aspects of life, but should force into equal prominence, if possible, corresponding evidences that the finer instincts of humanity have not suffered complete eclipse in this grosser prosperity, and that, in this headlong race, art has not been left entirely behind. The management of the Exposition is justified in placing machinery, agricultural appliances and products, manufactures and the liberal arts, the wonderful industrial results of scientific investigation, and the other evidences of practical progress, in the midst of a parallel display shaped entirely by sentiment and appealing to a fundamentally different set of emotions. It is the high function of architecture not only to adorn this triumph of materialism, but to condone, explain, and supplement it, so that some elements of “sweetness and light” may be brought forward to counterbalance the boastful Philistinism of our times. Each department of the Exposition must possess more or less capacity for architectural expression, if not by disposition of masses, by style, or by sympathetic treatment of technical detail, at least by the
DRAWN BY H. D. NICHOLS.
suggestions of sculpture and characteristic dec- fail to confer upon the work resulting from it oration. It is true that the vast preponderance some portion of the delightful harmony which of human effort in these closing years of the prevailed in their councils. century has been in favor of practical things; By common consent the most monumental it remains to be seen whether this supreme test of these buildings—that devoted to the Adof the elastic powers of architecture to develop ministration—was undertaken by Mr. Hunt. out of these practical things demonstrations of Having all the elements of an academical pro
ject of the first class, it was eminently fitting that this important structure should fall into hands so admirably equipped by learning and experience to do it full justice. It was to occupy the western or landward side of the great court, and to stand in its main central axis at the point where this axis was intersected by a transverse axis which ran north and south between the Mines and Electricity buildings. It was designed to be the loftiest and most purely monumental composition in the Park, and to serve not only for the accommodation of the various bureaus of administration, but, more conspicuously, as the great porch of the Exposition. The area assigned was a square measuring about 260 feet on each side, and it was necessary to divide it into four equal parts by two great avenues crossing at right angles on the axial lines which we have described. In fact, the building was in some way to stand on four legs astride this crossing of the ways, like one of the quadrilateral Janus-coaches of the Romans, but on a much greater scale. The whole system of railway communication was to be so connected on the west with this building, that the crowds of visitors, on arriving, should enter and cross this ceremonial vestibule; should there obtain their first impressions; and by the majesty and spacious repose of the interior, should be in a manner introduced into a new world, and forced into sympathy with the highest objects of this latest international exposition of arts. Its function, indeed, was
that of an overture. art will result in furnishing any of that “ rest, These conditions suggested to Mr. Hunt the grace, and harmony” which are needed as a idea of a civic temple based upon the model compensation for materialism.
of the domical cathedrals of the Renaissance. By a remarkable piece of fortune, the archi- Following this type, he projected, upon the tects to whom the five buildings on the great crossing of the two axial lines, a hall of octagcourt were assigned constituted a family, by onal plan; but unlike the cathedrals, this hall reason of long-established personal relations was designed to form the fundamental basis, and of unusually close professional sympathies. the leading motive, of the design, not only on Of this family Mr. Hunt was the natural head; the interior but on the exterior of the structure, two of its members, Post and Van Brunt, were there being neither nave nor transepts to inhis professional children; Howe, Peabody, and terfere with the clear external development of Stearns, having been pupils and assistants of this dominating feature from the ground to the the latter, may be considered the grandchildren summit. Thus, at the outset, he secured that of the household; while McKim, who had been expression of unity which is essential to the nobrought up under the same academical influ- blest monumental effect in architecture. The ences, was, with his partners, of the same blood expression of repose, at once majestic and graceby right of adoption and practice. Collabora- ful, which is no less essential, was to be obtion under such circumstances, and under a tained, not only by a careful subordination of species of parental discipline so inspiring, so detail to the leading idea, but by such a disvigorous, and so affectionate, should hardly position of masses as would impart an aspect