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discovery, for these two great unities were respectively played toward the discovery of the necessary nucleus about which to garner the New World. Columbus excelled his helpthe innumerable harvest of new lands amid the mate in the abstract sciences, in intuitive imagiwaves, and the bright constellations of new nation, and in inspiration, but Pinzon assuredly beliefs in the human soul. He notes how the excelled Columbus in experience, in shrewdsovereigns had granted him the style of Don, ness, in administrative ability, in aptness to with the titles of Admiral and Viceroy, to de command, in power of discipline and organiscend to his heirs and successors forever. zation, in everything executive, effective, and

The journal serves not alone to disclose the practical. Pinzon was a skilful financier in conmotives of his undertaking; it also exhibits its trolling the expenses of the little fleet, a good course day by day. The first three days at sea administrator in equipping the ships, a consumwere favorable. Having set sail on Friday, by mate commander in enrolling and disciplining the following Sunday they had run some fifty the crew; but he was in no wise a revealer, such Castilian leagues. But on the fourth day the as Columbus is proclaimed to have been by the Pinta was imperiled by a defect in her steering- voice of all peoples and all ages. When we see gear, and although the admiral ran up within Pinzon assembling the crews after the royal speaking distance, he could not assist her, fear- deputies and alcaldes had failed; equipping ing a collision, for the wind and the waves were the fleet in but fifteen days when Columbus and rising. The two owners of the vessel had de- his agents had not been able to do so in three signedly weakened the rudder, in order to dis- months; supplying from his own purse the deable her, and to prevent her from going on and ficiency in the royal contribution; navigating being lost, as they deemed the other caravels the dangerously damaged Pinta from Cadiz to must surely be, in the storms of the Shadowy the Canaries; and when later we are to beSea. Columbus confided the repairs to his skil- hold him rising to greater achievements than all ful captain, who took temporary command of these, bringing resolute decision to the accomher. The injury called for workmanship supe- plishment of his purposes, we may truly say, rior to any at command in the watery wastes, without detracting from the splendid height to and so there was no recourse but to head for which Columbus rose, that there is still a place the Canaries. They sighted the nearest of the in the epic of this titanic exploration for the group, Lanzarote, and went on to the Grand grand figure of the pilot and shipbuilder of Canary, whence they were constrained to go Palos, who not only rendered the departure to Gomera, only to return again to the Grand of the expedition possible, but who, the voyage Canary. The first idea of Columbus was to fit once begun, was perhaps the most resolute and out another caravel, in view of the unseaworthi- powerful of will in preventing its failure. ness of the Pinta, but none could be found at Early in September they left the Canaries Gomera. He was obliged to fit a new rudder to behind, and plunged into the abyss of ocean. the Pinta, and to supply the Niña with square- It was growing urgent that Columbus should sails in place of her lateen rig, before they were do this, for in the eyes of his companions the enabled to proceed. Their departure was indeed most ordinary phenomena became celestial urgent, for a most untoward mishap was to be warnings. In the clear, half-Andalusian, halffeared in the expected arrival in the outlying tropical nights of the Canaries rose the deepislands of the group of a fleet fitted out by the furrowed violet cone of the volcano of Teneriffe, king of Portugal, and despatched to the furthest in crimson eruption, like a new sun springing limits of the sea then known for the purpose into birth, shooting its iris-tinted flames through of preventing the passage of Columbus. Yet, clouds of smoky ashes, with torrents of stony despite the tireless activity of the discoverer in fragments like falling meteors or glowing like hastening the work, the repairs and the procure- an incandescent milky way - allthis filled them ment of provisions occupied a whole month. with dread, for they deemed the faring moun

At last, on September 16, the explorers turned tain some vast Cyclops, imprisoned there by their backs upon the known seas and launched the divine hand at the uttermost portals of forth into the unknown. The Pinta led the way, the known earth, to bar the pathway to the closely followed by the Santa Maria flying the unknown world. Columbus showed them the standard of command, and lastly came the error of their superstition, and how the selfNina. The little fleet seemed a living poem, same phenomena were repeated on the familand the obstacles now past, like those hurled iar shores of Etruria, Italy, Sicily, and Greece. against the heroes of olden epics by adverse But although their dread was speedily tranquilgods, became mere symbols of the evil inherent ized by his marvelous eloquence, any unforein our nature and spreading as a subtle venom seen and fortuitous occurrence threatened to through all creation.

