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passed and not doubt whether they were really as strong
What is Patriotism ? with the people as they appeared to be; whether they
It was suggested some months ago by some one who might not be, after all, mere instances of what Professor
was impressed with the need of a keener sentiment Bryce calls the “mishearing” of public opinion. There of patriotism among the American people, that such a was the Granger movement, which appeared in 1873, sentiment could be cultivated by certain observances and which seemed to carry everything before it in the in the public schools. The chief of these was to be Western States. It did elect a governor in one of those the daily display of the American flag upon all school States and legislatures in a few others, but by 1876 not a buildings, and the daily formal salute of it by the putrace of it remained. It was followed by the Greenback pils. It is indeed a pleasant and inspiring sight, and movement in 1878, which threatened the supremacy not without a patriotic effect upon children and the of political parties in all parts of the country, actually general population — the flag flung to the breeze from gaining the control in Maine, polling many thousands the school-house in the city street, or on the country of votes in nearly every Western State, and making in- hillside or valley. But according to our observation roads upon the old parties even in New York State. young Americans draw in a love of the iag and of By 1880 pearly every trace of this “craze" had van
their country as the British general in the Revoluished. Next came the Labor movement, which sprang tionary War said the boys of Boston did —"with the from the great strikes of 1886. In the fall of that year air they breathe.” They think the American flag the Henry George polled 68,000 votes, nearly one third of most beautiful in the world, and the American nation the entire number cast, as Labor candidate for mayor the most powerful and glorious on the earth. This is of New York city, and shrewd politicians were con
the spontaneous and unreasoning patriotism of childvinced that the Labor vote would be the controlling hood, and the country which did not inspire it would force in the presidential election of 1888. Yet when be in a sad condition. 1888 arrived, scarcely a trace of the movement, as a There are no signs of a lack of this childish patriotseparate force in politics, was visible.
ism in this country. Concerning the supply of reasonFollowing close upon the Labor movement came ing patriotism, which ought to be developed from it as that of the Farmers' Alliance, with the sub-treasury the youth advances to manhood and takes his place as money plan as its chief issue. In 1890 this was so pow
a citizen, the case is less clear. It must be said that erful that it carried two Western States, and seemed certain to threaten the dominion of the Democratic many men carry through life, without change or devel
opment, the unreasoning patriotism of childhood, and party in the South. Yet in the elections of 1891 it cut
are thus the easy victims of the sham statesmen and scarcely any figure, and has been fading rapidly from politicians who make patriotism not merely the “ last existence since that time. The Free Silver delusion, refuge of a scoundrel,” but, as the Rev. J. W. Chadwhich accompanied it, and remained after its demise, wick said recently, the first. Men who take “my seemed, when the new Congress assembled in Decem- country, right or wrong," as the complete epitome of ber last, destined to overcome all opposition, and to patriotism, are the most useful, though unconscious, plunge the country into the most direful cheap-money allies of those who do the most to injure their counexperiment of modern times. Yet at the critical moment try's fame. Lowell, with his unerring touch, has put this peril was averted, and at the present time the his finger on the crucial test of all patriotism, by say. "craze” itself has so nearly disappeared that one won- ing in regard to doubts about his own love for his ders if it really ever was formidable.
country, In every instance public opinion was the sovereign under whose commands the “ craze was abandoned
I loved her old renown, her stainless fame,
What better proof than that I loathed her shame ? by the politicians. As soon as they discovered that the people did not favor the movement, they hastened to That is the true kind of patriotism which no counturn against it. It is, of course, impossible to say try can have too much of -a patriotism which loathes whether or not the people had ever been so strongly everything that brings shame to the nation's honor, or in favor of any of these various “crazes” as the poli- to its reputation before the world. A patriotism of ticians supposed. Undoubtedly more were in favor that kind makes short shrift with political tricksters of them at their birth than at the moment of their and time-servers, by condemning them as disgracing abandonment, for in the intervening period the work their country and dishonoring its name. No nation is of education had been in progress, and the Ameri- so great that it can afford to be unjust, or to act the can people are quick to discover an error and equally bully toward weaker nations, or to conduct its public quick in correcting it. We are convinced, however, affairs in violation of moral and economic laws. The that in nearly or quite every instance the politicians had, highest conception of a country is expressed in the to use an apt phrase of Professor Bryce, “ mistaken Scriptural phrase, “ Righteousness exalteth a nation.” eddies and cross currents for the main stream of opin. The real patriot is the man who wishes to see his ion.” They had been so fearful lest public opinion country glorious through the reign of intelligence, should get ahead of them that they hastened to stimu- truth, honor, and justice in all its public affairs, and late the "craze” in order to benefit by it, rather than through the high value of its contributions to the civto point out to the people their mistake and trust to ilization of the world. The only kind of patriotism their intelligence and honesty to bring them around worth having is that which holds up this model of a to the right side in the end. As Professor Bryce well country, and rejects as unworthy all that stands in the says, the statesman who has the courage to tell the way of its achievement. people that they are wrong "will be all the more re- There is no more persuasive teacher of patriotism spected,” but this is a truth which the lower grade than the true politician or statesman, as Lowell has of politicians is slow to learn.
