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inclose garden courts, which would have all possible from the main porch. A third pavilion desirable sunlight, because practical conditions was thus introduced in the center of the builddo not permit these surrounding galleries to ex- ing. As a matter of convenience as well as of ceed 2212 feet in height. As this height is only structure, the architects divided their galleries about one third that of the other buildings, and into bays of 247 feet, which dimension they asas it is necessary that the architectural mass sumed as the module or unit of their plan. Thirmust in some way be brought into proper rela- ty-one of these modules entered into the length tion to them, it became apparent to the archi- of their building between the end pavilions, leavtects that from the point of view of composition ing for each of these pavilions a width of 118 there should be pavilions at the north and south feet. By experiment they found that the largest
ends, where they approach nearest to their dome which architectural considerations would neighbors, and where comparisons must be in- permit must not exceed 180 feet in diameter. stinctively forced upon the beholder, and that They placed, therefore, a glazed domical hall these pavilions should hardly be less than 50 of these dimensions in the center of a two-stofeet high. Of course this height suggested two ried substructure of square plan, of about nine stories, in which could be accommodated not modules, with a projecting frontispiece toward only collections and models illustrative of the Lagoon in three parts, of which the cenbotany and horticulture, but spacious and at- tral is the portal, the others being crowned tractive restaurants overlooking the gardens. by low domes occupying the corners of the Upon the first story of 21 feet, therefore, square and buttressing the larger central dome. there is constructed in these pavilions another By a mutual adjustment of the parts thus still higher. Thus we have an outline of a build- outlined a definite architectural scheme was obing composed of two-storied pavilions at each tained, composed of two two-storied end pavilend of the site, connected by two long, low ions, 118 feet wide and 250 feet deep, connected ranges of one-storied glazed galleries, with an in the rear by a continuous one-storied glazed open court between them. But for practical as gallery, 50 feet wide and 759/2 feet long, against well as for architectural reasons it is necessary the center of which was placed a great domito break this interminable stretch of low gal- cal pavilion, about 220 feet square, faced with leries with an important and highly decorated a highly enriched pylon. A second and more central feature. The architects had to accom- important longitudinal gallery, with glazed modate under cover not growing shrubs only, arched roofs, parallel with the first and 73 feet but full tropical tree-growths with grotto effects wide, forming the curtain-walls of the main faand fountains. This suggested a much higher çade, connected the center with the end pavilbut still characteristic feature of greenhouse ions, thus inclosing two garden-courts, 90 feet architecture - a glazed, wide-spreading dome, wide and 270 feet long. made as large as the available space would per- As for the exterior, the architects are commit, but not so high as to overwhelm the one-mitted to a long, low façade, of which thecurtainstoried galleries. This dome naturally took its walls are only 22%, feet high, crowned with a place in the center, and, as it was to constitute 3-foot balustrade. The expression of their centhe most imposing feature, interior as well as tral dome, therefore, must be correspondingly exterior, it had to be entered as directly as low in proportion to its height; considerations of architectural conformity must be forced into cessed vestibule, decorated with statuary, and harmony with considerations of practical con- in the character of its profuse embellishments venience and use. The vertical section of this of sculpture recalling the work of modern Paris; dome is accordingly made semicircular, and but in the two square pavilions, crowned with the center from which the semicircle is struck their subordinate domes, flanking the portal, is on a level with the gallery or second story the Venetian motives are again taken up. The surrounding the dome, and thus only about 24 Ionic order again appears here, but is on a feet from the floor, giving a total height of only larger scale than that of the long curtain-walls, 114 feet to a dome 180 feet in diameter. So and its entablature has a frieze broader even than far as the interior is concerned, this proportion that of the corner pavilions, and it is enriched is admirable; but the depressed exterior effect of with the exuberant but elegant playfulness which this great glazed dome is partly remedied by the Italian masters knew so well how to employ a drum or podium, which is established above in the service of their paganized princes. the fat roof of the square substructure form- Seen from whatever point of view, no one ing the base of the dome, and which is high can doubt the purposes of this building, and enough to be seen from ordinary points of view, though its architecture has been gaily attuned and also by a highly enriched crown or lan- to a much lighter mood than would be proper tern which surmounts the dome itself. The to its more serious companions, it does not forlower glazed domes, which crowd against its get the dignity and grace which belong to it as base on the corners, effectually support its out- a work of art. lines, and assist them to spring from the façade The decorative modeling and sculpture of with grace and elegance, and without too sud- this building are the work of Mr. Loredo Taft den transitions. The curved sky-lines are also of Chicago. aided by the segmental form of the glazed roofs of the galleries on each hand. The transpar- The first point of interest connected with the ent character of this immense ball and the airy Women's Pavilion resides in the fact that it is lightness of its structure remove it from com- the product of a national competition of deparison with the substantial fabrics of the signs among women. An architectural comdomes that elsewhere in the fields of the Ex- position, like any other work of art, is always position rise with more monumental aspira- more or less sensitive to the personal qualities tion. It has a quality of fleeting and iridescent of the designer. Consequently, in examining beauty, and seems to be blown like a bubble. the works of the successful competitor in this