revive their fears and to wreck the plan through There is a lack of agreement as to the part uncontrollable panic. At length a favoring eastthe Genoese pilot and the mariner of Palos erly breeze sprang up, and the ships sped arrow


like on their course. The land soon sank from given to signs of land, which to his anxious view, and the explorers found themselves alone mind seemed to be so near. On the spur of the with sea and sky.

moment, when Pinzon, who was best able to As the astute Genoese well divined the dread comprehend him,came within hailing distance, which the ever-increasing distance was certain he would converse with him through the speakto arouse, he kept two log-books, one for him- ing-trumpet, or exhibit imaginative charts, self and the other for the crew. In the former drawn by himself

, on which appeared the island he recorded the actual run, in the latter a lesser of Cipango, set in those very latitudes through distance; by which device he diminished the his erroneous conception of ocean's limits. At fears and restrained the impatience of his sus- times in some insignificant object he would disceptible shipmates. But in doing this an un- cern a trace of the vanished Atlantis of Plato foreseen complication arose. Their sure guide, merged in the watery abysses. Soon after quitthe compass, that ever had pointed fixedly to ting the Canaries, a broken mast floated by, the north, began to waver. Although this phe- which to the malcontents seemed an omen of nomenon had been known for two centuries,– the punishment reserved for their temerity, the though many say it had never been observed proof of some terrible wreck suffered by others until then,- the crew gave themselves up for who had dared to clutch at old ocean's secrets, lost, and imagined that for them even the one and to violate the mystery wherewith the infixed point was shifting, as though God had scrutable will of Providence had shrouded the cast them off. Columbus recognized the ne- sea. Passing patches of sea-wrack served to cessity of explaining this phenomenon as he confirm a statement in Aristotle's “ Natural had explained the volcanoes. But the explan- History" touching the abundance of tunny-fish ation was not easy, for while the volcanoes were beyond the Fortunate Isles. Any stray bird was like others already known, it was impossible to a prophecy. Columbus was especially encourunderstand or explain the variation of the nee- aged by the small size and frailness of those dle by any familiar fact or experience.


saw, for they could live only on land, near It seems strange that these pilots of Palos human habitations or among cultivated fields and Genoa should have been ignorant of a where they could find proper food. With sinfact like the variation of the compass, touching gular acumen he remarked that these birds did which, as some assert, there then existed dis- not appear to be exhausted, and consequently sertations in the library of the Vatican, that could not have flown far from these inhabited storehouse of astronomical and nautical trea- spots. Whales, too, afforded him like encourtises indispensable to one who, like the pon- agement. Several of these cetaceans suddenly tiff, aspired through his religious power and appeared, spouting high as they basked on the universal authority to dominate all the earth. gentle swell; and he at once reverted to his But this deviation, which is noticed in each pilot's experience and knowledge of natural hislatitude until it becomes an oscillation at the tory, declaring that such creatures never venequator and is reversed in the southern hemi- tured far from the coast, because they love the sphere, may possibly have been observed before land. On one occasion, espying a crab clingthat time, although it remained without plaus- ing to a broken bough, he carefully netted and ible explanation; and so it remains, even in guarded it as a positive sign that fluvial waters our day, one of those occult mysteries which must be near. When all else failed, he dipped surround the countless facts recorded in the up water from the vessel's wake, and, tasting it, tables of intellectual progress. Sailors call this compared it to water he had tested in other inexplicable deviation of the needle “nor’-nor’- times and places, estimating from its greater or westing.” Columbus accounted for it partly less saltiness the amount of admixed fresh water by the shifting of the polar star, partly by the from neighboring mountains or plains. A pelicenter of attraction not being in that star, but can plunged him into a fever of hope. These in some other opaque body near the pole, and birds resemble swans, but are of heavier build, by countless other specious reasons evolved with plumage of pearly whiteness, long and flexfrom his fecund fancy. The crew, however, ible necks, serrated beaks,and webbed feet. Beremained incredulous, unsatisfied by the per- ing equally adapted to live on shore or on water, suasive words of the discoverer. In the south- they stow the sea-caught fish in their capacious ern temperament nervous impatience predom- pouches, and carry them to the land, there to inates. A northerner generalizes less than a devour them at leisure among the trees. All southron. We Spaniards cannot see a thing around them was bright; the calm sea smelt as begun without instantly deducing all its con- sweet as the Guadalquivir overhung by archsequences, nor hear a thing planned without ing orange-bloom; the trade-wind fanned their fancying it already done. To such plastic im- browsand refreshed their frames; shoals of leapaginations fancies appear as solid realities. ing dolphins played beside the hulls; and flocks