He is not so much interested in the devices by which he established the New York Trade Schools for the influenced ; not so much about how men's passions
and purpose of giving young men instruction in certain prejudices may be utilized for a moinentary advantage to trades, and to enable those already working in such himself or his party, as about how they may be hindered trades to improve themselves. At first instruction from doing a permanent harm to the commonwealth.
was given mainly in the evening to pupils who were Under the guidance of statesmen of this type, politics dissatisfied with what they were learning in them.
engaged in workshops during the day, and who were becomes a very different pursuit from what it usually is in this country. Of politics, in the true sense of the Gradually other young men who had finished their word, the American people have a very inadequate con- school-days, and had no definite occupation in view, ception. What they think of when they hear the word became interested. They were unwilling to learn a is something very unlike this definition, which stands trade by entering a shop as apprentices, but they were first under the word in “ The Century Dictionary”:
very glad to avail themselves of this method of not only
learning it rapidly and thoroughly, but without unThe science or practice of government; the regulation pleasant or humiliating surroundings. In their eagerand government of a nation or state for the preservation ness to learn many of these young men joined both day of its
safety, peace, and prosperity. Politics, in its widest and evening classes. sense, is both the science and the art of government, or the science whose subject is the regulation of man in all
From small beginnings the schools grew rapidly, unhis relations as the member of a state, and the applica- til at the end of eleven years the attendance was nearly tion of this science. In other words, it is the theory and 600, instead of 30 as at the beginning. The trades practice of obtaining the ends of civil society as perfectly chiefly taught are plumbing, plastering, stone-cutting, as possible.
painting, bricklaying, carpentering, and tailoring. InNobody can deny that we need in all parts of the struction is given by master mechanics and other comland politicians of this character, earnest, able, trained petent teachers, and practical work is accompanied men, who are so thoroughly grounded in the science when necessary by the study of technical books and diaof politics, who have such complete knowledge of gov- grams. The pupil is not only taught how good work ernmental laws and social and economic principles, such should be done, but the difference between good and familiarity with the history of politics and political sys- improper work. The purpose of the instruction is “ to tems in all lands and times, that they will be able when enable young men to learn the science and practice of occasion offers to stop the progress of "crazes” and certain trades thoroughly, expeditiously, and economi. delusions, simply by showing from the teachings of cally, leaving speed of execution to be acquired at real human experience and the working of established laws work after leaving the schools.” The prices charged the impossibility of their success in practice. In no for instruction are scarcely more than nominal, reliev. country in the world are liberally educated men, in the ing the schools of the charitable aspect and giving the true sense of the word, more needed than they are in pupils a manly sense of paying their way. the United States, and in no country in the world are The benefits of this system of education are obvious they more powerful, for of all peoples, Americans are and great. The thoroughness of the instruction sends the most eager to learn the truth and the quickest to out workmen of the best type, scientific, thinking, prograsp it when it is presented to them. The breeding gressive men, who become the master mechanics and inof citizens of this character in our schools and colleges ventors of the future. They are the kind of workmen is the surest way by which to develop patriotism of the who give dignity to labor, and who, in addition to ele. highest type.
vating the condition and character of their fellow work.