In their decorative scheme the architects pre- case, there is an irresistible impulse to look for ferred to follow Venetian Renaissance models, the distinctive characteristics in which the femand they applied to the curtain-walls of their inine instinct may have betrayed itself. Miss long front galleries a correct Ionic order with Sophia G. Hayden of Boston is a graduate of pilasters, dividing the frontage into bays cor- the architectural school of the Massachusetts responding to those of the interior, each being Institute of Technology in that city, and the occupied by a glazed arched window, reducing composition by which she was fortunate enough the wall-surfaces to the smallest areas consis- to win this coveted prize has all the marks of a tent with classic traditions, as in the orangeries first-class school problem, intelligently studied of Versailles. This order is continued around according to academical methods, and may the end pavilions; but as the architects were fairly stand in this national exposition of archicompelled to erect upon this a second story 3 tecture as a good example of the sort of trainfeet higher than that upon which it was placed, ing given in our best professional schools. As to enable their building to compare properly such, it is proper that it should take its place with its neighbors in regard to height, they with the other architectural works in Jackson treated their upper order, which is also Ionic, Park, and it is eminently proper that the expowith an exaggerated frieze 6 feet high, giving sition of woman's work should be housed in a an area for decoration, which they richly filled building in which a certain delicacy and elewith Cupids, garlands, and festoons, abundantly gance of general treatment, a smaller limit of testifying to the joyous and gentle character of dimension, a finer scale of detail, and a certain the objects to which the building is dedicated. quality of sentiment, which might be designated, In these pavilions they were wisely led by the in no derogatory sense, as graceful timidity or example of Sansovino in the Library of St. gentleness, combined however with evident Mark on the Piazzetta, Venice, and the ar- technical knowledge, at once differentiate it rangement also of crowning balustrades and from its colossal neighbors, and reveal the sex finials, characteristic of this elegant monu- of its author. ment, evidently had a strong influence on the The manner in which the plan of the Women's present composition.
Pavilion has been conceived and laid out reThe portal is a lofty triumphal arch with a re- quires but little concession of criticism in favor VOL. XLIV.-95.
of inexperience. In this structure it was in-tical lines, and therefore it was proper to permit tended to accommodate a general exposition the two stories to be frankly expressed in its arof woman's work, whether industrial, artistic, chitecture. The architect found that the strong educational, or social. It was to include de- horizontal lines thus created in the façades could partments for reform work and charity organ- be adjusted harmoniously by making the firstizations, a model hospital and kindergarten, a story order 2 1 feet, and the second 23 feet high, retrospective exhibition, one or more assembly- the whole resting on a continuous 5-foot stylorooms of various sizes, with libraries, parlors, bate or basement, thus giving about 50 feet as committee-rooms, and offices. These various the height of the outer walls. In establishing services were to be provided for within an area the general vertical divisions of the main front, 400 feet long northward by 200 feet wide, lying Miss Hayden naturally followed the convennext north of the Horticultural Building, and in tional system of a central frontispiece with a the axis of the Midway Pleasance. These gen- pavilion at each end, connected by recessed eral dimensions, and the comparatively small curtain-walls. The depth of the suites of rooms scale of the building, suggested 10 feet as a on the north and south fronts conferred on the module of proportion, and upon this basis it end pavilions a width of 80 feet, or eight modwas found convenient to develop the plan and ules. Over the low roofs of the enveloping organize the elevations.
suites the clearstory and roof of the lofty central The differing and somewhat undefined uses hall should assert themselves as essential feato which the building was to be devoted seemed tures of the exterior. We thus have a frontage to require a series of connected rooms of various fairly blocked out. sizes, all subordinated to a great hall or salle In this way the building is massed after the des pas perdus of architectural character. Cer- manner of the villas of the Italian Renaissance, tainly, enough of these subordinate apartments and to this school the design is naturally inwere required to make at least two stories ne- debted for those details on which the characcessary. With reference to lighting, circulation, ter of the design as a work of art must largely and economy of space, evidently the most con- depend. From this point the architect probably venient and the simplest way of adjusting the developed the work somewhat as follows: plan was to place the great hall in the middle, The first story of the curtain-walls between to free it from columns, to build it high enough the central and end pavilions must be brought to receive light through clearstory windows, forward nearly to the face of the pavilions to and to envelop it with a lower two-storied struc- form an exterior portico or ambulatory, its roof ture forming the four façades of the building. serving as a balcony or terrace to the recessed From the floor of this hall a convenient com- second story. This first story of the curtainmunication could be established with the minor walls she treated as an Italian arcade in 10-foot halls and offices around it, so that the whole first bays without columns or pilasters, surmounted story could be utilized. In the second story it by a balustrade, while upon the second she imwas apparent that the necessary intercommuni- posed a full order of pilasters rather suggested cation could be effectively provided by sur- by, than strictly following, Corinthian precerounding the open central area of the hall by a dents, with windows between, all adjusted in system of corridors, which should also serve as scale to the almost domestic proportions of the galleries overlooking the hall, after the manner rooms within. The central entrance should take of an arcade or cloister around an Italian cor- not less than three arches similar to those of tile. In order to obtain adequate area for them, the arcade, and should be surmounted by a this enveloping series of rooms should not ex- colonnade of the order adopted for the second ceed 80 feet in depth, and should borrow all the story, inclosing a loggia connected with the bal. light possible to be obtained from the central cony or terrace to which we have referred, the hall, or their illumination by daylight would be whole being flanked on each side by a space
a seriously imperiled.