The admiral's earnest attention was now of land-birds followed the sails aloft, while the

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splendors ofthe day widened the circle of the sky the primitive state of knowledge at that time in an incomparable and infinite transparency. it was hard to make them understand such

The very loveliness and calm, while buoy, phenomena. Geology was not yet even imaging up the hopes of Columbus, disheartened ined. Beyond the record of Genesis, and the the doubting crew still more, for they deemed scholastic commentaries thereon; beyond the the sea brightened with treacherous gleams to narrow teachings of the erudite literati

, the natwile them, siren-like, before destroying them. uralistic poem of “ Lucrece,” the writings of The unchanged direction of the wind, now fa- Hesiod, and Ovid's “Metamorphoses,” none vorable for their continued advance, but an had searched the fountainhead of things, still invincible obstacle to their return; the varia- less divined the endless chain of cause and eftion of the needle, as though the very north fect which gives birth to systematic existences were abandoning them to chance; the dis- in logical and eternal evolution. Had you told tance sailed without sighting land; the endless them that the work of creation is still going on, and changeless horizons, and the environment and shown them that vegetative rock, having of naught but sea and sky, seemed to them like power to generate other infusorial plants to the surroundings of some other planet, devoid of turn likewise to stone in the lapse of time, and any firm and solid element; and hence sprang with their madreporic cells build up islands the belief, befitting their mental capacity, that and archipelagoes and continents, they would life in this ambient medium of air and water have called you mad, and visited your incurbelonged to birds or fishes, not to man. How able insanity with mockery or blows. Europe strange, then, that their ships should straight- was once joined to Africa where the Strait of way encounter excessively solid obstacles ! On Gibraltar now interposes, as Africa, until yesterreaching a certain spot, great masses of vege- day, was joined to Asia by the Isthmus of Suez, tation filled the ocean, some resembling the pierced under our own eyes. The chain of island mosses of the crags and others purely aquatic, groups stretching westward to the New World is stretched and interwoven in knotty tangle, doubtless a series of signal-stations whose sumforming vast labyrinths of densely matted foli- mits point out the Atlantean land preserved in age floating at hazard. Growths like the land poesy though vanished in reality, even as those plant we call starwort, rootless and stemless tangled forests of giant vegetation, half terresfor better floating, laden with scarlet berries trial, half aquatic, so appalling to these first like the mountain mastic, spread over the sea, explorers, typify the universality of life, ascendmaking it a pathless prairie, as though by magic ing from the lower vegetative organism to the art its fluidity had been turned to wondrously higher animal existence in unbroken sequence. thick and solid vegetation. To sailors already But on encountering this unexpected phenomfilled with distrust, forced unwillingly upon this enon, wherein they beheld only an unfathomvoyage, farout upon a boundless sea, and driven able mystery, the men murmured exceedingly, before an unchanging wind, weary of fruitless while Columbus remained calm and unmoved. watching for some other sign of life than the At length they passed through the herbaceous birds and fishes that came only to disappear sea, and left it far behind. But the dread of again, that thick tapestry about their ships must the sailors, more or less real, abated not, for in truth have seemed a snare spread by demons as the waves had long slumbered beneath their to entangle them, and to hold them forever leafy screen, so now the winds slumbered in a in its treacherous meshes. Their discontent portentous calm. The miserable men watched found vent in those ominous murmurings that their dwindling store of food in dread of starforebode some terrible outbreak of fury. When vation, and the lessening stock of water with they struck this obstacle their sails for eleven fears of thirst. But their greatest terror lay in the days had been bellied by the unchanging wind. prolonged calm, and in the prospect of drifting Although the sounding-lead had often pierced indefinitely upon the infinite deep, to waste and the waters no bottom had been found, even at falland perish. Noagony so sharp as that which the depth of more than two hundred fathoms. heralds hopeless death by hunger and thirst. What with the steadiness of the wind, the fail. The apprehension of such tortures drove them ure to strike soundings, and the density of the frantic. The recollection of so many shipsargasso, there was ample cause for the old wrecked men, clinging to a frail plank on ocean's dread to waken anew, and for the timid to expanse, gnawing their own flesh and sucking shrink back.

