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for the necessary protection and shadow to the plain surface of our wall, let us place upon it a boldly overhanging coping. To give dignity and apparent stability to the closure which we are considering, we then find it necessary to make our wall thick and massive, and these qualities must be illustrated in the treatment of the jambs of our openings. If the jambs are cut through at right angles, we shall make an inadequate and ineffective use of this quality of thickness or massiveness of wall; on the other hand, we shall increase the apparent depth of wall, and draw attention to it, by splaying the jambs with a series of right-angled returns, thus engendering in each opening a nest of diminishing arches, and, as it were, easing off the wall-surface at these points, as was done by the Romanesque and Gothic builders. We have already arranged that our long front shall be thirty bays long, and our end fronts eight bays long. But one of these bays must occur in the center of each front for the sake of the entrances; this will leave a half-bay at the corners. The result of this is that we have a wider pier at the ends, and by this simple device give a natural pause to the succession of arches on each front at the corners, without resorting for this purpose to the conventional end-pavilions, for which our plan does not offer sufficient excuse.

But the frontage which our wall-surface has thus developed, though entirely reasonable, is low, monotonous, and mechanical in its effect. The first difficulty, in its relation to the architectural composition as a whole, we may readily remedy by exaggerating the height of our central nave, so that, from ordinary points of view, it shall be seen to disengage itself well from the ridges of the aisle-roofs which encompass it, and thus form a part of the exterior architecture. To each bay of the upper part of the clearstory, thus elevated, we give two arches, corresponding in character to the single arch in the façade, though properly smaller in scale, and, by the same reasoning, we find it essential to raise these clearstory walls higher than the eaves of the nave-roof, and to crown them with a second overhanging coping.

We have thus designed a series of wall-surfaces in what seems to us a perfectly logical manner, but, as yet, with no projections whatever to break their monotony,– no pilasters, no string-courses, no base, no moldings of any sort, and no cornice, in the usual sense,- only a blank flat wall, pierced with deep arched openings, and protected by a boldly overhanging coping, square and uncompromising.

Now shall we make a concession to convention, and attempt to illustrate structure and use symbolically by applying projecting architectural features to our flat wall-surfaces after

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academical fashion and according to Renais- any of the advantages of simplicity and repose, sance motives, thereby saying what we have which we are striving to secure by following to say in diplomatic language, as it were, using rational methods. In treatments of this sort the forms which have obtained dignity and signifi- example of Oriental nations is full of instruccance because of their association with the his- tion, and we know the rich results obtained in tory of civilization, of which, indeed, they are this manner, not only by the Moors of Spain, a part; or rather shall we make this flat wall- but by Mohammedan art in the mosques at surface itself the basis of expression, avoiding Cairo, and by Indian art in the tombs of Agra. words and phrases of Latin origin, and, as was We shall thus get architectural effects of light done by the Saracens in the Alhambra, who and shade, not by delicate playing with the comworked, as we are now working, in a plastic plicated shadows and half-lights of pilasters, substance, which invited molding beneath the porticos, and molded entablatures, as in classurface rather than carving above the surface sic art, nor by the bolder chiaroscuro obtained — shall we decorate these flat surfaces with by the buttresses, panels, and corbel-tables of repeating superficial patterns ? By the latter medieval art, but by breaking the broadly starprocess we may, where we require, make our ing sunlight on our smooth wall-surfaces with planes of construction beautiful without losing the broad black shadows of our coping, with

the sharper and finer shade-lines obtained by recessing the window-reveals in a series of narrow planes, and with the regular spotted effects resulting from our spaces of superficial arabesque or fretwork. These wall-surfaces also invite a treatment by contrasts of color in masses or diapers, after the Oriental manner, thus giving opportunity for effects of festivity, which, however, need not derogate from the massiveness and breadth which seem most consistent with the fundamental character of our building.

It is a recognized principle of composition that a mass may be simplified, or even impoverished, for the sake of emphasizing by contrast a certain highly decorated point of interest. This principle seems especially applicable to our present case, because the purposes of our building do not call for an embellishment which would be appropriate in the zenana of an Indian palace, or in the tomb of an Oriental princess. The architectural virtue to be exercised in our case is self-denial rather than generosity. In the mass of our façades, therefore, we should use our facile means of decoration with great prudence, doing no more than may be necessary to make our wall respected as a work of art.

The west or rear side of our building will be

completely occupied and masked by annexes ; OF ORNAMENT, TRANSPORTATION BUILDING. the north and south ends are so situated as


to make the necessary entrances at these points doorway. We may cover the entire superficial very subordinate: but the center of the east area of this pavilion with a delicate embroifront, toward the Lagoon and opposite the west dery of arabesques and bas-reliefs — its fronts, center of the Liberal Arts Building, must be its returns, its recessed archways, the wallthe main portal of our design. This feature, screen which closes the opening at the back, therefore, may very properly constitute that the face and soffit of its coping, its impost, and point of architectural emphasis of which we its stylobate. We will make the whole fretted have spoken, and to which the rest of this fa- mass splendid with gilding, so that this main çade must be little more than a preparation or entrance shall be known as the “Golden Doorfoil. The most majestic feature in the best art way.” The pavilion interrupts and discontinof the Mogul emperors, as in the closure of the ues every horizontal line in the edifice, so that great mosque at Delhi, or in the Taj-Mehal we must depend upon a sparse echo of this at Agra, is the porch. It is a flat, square- embroidery on our long wall-faces to bring the topped, projecting wall-face, pierced with a composition together and to secure its unity of lofty pointed arch, forming the opening of effect. We will therefore content ourselves