ing-men, make good citizens in whatever community Trade Schools.1
their lot may be cast. If every city in the land were to IN giving a half-million dollars for the endowment have its trade schools, modeled after those estabof the New York Trade Schools, Mr. J. Pierpont Mor. lished by Colonel Auchmuty, and nobly endowed as his gan has set the millionaires of the country an example have been by Mr. Morgan, the work of reducing the which, it is greatly to be hoped, many of them will imi. mass of idleness and consequent viciousness which extate. It would be difficult to conceive a more beneficentists in our large cities would be begun in the most effecuse of wealth than this. The object of such schools is tive way. to furnish the young men of the country with the means
When Colonel Auchmuty began his experiment, trade of learning, quickly and thoroughly, useful trades; that instruction in schools was little known in this country, is to say, to supply them with the best qualifications for though it had long been in existence in Europe. In this leading upright, industrious, and useful lives. We have country, in addition to the trade schools of New York, in this country abundant school privileges, and are Philadelphia, and Chicago, trades are now taught to beconstantly enlarging our facilities for the education of ginners at the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn; at the Free youth who desire to live by brain-work as distinguished Institute in Worcester, Massachusetts; at the Hampfrom manual labor; but for the youth who would be ton Institute, Virginia ; at Clark University, Georgia ; glad to fit themselves for lives of manual labor we have, at Central Tennessee College ; to the Indians at Car. until within a few years, furnished no educational facil- lisle Barracks, Pennsylvania ; in some of the colleges ities whatever.
endowed by the United States land grant act; and One of the first men to perceive the need of an edu. in many asylums and reformatories. The Carriage cational system of this kind was Colonel Richard T. Makers' Association in New York has a school for Auchmuty, of New York city. About eleven years ago young men in that trade, and the Master Plumbers’ AsI See also “ The Need of Trade Schools,". The Century for “helpers.” We have made a beginning in this coun. Auchmuty's schools are now assured of a future of trade, or to find employment if he shall have been able large and constantly increasing usefulness, and ought to learn his trade elsewhere. to serve as a model for others in all the large cities of We present to the civilized world the astounding the land.
sociation in some cities provides instruction for its November, 1886, and " An American Apprentice System," January, 1889; both by Colonel Auchmuty.
try, but have done little more than that. Colonel
spectacle of a great nation, which boasts itself the freest These schools, in fact, supply the only means by which on the globe, throwing open its vast and lucrative fields American boys can become skilled workmen. The old of skilled labor to the mechanics of all other nations, apprentice system has gone, never to return. Both the while closing them to its own sons. Was there ever a spirit of the time and the changed conditions of trade more incredible act of national folly! We have in are against it. Outside the large cities, in the so-called America material from which to make the best and country districts, boys can still be taught a trade by the quickest mechanics in the world— that is the testimony workers in it; but in the large cities, where skilled la- of all competent authorities; yet we refuse either to bor is in demand, this is no longer possible. The trade. train them or to give them work if trained. We deplore unions in these cities are controlled by foreigners who the existence of increasing numbers of idle and unocseek to confine their industries to men of their own cupied young men in all our cities, and then accept nationalities. They not only refuse to teach an Ameri- conditions which compel a multiplication of the numcan boy a trade, but they combine to prevent him from bers. It is useless to put the blame upon the foreign getting employment after he has succeeded in learning laborers: they are merely improving their opportunity. it in a trade school. This is a situation of affairs with. The American people are responsible, and they must out parallel in any country in the world, and one which supply the remedy. will not be tolerated in this country when once public The first step toward the remedy is the multiplicaopinion has been aroused to a full comprehension tion of trade schools, and the second is the insistence of it.