their own veins in their delirium, begat in them Familiar with the current fables of maritime such a dread of these unspeakable torments disaster, they dreaded lest they might meet that in their overwrought state they seemed the fate of San Amaro, caught in the clutches actually to endure them. It stood to reason of the ice-pack, and perishing in his floating that any long-continued delay in sighting land prison, when he daringly invaded the frozen must so work upon their fears as to make them ocean, less terrible than the Shadowy Sea. In turn back. No man among them had ever be.

fore ventured two hundred leagues from the lucination, they cried. He was solitary amid coast, and these wretched sailors had already scenes where companionship is craved; he come eight hundred leagues. The two affec- prayed for hours like a recluse, which showed tions we call nostalgia and abhorrence of the his uselessness as a pilot. He was proud of havsea spread among the crew like a pestilence, ing taken the minor orders of the church, as each taking the contagion from his comrade, forestalling a bodily death by dying unto men; until not one was exempt. In their floating like a magician he traced mystic symbols among prison feelings of enmity arose among them, his papers; he foretold strange events like a while all shared in hatred of the admiral who soothsayer; from the commonest occurrences had led them into such dire straits. With he drew the wildest conclusions, like some wizwrathful eyes and curse-laden lips they became ard divining the fortunes of life by palmistry; openly rebellious. No outward influence was and he predicted good luck that came not, like there to calm their minds. They who had hailed a gipsy fortune-teller. with gladness the first circling birds beheld In consequence of all this, the murmurs bethem now with indifference. Not even when came threats presaging mutiny. Columbus met the wind changed were their apprehensions this feeling among his crew with the disdain allayed. Although Columbus welcomed any befitting his inner conviction of a fortunate breeze, however contrary, because it showed outcome to the voyage. When the crew remonthe possibility of progress in some direction, strated, he answered them patiently; when they to them the wind seemed too fierce when it thronged to listen, he fascinated them by the bore them away from their loved Andalusia, flow of his eloquence. After he had overcome and too weak to cheer them when it blew to- their dread of the eruptions of Teyde by telling ward home. While the dead calm palsied all them of Etna and Vesuvius; their dismay at the progress, they writhed like men possessed; and variation of the needle by his hypothesis of the when it rippled the face of the waters, they fan- shifting of the constellations in whose midst the cied themselves driven by blind hazard toward north star shone; their fear of the sea-tangle by the abyss, and suffered the agonies of the stake announcing it to be a certain sign of land; their and the searing brand.