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a deep square niche, and profusely decorated with its use on the piers at the point where our with borders and spandrel panels of arabesque, arches spring, and on the under side of the and with inscriptions in inlay and superficial coping. Practically the rest is left in repose to sculpture. It has no cornice, and frequently offset the splendor of the center. But in order is finished with a parapet of lacework. In- to give a degree of movement to the hard structed by a study of these Oriental master- square outlines of the pavilion, and to secure pieces, we may adjust them to our present use somewhat of a pyramidal effect, we support it with but few modifications. The rigid, square, on each side with terraces and balconies on projecting mass, with its great arched open- a level with the impost of the arch, and accesing, the profuse superficial decoration, and even sible by outside stairs, and on each terrace the light characteristic kiosks or pagodas which we build a light kiosk against the pavilion in accompanied the original, may all be repro- the manner of the Mogul architects. By this duced here; but in order to amalgamate the somewhat playful device we hope to secure whole with the work which we have already for our building an aspect of festivity more apdeveloped, it must finish with a similar bold propriate to the place and occasion than would overhanging brow, the arch must be low and be obtained if we were content to leave its lines round, that it may occupy a proportionate all severely adjusted to rational conditions of space in the face of our pavilion, and its open- design. In like manner, and with the same obing must diminish inward in a succession of ject of conferring points of interest on the long lessening arches in the Romanesque manner plain line of frontage, we may venture to open (Romanesque and Saracenic art having a com- four small exit doors, two on each side of the mon parentage at Byzantium), until the open- central portal, with decorated architraves, and ing is reduced to dimensions practicable for a flanked by pedestals against the adjoining piers to support groups of typical statuary. The end in the history of the world - the new birth of entrances may be constructed with low, square- the mind, the revival of learning, the reformatopped, projecting pavilions, highly enriched, tion in religious, political, and social life, which and flanked by terraces and staircases as in the made modern civilization possible. These confront. In the center of the nave provision is ventionalities, based upon ancient example, and made for a competitive exhibition of transpor- highly organized by the discipline of the schools, tation by elevators. These are arranged in a are the symbols of this civilization. Such work group around a cylindrical core, and give ac- as we see in the architectural system of the cess, by bridges across the nave, to the second building which we have just been studying in floor and to a great terrace over the central outline may, in comparison, be considered roportal, and connect with observatory balconies mantic or barbaric (using the term in no dewhich surround a central lantern. This is the rogatory sense, but as defining a condition of culminating feature of the design; it is highly design outside the pale of classic authority), decorated, and completes the exterior. product hardly less of invention than of con

We have already stated that the decoration vention, developing from within outward, and concentrated at various points on the Trans- taking forms less consciously affected by his

torical precedent. This assumption of freedom in the hands of uneducated men becomes license and disorder; in the hands of men of training, but without principles, it becomes insubordination, and results in clever work of mere swagger and audacity, a mani

festation of per91

sonal idiosyncrasy, more or less brilliant and amusing perhaps, but corrupting and unfruitful. With knowledge, but without genius or imagination,

it becomes portation Building is composed of arabesques. merely archæological: but under favorable cirThese are mostly foliations, more or less based cumstances this romanticism may rise into a upon regularly recurring geometrical systems, region of purity, sobriety, and elegance hardly but following nature in varieties of form and inferior to that occupied for more than twenty principles of growth. At certain important centuries (allowing for the medieval interruppoints these arabesques are frames to figure- tion) by classic art. Into this region of difficult subjects in relief, illustrating in allegorical fash- access the accomplished architects of the Transion the objects of the building. Properly to portation Building are seeking to enter with a complement what we have here supposed the fine, courageous spirit of duty, and the eviarchitects themselves might say regarding the dences of their work, not only on the Exhibition genesis of this design, it seems desirable to add grounds, but more conspicuously in the Audia few words of general statement and wider torium of Chicago, and elsewhere, are sufficient application.

to indicate that somewhere perhaps in this The exact and scholarly conventionalities of dangerous field there may be a regeneration the Court buildings recall the most brilliant era for the art of our time and country — not a re




vival of forms, but an establishing of principles, instructed rather than controlled by a spirit out of the inexhaustible past.

It is eminently fitting that in this exposition of national thought in architecture, our characteristic spirit of eager inquiry, of independent and intelligent experiment, should have the fullest illustration. If our late studies in Byzantine Romanesque and Saracenic art may seem to the foreign critic merely empirical, we may be able to show that in some instances they have been carried far enough to exercise a fructifying influence in the development of style in this country, and to infuse new blood into an art which, in the hands of the graduates of our schools of design, may be in danger of becoming scholastic or exotic, and of developing forms far removed from the uses and sympathies of modern life. In fact, it is not from loyalty to ancient formulas of beauty, not from revivals or correct archæological repetitions, that the true regeneration of modern architecture must come, stretching broadly between this long façade and but from the application to modern necessities the waterside. The extreme depth of their and modern structure of the principles which building-site is about 250 feet. It was evident controlled the evolution of the pure historical to the architects that a building for the cultivastyles.

tion and exposition of growing plants must be

based upon what has been found by experience MESSRS. W. L. B. Jenney & W. B. Mundie to be the best form for a garden greenhouse of Chicago, architects of the Horticultural or conservatory. The architecture of such a Building, have been able to occupy the beautiful structure must therefore include, as a fundasite at their disposal with a magnificent frontage mental feature of design, a series of light oneof 1000 feet, facing the Lagoon, the ornamental storied galleries with glazed roofs, from 50 to gardens and parterres of the floral department 70 feet wide, so arranged upon the site as to




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