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Kitchen Bunker

J Bunker

. Sutherland Benker


Kob's Bunker

clean and hard with your iron, it will sail away from its predicament like a swallow on the wing. But to hit the ball clean is exactly what you must not dream of attempting; nor, if you are wise, will you use the iron in a bunker until you have become a player of the first class. The only weapon for you is the niblick, a

powerful little club with a stiff shaft and a SHORT HOLE

short, rounded iron head; and as for hitting

the ball clean, you would only bury it, were Stroke Bunker

you to do so. What you must do is to deliver End Hole Bunkie

a sharp, downward blow, not upon the ball itSEND HOLE HEATHERY HOLE

self, but upon the sand a couple of inches or Sticki Bunker

more behind it, and in this instance you may Cotstrap Bunker

use all the strength that you possess. Of course Walkinshaw Bunker

it requires some faith to believe that such a WHOLE O CROSS

stroke will move the ball at all, but, as a mat

ter of fact, it does; and any other kind of Beardies

stroke will almost certainly get you into still

worse trouble. Unfortunately, it is not at all Penty or Crescent B

easy to strike two inches behind an object at Shepherds House

which you ought not to be looking, but at •Gravel Bunker

which you can hardly restrain yourself from GINGER BEIR HOLE स

looking, and the difficulty is greatly increased Student's bunkera

by the rule which forbids you to touch the Collage Benkor

ground with your club when in a hazard. But for this cruel rule, you might make a nice little

mark on the surface of the sand to guide your THIRD HOLD

eye; and indeed you are not at all unlikely to Partgate Bunker

do this accidentally - thereby, on some greens, Principal's NOS

losing the hole, while on others you will be let Beacon Simé

off with a penalty of a stroke. If you manage NWig Bunker

to extricate the ball at your first attempt, you DYK HOLE Flagstaff

may well be thankful : as for dismissing it any ançape's Byen

distance on its way, you are not trying or expecting to do that. It is far more probable

that you will ineffectually belabor the earth for Schold's Busto

several minutes, that you will fill your mouth Road Bunker

and eyes with sand, and that you will emerge Gollers Bridge PLAN OF

CLUB HOUSE at length, heated and infuriated, to find that COLFING COURSE

you have played “six more.”

All bunkers, however, are not sand-bunkers,

and on many links there is no sand at all. Those o 200 200 300 400 500

on which I am accustomed to disport myself are situated in the west country, on downs high

above the sea-level, and the only luxuries that in your line, or if you did n't know that your we can boast of in the way of hazards are walls, ball would roll quite so far, or that the wind cart-ruts, whins, and stone-bunkers. Not that would set it round in that direction, then you a stone-bunker is a thing to be despised, or ought to have known, they say. To such un- that a ball which has perversely dropped into feeling persons we will only reply, as Job re- it can be made to leave it with ease. The nibplied to their prototypes, “ No doubt but ye are lick, if properly handled, will accomplish wonthe people, and wisdom shall die with you.” ders; but not even the niblick will avail when We will not waste our noble ire upon them, the wretched little ball has wedged itself firmly but will turn our whole attention to the ball, between two fragments of rock. In such a which we will suppose to be badly bunkered, case there is nothing for it but to lift and lose and therefore in need of it. It lies in one of a couple of strokes which is usually tantathose sandy hollows, surrounded by miniature mount to losing the hole. I have a very kindly cliffs, which are to be met with on all golf-links and sympathetic friend who, when he is in of the orthodox type, and your first impression these parts, is sometimes good enough to play will doubtless be that if you can only hit it a match with me, although he is my superior




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by a long way. He is always very sorry when of assistance from thews and sinews. And you I come to grief.