upon the free exercise of every man's right to earn his Colonel Auchmuty has shown from statistics that living in his own way. It is surely not too much for the out of $23,000,000 paid annually to mechanics in the American people to say that their own sons shall not building trades in New York city, less than $6,000,000 only be permitted to learn trades, but shall be permitgoes to those born here. The number of new jour. ted also to work at them after they have learned them. neymen trained outside the cities in the trades them. We advise any one who is desirous of seeing the kind selves is not sufficient to fill vacancies, much less to of skilled working-man that the American boy makes, supply the constantly increasing demand for larger to visit Colonel Auchmuty's schools and look over a set forces. Thousands of foreign mechanics come here of photographs of his graduates. He will find there a every year, some to remain, others to work through a body of clear-browed, straight-eyed young fellows who busy season and return to Europe with their profits. will compare well with the graduates of our colleges. These foreigners have no sympathy with Americans. This is the stuff from which laborers are made who They control the trade-unions, which in turn control honor and dignify and elevate labor, not by agitating, the labor market, absolutely in their own interest. but by being masters of their craft, faithful in its perThey seek to keep wages high by closing the doors of formance, and willing to share its toil with all comers, employment to all comers not of their own kind. The fearing honest competition from no quarter. Such result is that in free America, sometimes called the men are at once true American laborers and true Amer. paradise of working.men, the field of skilled labor is ican citizens of the highest type, and the educational occupied almost exclusively by foreigners who declare system which evolves them is a national benefaction of that an American boy shall not enter, either to learn a incalculable value.
Camping Out for the Poor,
I could not help contrasting the scenes in which I
should find myself twenty-four hours later with this (EARLY twenty years ago I left New York late one squalid, heated misery, and it really seemed as if I had
afternoon toward the end of June to take my fort. no right to run away while so much wretchedness renight's vacation in a little hamlet a mile east of Mo- mained behind, unable to escape. I suppose that most riches, on the south or ocean shore of Long Island, of my readers have experienced this feeling when about seventy miles away from New York. The day had been to get away from New York in summer, and then, as I a particularly hot and exhausting one. The city literally have so often done, they have put the unpleasant thought panted for breath. As I walked down to the ferry I away with the consoling reflection that what little they had to pass through some of the most miserable of the could do to alleviate such misery, even by the sacrifice tenement-house districts on the east side, and for a few of their own vacations, would be but a drop of honey blocks I went along Cherry street, a most wretched in this ocean of gall. We have also the habit of saying thoroughfare blessed with a pretty name in gro:esque to ourselves that the poor people who remain in town contrast to the street's character. The slums were the year round do not suffer as we imagine they do alive with people.
they are thicker-skinned, and they have never known The shades of night seemed to bring no comfort to anything better. such streets as these. It would be morning before the But upon this particular occasion, although I was heated masses of brick and stone cooled off, ready for not an over-sensitive young man, the scenes upon which another day's sun, for there was not a breath of air. I could not shut my eyes haunted me for days, and I
felt that I was running away from a problem which would be only too glad to give their clerks a ten-weeks' ought not to be put aside. I still remember one pic- vacation provided salaries stopped during those ten ture of an apparently motherless child, sitting on the weeks; and the sanie is true of the thousands of faclower step of a big double tenement — a little girl of ten tories which are kept open on half time and often at a or twelve years of age, who was trying to sing to sleep loss to the proprietor, who wishes to keep his men totwo younger children, one in her lap and the other pil. gether. The tendency of late years, especially since lowed against her arm. The child was pale and tired, the shorter hours of labor have prevailed, is to pay but ready to sacrifice herself for the sick and peevish all workmen by the piece in factories and wherever little brother and sister whom the noise and rattle of such a course is possible. In many trades, such as the street kept awake. The father was crouched on the the making of cheap clothing, cigars, etc., in which the same step, in a drunken stupor, but cared for by the work is done at home, it may be done in one place as child. As I stopped to look at the pitiful picture, too well as another, allowing a small amount for getting common for notice in all these tenement neighborhoods the bundles of goods in and out of New York. I suppose - the child mother — I again asked myself what right that if the taste prevailed for such a life as seems to me a strong fellow had to go in search of sea breezes and desirable for the poor city family during the ten hot quiet while such weaklings as these remained behind? weeks of the year, when the city bakes and the children But I soothed my conscience by dropping some pennies die of heat and bad air, at least half of the workers who in the child's lap, and hurried on to my boat.