of solid wall decorated with coupled pilasters The exterior expression is evolved from these on each story, and surmounted by a pediment conditions. The other buildings of the Expo- developed from the main cornice. Practically sition covering much more extensive areas with- the same treatment may be repeated on the out any great superiority of mass vertically, their front face of the two end pavilions, but without architects have generally found it necessary to the pediment, and also on the side entrances, emphasize the vertical lines as offsets to the which, however, should not have a pediment, horizontal, and to include two or more stories as that would bring them into competition with in one colossal order, thus bringing the archi- the main entrance, and cannot have a loggia, tectural scheme into scale with the vastness of because of the interior conditions of plan. the structure. On account of the comparatively The colonnade must therefore be replaced by small extent and scale of this building, it did a corresponding range of pilasters. But these not seem to require any such emphasis of ver- side entrances may be distinguished by a low
attic, constituting, for this part of the building, with a certain modest grace of manner not ina third story of small rooms, opening on each appropriate to its uses and to its authorship. side on roof-gardens, which should extend over After an extremely vigorous and hardly conthe end pavilions, surrounded by an open screen tested competition among sculptors of the genformed of an order of light Ionic columns, with tler sex throughout the Union, the sculpture of caryatids over the loggia below, all after the the main pediment, and of the typical groups manner not unusual in the terraced gardens of surmounting the open screen around the roofItalian palaces. The central hall is 6772 feet gardens, was awarded to Miss Alice Rideout, wide by nearly 200 feet long, and attains an of San Francisco. It is needless to say that the exterior height of 64 feet.
subjects are emblematic of woman's great work Under the circumstances explained, the de- in the world, and that criticism will be glad to sign is rather lyric than epic in character, and it recognize in these compositions all the noble and takes its proper place on the Exposition grounds poetic qualities of art which they aim to set forth.
Henry Van Brunt. THE SUNSET THRUSH. Isi S it a dream? The day is done
Deep in the wood, whose giant pines The long, warm, fragrant summer day; Tower dark against the western sky, Afar beyond the hills the sun
While sunset's last faint crimson shines, In purple splendor sinks away;
He trills his marvelous ecstasy; The cows stand waiting by the bars;
With soul and sense entranced, she hears The firefly lights her floating spark,
The wondrous pathos of his strain, While here and there the first large stars While from her eyes unconscious tears Look out, impatient for the dark;
Fall softly, born of tenderest pain. A group of children saunter slow
What cares the rapt and dreaming child Toward home, with laugh and sportive That duskier shadows gather round? word,
She only feels that flood of wild One pausing, as she hears the low Melodious, melancholy soundClear prelude of an unseen bird
“ Sweet - sweet --sweet“ Sweet - sweet - sweel
Sorrowful — sorrowful — sorrowful !" Sorrowful — sorrowful — sorrowful ! ”
Down from immeasurable heights Ah, hist! that sudden music-gush
The clear notes drop like crystal rain, Makes all the harkening woodland still, - The echo of all lost delights, It is the vesper of the thrush,
All youth's high hopes, all hidden And all the child's quick pulses thrill.
pain, Forgotten in her heedless hand
All love's soft music, heard no more, The half-filled berry-basket swings;
But dreamed of and remembered longWhat cares she that the merry band
Ah, how can mortal bird outpour Pass on and leave her there?' He sings! Such human heart-break in a song ? Sings as a seraph, shut from heaven
What can he know of lonely years, And vainly seeking ingress there,
Of idols only raised to fall, Might pour upon the listening even
Of broken faith, and secret tears ? His love, and longing, and despair
And yet his strain repeats them all * Sweel - sweet — sweet
“ Sweet — sweet — sweetSorrowful — sorrowful - sorrowful ! ”
Sorrowful — sorrowful — sorrowful !”
Lofty, mysterious, remote,
The thtush's resonant echoes float;
Who listened till the west grew gray,
The mystic meaning of his lay;
Of youth's lost summer-times, she hears
Again that thrilling song, which seems
“ Sweet sweet sweet -