will not weary of their companionship. I can“ In the stone-bunker again!” says he, with not pretend to explain how it is that you can an air of mournful consternation. “Dear, dear! play golf day after day and year after year withBut not badly in, I trust ? "

out growing tired of it; I know no other game Now, he must know perfectly well that when- of which as much could be said; but, Heaven ever I am in anything (were it only an invest- be praised ! so it is. I do not suggest that you ment) I am sure to be badly in; but this does should play all day long. Hard-worked men, not deter him from cheering me up with sug- who get only a few weeks' holiday in the course gestions of bright possibilities as we draw near of the year, do this, and enjoy it, and are ento the fatal spot, nor from standing over me and titled to their enjoyment; but the ordinary smiling pleasantly while, after having reached individual had better be satisfied with one it, I essay obvious impossibilities. Yet I have round, either in the morning or in the afternever picked up one of those stones and hurled noon. This, including his walk or drive to the it at his head; I feel convinced that I should links and back, will probably occupy him for never be able to forgive myself were I so shame- about three hours, which is neither too long fully to forget myself. All the same, the mo- nor too short a time to devote to exercise and mentary enjoyment would be intense.

oblivion of the manifold worries of existence. Whins are not, as a rule, quite such stub- Another merit which may be claimed for golf born enemies to deal with as stones. You may, is its cheapness. You can buy all the clubs that it is true, find your ball in the very middle of you are likely to want for about $12, your ana clump of gorse-bushes four or five feet high, nual subscription will probably not exceed $15, and then your plight will be a piteous one; balls cost a shilling each, and the remuneration but generally speaking, it will be found to be of caddies is in most cases a modest one. In more playable than it looks. The iron, the Scotland, however, the caddie is usually a very mashy, and the niblick are powerful weapons, different being from the ragged juveniles who and the ball, when rightly struck by the first carry clubs on English greens for sixpence, nineof the three, will often travel much farther than pence, or a shilling. Unlike them, he is a fullthe player has dared to anticipate. When it is grown man; he has the game at his fingers' not rightly struck - well, very terrible things ends; he is acquainted with every inch of the may occur then. Yet golf would be hardly ground; he knows a great deal better than you worth playing if there were no hazards, and it do which club you ought to take for any given is possible that the careful man, who never goes stroke; he favors you with his advice when you straight for a difficulty in the hope of clearing ask forit,- sometimes even when you do not,it, but prefers to play short or to avoid risks and in return for these valuable services he will by steering a zigzag course, may find his game certainly expect half-a-crown. I am not sure as lacking in excitement as hunting is to those that he is not a little dear at the price; because sportsmen who ride hard only along a road. his utterances are apt to be characterized by

For my own part, I have no such complaint such painful frankness, and one's game is not to make. Only once, when I did the eighteen likely to be improved at first by the consciousholes in 86,— I am well aware that modesty ness that, in the eyes of the beholder, it is a deought to restrain me from referring to that his- plorable caricature of what a game ought to be. toric event; but I can't help it, I never can Still, if you can accustom yourself to his little help referring to it when I get a chance,-only ways, you will find him very helpful, and you that once, I say, can I remember to have played may learn more from playing a match with a round without falling into trouble of one kind him than from the careful instruction of a full

a or another. The game, therefore, provides me blown professional. with quite as much excitement as is good for Even in England the boys are becoming me at my time of life, and will, I trust, continue wonderfully adroit, some of them. Last sumto fulfil that useful function as long as I am mer I played two rounds at Bembridge, in the

I able to stand up and to swing a club. This, Isle of Wight, with a tiny scrap of a creature indeed, is the immense merit of golf — that age whose head hardly reached my elbow, and cannot wither, nor custom stale its infinite va- who beat me without any trouble at all. And, riety. You may play a very fair game at three- lest anybody should imagine that this does not score years and ten; for no running is required necessarily imply a high degree of proficiency, of you, and although stiffened muscles may I may mention that his scores were 87 and 89. interfere with the freedom of your stroke, the The Bembridge course is a somewhat“ trappy” ball and the club are very good-natured. They one, the putting-greens were at that time rather will do a great deal for you, provided only that difficult to play, owing to a spell of dry weather, you have learned — assurely you will have done and a good player would have had no reason by that time — how little they stand in need to be ashamed of such a performance.