live in the tenements might escape. It happened that about twenty-four hours later I had I am well aware that something of the same kind, occasion to study another family group. We had been but upon a more permanent scale, has recently been fishing all day, and were on our way back to Moriches attempted without success. One of the benevolent sowhen our boat grounded upon the flats which fill these cieties connected with Mr. Adler's Society for Ethical bays; and, there being no moon, we decided to sleep on Culture subscribed enough money to build a dozen board. One of our party descried a light on the shore comfortable cottages in a pleasant spot some twenty a few hundred feet from us, and we pushed our sharpie miles out on Long Island, and induced some poor off in that direction, hoping to find some natives who families of Polish Jews who worked on cheap clothing would pilot us to deep water. On the south side of a to make the experiment of living there, the society giant rick of salt grass we discovered a camp-fire, around making the rent almost nominal and also paying the which were grouped a father, mother, and five children. express charges upon the packages of clothing sent The man told us that he was a New York shoemaker, in and out from the large shops which gave these peoand knew nothing of the channels. They were on an ple employment. It was hoped that the advantages of island on the south side of the bay, and their only mear a country life, of pure air for the children, of lower of communication with the mainland was an old row- rents than in their dirty, miserable tenements, of the boat for which the man paid one dollar a month. possibility of a garden, chickens, etc., would encourage
They had a tent, which was used apparently only to others to join such a colony. The result was disapsleep in, and when I made the party a call some days pointment, and after a year the experiment was abanlater, I found the man working at a box of shoes he had doned. The people, especially the women, wanted to brought with him from New York, to finish. The get back to the city; they complained that it was lonely. whole family looked like gipsies, they were so browned They wanted society — the noise and squabbles, the and hearty. The man told me that he liked that sort fights, the dirt, and the crowds of the tenements. This of life in hot weather, and had camped out for several result showed that if these people were to be taught summers. He did enough work to earn the very few the value of fresh air and quiet, the process must begin dollars their supplies cost them, and in September they with the children. Their elders were like the life priswould go back to New York —he to the shop he worked oners who, when released from the dark dungeons of in, and the children to school.
the Bastille, begged to be taken back — they had lived While these two pictures, both met with at about the so long in the dark as to dread the light. same hour in the evening,- the one in the squalid, In such an experiment as I now propose, I wish reeking, murky Cherry street, in which figured those simply to get such people out of New York during the little prisoners of poverty, and the other of island life heat of summer, when the death-rate is largely made and cool air,-impressed me deeply at the time, it was up of infants and small children. The system under long before I drew any particular lesson from them. which such people rent their small tenements makes it
It was not until years later that I began to ask my. possible for them to give up their few rooms at a week's self why the poor people who suffer every summer in notice. They can store their goods at small expense, New York, and whose children die from heat, do not and save enough on the rent to pay for their food durjoin my shoemaker on his island in Moriches Bay. ing the weeks they are away. The rents paid by even Now, however, it is one of my hobbies that the New the most miserable of these workers average $10 a York mechanic and clerk can afford a far better outing month for two or three rooms. The “boss” who in summer than he dreams is possible.
employs them cares nothing as to where their work is In the case of clerks or assistants in small business done. houses, such a course as I have to propose would not Take the typical family of slop-shop clothing-makers. be possible, and in some trades, such as those connected The mother and father sew all day, and the children with building, the hot months are the busiest and the live or die according to their constitutions. What is to men cannot get away. But in a large number of shops prevent such a family from pitching its tent on some and factories the dull season comes in the hot months. of the beaches which stretch out for more than one I have not the slightest doubt but that the proprietors hundred miles along the south shore of Long Island, of thousands of large retail shops in all our large cities or in the Jersey pines ? The spots along the south
shore of Long Island which are inhabited and valuable day's labor, and watching the flame of a driftwood fire are as nothing compared to the wastes of equally pleas- rising against a background made up of ocean and ant land upon which a poor family may “ squat” dur- bay ! ing hot weather, either free of rent or for a trifling pay- I should like to see some society undertake to teach ment to the owner of the land. If all the poor of New poor people the possibility and value of such an outing York wanted to “squat” on the Long Island beach, as I have in mind. It would virtually be camping out there might be objections raised; but of that there is no for the hot months, a pastime commonly considered as danger. The man who can get out of town must have within the reach of the rich or the well-to-do only. at least a few dollars in his pocket, and every one who The proprietors of many large shops and factories has worked among our city poor knows that the ma- ought to be members of such a society, for they can arjority of these people live from hand to mouth; they range to do without half their force in summer and save are chained by the hardest of poverty to the great city. money by so doing. Employer and employed ought to Fortunately, the average sober mechanic needs but a coöperate in such a scheme. The employer will not very few dollars to make such an experiment possible. be afraid of losing good clerks and salesmen; the em