But that counting of strokes is a bad busi- and freedom— these are what come back to a ness, and some of us would not be as fond of man at times, when he is compelled to breathe golf as we are, if the winner of a match were the exhausted air of some great city, and cause he who had accomplished the whole round in him to wonder why any human being who is the lowest score. Happily for us, it is not so. able to live in the country should deliberately If you hole out in four, while I, through cir- choose to take up his abode in a town. cumstances which I have been unable to con- Fortunately for the welfare and health of trol, have taken ten or twelve over it, you have, mankind, golf-links have now sprung up, and after all

, only won the hole, and at the next are springing up, in the neighborhood of most hole the tables may be turned. Though I only large towns - I should be afraid to say how secure that next hole by one, yet we shall then many are situated within easy reach of Lonbe all even, and thus the bitterness of memory don,—and soon every citizen who wishes to will be assuaged. It is in what is called medal keep his eyes clear, his figure presentable, and play, under which system the generality of his digestion in good order will have only himprizes are competed for, that the score of the self to blame if he is driven to resort to that most whole round must be kept; and it is obvious dreary of all expedients, a daily constitutional

. that under no other system could there be an Perhaps one word ought to be said, in conequal certainty of gaging each player's capa- clusion, about the dangers of the game. These city. That the capacity of every member of a are not serious, nor are accidents common; club should be ascertained as nearly as possible still accidents do sometimes occur, and they is essential, since almost all golf-competitions are likely to occur with much more frequency, are handicaps, and the handicapper (unless now that the number of players has been so he wishes to render himself still more unpopu- greatly increased, and that so large a proporlar than the fact of his holding that office is tion of them are apt to play with the carelessalready pretty sure to have made him) mustness of inexperience. A golf-ball, it is as well be chiefly guided in his estimate of what a man to remember, is a very hard missile which travcan do by the record of what that man has done. els through the air at a high rate of speed, and The difficulty of his task is not lessened by the by hitting a man in the right place with it you unfortunate propensity of some players to tear may kill him as easily as possible. I myself up their cards, instead of handing them in, on was once knocked over like a rabbit at St. Anthe conclusion of the round. It is mortifying, drew's by a ball which must, I am sure, have no doubt, to have to deliver up a duly attested traversed nearly a hundred yards of space bedocument, setting forth the fact that you have fore it came into violent contact with my head. taken 130 strokes over a round which, if you In that instance my unintentional assailant, had been playing in your usual form, you would though he was extremely civil and apologetic, have accomplished well under 100; but it is was not technically to blame, inasmuch as he rather unpatriotic, perhaps, also rather beneath had observed the rule of allowing me to play a man of your well-known magnanimity, to my second shot before he struck off. It was blink that fact; and if you will not tell the truth no fault of his that I had made a wretched about it, what is a poor handicapper to do with drive, while it was at once his good fortune you? What he assuredly will not do, if he bea and mine that Heaven has granted me a thick sensible man, is to increase your allowance. skull. But that rule is not invariably observed,

There is doubtless satisfaction to be derived nor are players who chance to cross one anfrom the winning of medals, silver cups, and other on the green always as scrupulous as conother trophies; there is satisfaction of a kind siderations of prudence ought to make them. in merely trying to win them; but it is seldom An impatient player is apt to think that when upon

such contests that the golfer muses, with he has shouted“ Fore!” — which is the recog. a retrospective smile of contentment, when he nized danger-signal — he has done all that can is debarred for a time by circumstances from be required of him, and may go gaily ahead; indulging in his favorite recreation, and when but it is often difficult to tell from which dihe is fain to solace himself with memories of rection the warning shout comes, and it is quite past days spent upon the links. The hard- possible that the shouter may be himself infought match which he just managed to win by visible. The red coat, which is the time-honthe last stroke of the last hole; the foursome ored uniform of all golf clubs, has its raison in which he and his partner worked so well d'être in the desirability of rendering human together that they inflicted defeat upon a pow- figures as conspicuous as may be. Among erful couple who started by superciliously of the many golden rules which are usually imfering them odds; and the sunshine, the fresh pressed upon the beginner, three have been breeze,—all links are breezy,—the springy turf, selected for constant reiteration : “Keep your the pungent, aromatic odor of the wild thyme, eye on the ball,” “ Don't press," and "Swing the yellow whin-blossoms, the sense of space slowly back.” To these is sometimes added an injunction which finds a ready echo in drive at a fellow-creature, so long as there is the hearts of all who are responsible for the a reasonable chance of your hitting him.” maintenance and care of golf-links; namely, May all who shall have had the patience to “Never, when you have cut out a portion of read these remarks have the patience likewise turf in the act of playing, omit to replace it.” to act upon the sage precepts contained in the Finally, the present humble writer would ven- foregoing paragraph! So shall they develop ture to throw in, as a fifth admonition: “Don't into good golfers, ve long, and prosper.

W. E. Norris.



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F all natural things make for and temporal, not of essential and infinite, re

beauty,— if the statement is well lations. We therefore detest didactic verse, founded that they are as beau- because, though made by well-intentioned peotiful as they can be under their ple, it is tediously incomplete and false. conditions, then truth and

beauty, in the last reduction, are Poets will interpret nature truthfully, withequivalent terms, and beauty is the unveiled in their liberties; they do not assume to be on shining countenance of truth. But a given as close terms with her, or with her Creator, truth, to be beautiful, must be complete. Ten- as some of the teachers and preachers. They nyson's line,

are content to find the grass yet bent where

she has passed, the bough still swaying which A lie which is half a truth is ever the blackest she brushed against. They feel that of lies,

What Nature for her poets hides will bear inversion. Truth which is half a lie

'Tis wiser to divine than clutch. is intolerable. A certain kind of preachment, antipathetic to the spirit of poesy, has received The imaginative poets, who read without efthe name of didacticism. Instinct tells us that fort the truth of things, have been more faithful it is a heresy in any form of art. Yet many in even their passing transcripts of nature and persons, after being assured by Keats that the life than many who conscientiously attempt a unity of beauty and truth is all we know or portrayal. Where they make comments, it is need to know, are perplexed to find sententious as if by anticipation of the reader; it is not so statements of undisputed facts so commonplace much their own conclusion as that of the obserand odious. Note, meanwhile, that Keats's as- ving world. The truth, moreover, is less in the sertion illustrates itself by injuring the otherwise comment than in the poetry,- is rather in the perfect poem which contains it. So obtrusive song than in the obbligato. With the epic or draà moral lessens the effect of the “ Ode on a matic poet the motive is not truth of description, Grecian Urn.” In other words, the beauty of but truth of life. Yet how much surer the scenic the poem would be truer without it. Now, touches of the best narrative and drama than why does a bit of didacticism take the life out the word-painting of the so-called descriptive of song, and didactic verse proclaim its maker poets! Compare the sudden landscape, the a proser and not a poet? Because pedagogic life of its populous under-world, the sky and formulas of truth do not convey its essence. water, the sunlight and moonlight and storm, in They preach, as I have said elsewhere, the “A Winter's Tale "and“Midsummer Night's gospel of half-truths, uttered by those who Dream," with the prolonged and pious descriphave not the insight to perceive the soul of tions in Thomson's “Seasons.” In the dramas truth, the expression of which is always beauty. the scenic truth is incidental, yet almost inThis soul is found in the relations of things comparable for beauty; in the descriptive to the universal, and its correct expression is poem it is elaborate and tame. You are combeautiful and inspiring.

paring, to be sure, the greatest of poets with While the beautiful expresses all these rela- one relatively humble, but the latter is on his tions, the didactic at the best is the expression chosen ground, and gives his whole mind to of one or more of them, — often of arbitrary his business. Something more than sincerity

Copyright, 1892, by Edmund Clarence Stedman.