In some figures I gave in the course of an article ployed will not sear loss of position, and will return in published on this question I estimated, judging by September better fitted for ten months of work than if what such outings in the past have cost me, that a poor he had lounged the summer away behind a counter. family of six persons — two adults and four children - The tremendous waste of time in summer is recognized would be able to spend ten weeks out of New York at by every business man. If work of every description an average weekly expense of not more than $5. A could stop from the first of July to the first of Septemtent, an oil-stove, some cots, and a few boxes of bedding ber, our mechanics would certainly have more to do and stores would complete the whole outfit. Even the when they returned to their shops, and they would be oil-stove would not be needed every day. if the family in better trim to do it, provided their eight weeks of “squatted” on the ocean beach, for the beach is strewn vacation had been wisely spent. with kindling-wood. I leave out of the calculation the Perhaps the greatest obstacle in the way of a wholecost of getting from and back to New York, as that de- sale realization of a scheme upon this plan is the fact pends upon the distance. Our typical family could go that so few poor people have even the small number of fifty miles and back for $10. The cost of getting a big dollars necessary to it. A man cannot stop work or stop bundle of clothing from New York once a week by ex- looking for work if there is no bread in the house. press would not be more than a dollar. In case steady Upon the other hand, it may be said that persons and work was carried on, there would also be a sewing-ma- families likely to enjoy and appreciate camping out in chine to take. The oil-stove, the cots, the sewing-ma- July and August are usually fairly provident. What chine, are already owned by most of these poor families. might be done by a Camping-out Society would be to The tent would cost from $15 to $25, according to size, tell poor people where and how they might camp out, and would last for years. The food would certainly the advantages and disadvantages of the life, its cost, cost less than in New York, for in most places along its ways and means. I should like to hear camping-out the Long Island shore there are clams, oysters, crabs, lectures in which people who had camped out would and fish, which the children can get with little trouble. give their experiences for and against the life.
Now consider the drawbacks and advantages of such I should like to say to such of my conservative a life. Upon one side we place the isolation which friends as scent socialism and vicious idleness in this seems to have such terrors for the tenement-bred poor; idea, that if one per cent of the tenement-house popubut if two or three families made the experiment to-lation is induced by a vigorous advocacy of the campgether, this would disappear. There would be rainy ing-out idea to make the experiment, I shall be amazed. days and the various unpleasant features and hardships One poor man whom I urged to make the experiment of camping out. There would be no corner liquor-store and take his sickly children to a bit of beach I knew, for the man, nor corner gossip for the woman. The daily told me that the noise of the “ bloomin'” ocean made toil might be even a trifle harder, owing to lack of con- him “blasted” tired. There are too many people who veniences. Meat would be difficult to get and to keep. cannot see the trees for the forest. They have been in But look at the other side of the picture. First of all, the Bastille of vile air, dirt, and death too long to reawhile New York baked night and day, there would be lize what a world of content lies beyond the grimy clear, cool air for the little ones, worth all the medi- tenement. But even if one family in every thousand cines in the world. The children could run barefoot on could be induced to camp out next summer, the exthe beach, could bathe in the surf and play in the sand; periment would be worth making. I have been accused and what more, after all, can the millionaire give his of fanaticism in my detestation of city life,1 especially children during these hot weeks ?
in summer, and I have advised people to try the counIf the man and his wife are above the common herd try even if at some sacrifice of dollars and personal comand are able to appreciate the quiet and beauty of the fort. But in this instance I merely advise a better use ocean beach in summer, the glorious rising and setting of time that is now nearly or wholly wasted. of the sun, a series of pictures beyond the power of any artist to copy, they will find more than repayment for
Philip G. Hubert, Jr. any personal sacrifice they may make for the children's
A Search for Shelley's American Ancestor. • sake. I should imagine that most men not wholly unfitted for decent things and depraved by the corner The tradition that the grandfather of the poet Shel. grogshop would find in the majesty, the quiet, and the ley was born at Newark, in America, of an American beauty of a summer evening on the ocean beach a com- mother, was the scent which led me off upon a twofort beyond words. Think of smoking a pipe after a 1 "Liberty and a Living," Putnam's Sons, New York.