and knowledge, then, is needed for the ex- - truth of life and character - then was all in pression of truth. Superadd noble contempla- all; a false transcript was instantly detected; tion and the anointed vision that reads the life the dramatic poet, however exuberant, founded of nature, and you have Wordsworth, a poet his work in unflinching realism. Situations and and painter indeed. In his greater moods heas- trivial sentiment now make the playwright, and suredly sets us face to face with unadulterate even Tennyson and Browning have been untruth. Even Wordsworth does this less effec- able to restore the muse conspicuously to the tively, by his premeditated interpretation, than stage. The laureate's genius, to be sure, is the certain bards whose side-glimpses of the out- reverse of dramatic. Browning had the requisite door world we interpret for ourselves. Their passion and dramatic instinct; life and motive chance strokes are matchless. The classic isles engrossed him beyond all else. But contrast and waters are all before us in the“ Odyssey," the bold, direct Elizabethan characters with characterized broadly and truthfully by essen- Browning's personages - whose thought and tial traits. Attica glows and glooms in the action are analyzed by him to the remotest dechoruses of “Edipus at Colonos” and “ The tail. His drama is unique, but not in the free Clouds"; we have the atmosphere that suf- and instant spirit of poetry; it is not so much life fuses her landscape, action, personages. Its as biology. The distinction recalls that traditone is just as capturable now, as two thousand tion of the Massachusetts bar. Webster and years ago under the sky of Sophocles and Aris- Choate often were opposed in leading cases. tophanes. The phonograph passes no more The former brought his power and learning to intelligibly to after time the living voice of a bear upon the main issue of a case, and brushed Gladstone or a Browning. Rarely is there an aside the inessentials. Choate delighted to folavowedly descriptive poet who achieves much low every trail to the uttermost, and in a more than the asking you to take his word for manner as analytic as that of “ The Ring and a mass of details. To come near home, this was the Book.” The jurors marveled at Choate's what such American landscapists as Street and intellectual dexterity and glitter, but Webster Percival usually succeeded in doing ; while usually won the verdict. The jury of an author Lowell, with his quick eye and Greek good is the reading world. In prose romance Amerfellowship with nature, always keeps us in mind ica puts forward a counterpart to Browningof her as a blithe companion by his side when Mr. Henry James, except that he never sacrihe chats to us, and whether on the rocks offices an imperturbable refinement of style; beAppledore, or under the willows, or along the sides, with reference to his novels at least, he snow-paths of a white New England night. usually avoids, as if on principle, the concenCowper got nearer to truth than Thomson; trated passion and the dramatic situations that he pointed to the naturalness that Wordsworth at times make Browning so impressive. sought in turn — and found. As for Burns, he On the other hand, when Browning, the lay in nature's heart, and whether with or anatomist of human life, interests himself with without design - expressed her as simply and side-glimpses of nature, he is full of simple surely as the bards of old.

truth, and with a sure instinct for essentials.

His lyrics abound in these beautiful surprises. Of both truth to life and truth to physical He forgets the laboratory when he touches nature there are two poetic exhibits: the first, landscape and outdoor life, and is all the artist. broad; the second, minute and analytic. The Nature has but one truer painter among the greater the poet, the simpler and larger his state- dramatists, and the best touches of both seem ment, however fine in detail when need be. incidental. When Browning thinks of birds and Seeking that presentment of human character beasts they suddenly, as in the Arabian Nights, and experience which is universal, we go to the become almost human. He reads the heart, one poets and idylists of the Bible, to Homer and might say, of a bird, a horse, or a dog. This the Attic dramatists, to Cervantes and Shak- Tennyson does not do, nor does he usually spere, to Molière, and to the great novelists of give us vivid personal characters, admirably as the modern age. In poetry life has never been he draws conventional types. His truth to natreated at once with so much intensity and truth, ture is positive; he has the eye of a Thoreau, by many contemporaries, as in the Elizabethan and the pastoral fidelity which befits one who period. This was inevitable. Our early drama- is not only the pupil of Milton and Keats, but tists wrote for instant stage production; their of Theocritus and Wordsworth. He can treat poetic text was of much import in default of broadly, and imaginatively withal, the leaguethe perfected acting and accessories which now long roller thundering on the reef” and the render the text less essential — in fact, far too long wash of Australasian seas"; but his fresubordinate. In such “effects” as the stage quent over-elaboration led the way to a main production then made practicable, Shakspere fault of the younger schools. and his group have not been excelled. But life While a poet cannot be too accurate, his


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