terror when the trade-wind blew unchangingly ** They were right who called this Genoese by predictions of a contrary breeze when they a madman," muttered the sailors. Instead of should reach other latitudes; their affright when being himself bound, he, with a madman's cun- meteors fell as from aërial volcanoes by theories ning, had bound his opponents to his own sad borrowed from his cosmographic knowledge; fate. Inspired by greed alone, he looked for their timorousness of the heavy ground-swell, power and riches impossible of attainment to a when scarce a breath of air stirred, by half-proman of his mean talents and lack of capability. phetic conjectures of currents deep in the bowOnly a foreign outcast, like the admiral, could els of the ocean; meeting their apprehensions thus lightly sacrifice valuable Spanish lives to with facts drawn from his own experience, or the vain schemes bred in his maggoty brain. by brilliant sallies of imagination, or the incisive The sovereigns had distrusted him; but their utterances of his keen Italian wit, and calculacourtiers, more vainglorious than sapient, had tions more or less exact based on his knowledge misled them, and induced them in their good- of mathematics—having done all this, he would ness of heart to encourage this scatter-brained become, as it were, transfigured by the ardor of lunatic. It would be a good thing to lay hold inward faith, offering to them, now voluptuous on him and throw him overboard, to make his paradises like Mohammed, now golden cities reckoning with the sharks that hovered anear like Marco Polo; now happy eclogues like Virthe caravels in instinctive anticipation of their gil, now fortunate eras like the Cumæan Sibyl; approaching feast. There was no such thing as now the spreading of God's holy name among land in all that Shadowy Sea; its fancied allure- far-off peoples like David or Isaiah, now divine ments were but leading them on to be swallowed raptures like St. Francis of Assisi; now schemes up in the deep. They had sailed many weary to win back the Holy Sepulcher like Godfrey leagues, run long courses day by day, traversed of Bouillon, being himself at once cosmograendless spaces with steadfast prow; yet had pher, mathematician, clairvoyant, prophet, and found naught but watery wastes in that barren trader. expanse, as void of islands and continents as the But when he withdrew from their sight, when heaving solitude of the Noachian deluge. There his words were unremembered, they congreis nothing so epidemic as fear, naught so con- gated in the forecastle and fell into their old tagious. These things grew as they were re- ways, venturing to propose schemes of return; peated from lip to lip. By his own conduct for they had gone further than ever man had Columbus fed the doubts he had sown. He gone, and had found abundant proof that in slept not, and sleeplessness is a sure sign of these latitudes there was naught but endless sea madness. He took no food--a proof of hal- and sky. Punctilious, like all good Spaniards; timorous, after the wont of sailors; loquacious, ploration of the Shadowy Sea, and effecting the like all good Andalusians, the real motive which, discovery of America. The whole narrative of after all

, defeated their schemes of turning back the academic historian rests on the sincere and was what we call“ black shame," the dread of trustworthy testimony of the pilot Hernan being called cowards, an epithet inapplicable Perez Mateos, given in his retirement at Santo to such men as they, who for two months had Domingo, when the events were fresh in his sailed the Shadowy Sea, defying the fury of the memory, and when he, an aged man, soon to universe, and tempting even the divine wrath appear before the Divine Judge, realized the by their unparalleled audacity. The established punishment of falsehood in the other world and fact is that they held a meeting for the purpose its dishonor in this. In fact, the crew of the flagof protesting, and positively, though perhaps ship wanted to turn back, and persisted clamonot very respectfully, demanded that the ships rously in their petition. There are some who be turned eastward and homeward.

would belittle the blindness of those men by In these incidents many writers have found the ingenious assertion that they demanded to material enough for dramas and romances of return, not to Spain, but to the imagined islands the most thrilling interest, wherein they pic- left on each hand by the discoverer's pertinature an active mutiny, ending with a melo- city in steering due westward, unlike Pinzon, dramatic appeal by Columbus for three days who made frequent lateral excursions because more of grace, after which, if the Indies were his ship was swifter than the admiral's caravel, not encountered, the deceiver was to surrender which, however, he kept in sight. Indeed, at discretion to the rebels, who had already the lieutenant advocated bearing a little to sworn to quarter his body and to cast it to the the southward in that weary search for the fishes. This done, they were to turn back to west, but without going beyond mere advice. Spain, where they were assured of a triumphal The sailors of the Santa Maria were probably welcome for so just a punishment of this artful less deferential than Pinzon when the admiral cozener. The story remained in vogue a long hurriedly called the council, if we accept the jutime, and the public repeated it. Those most dicial investigation, where the facts of such a familiar with this interesting period of our story complex story as this of the first voyage are so have feared to deprive it of a dramatic element conflictingly told. So, while the two caravels by taking away this picture. But in all con- were tacking to and fro, and the flag-ship was science we must say that, while our scrupulous holding a steady course, Columbus addressed investigations as a historian confirm the grum- the assembly, relating what had occurred and blings and discontent, there was no mutiny, if truthfully setting forth the demands of his crew. we are to credit the testimony of eye-witnesses Thereupon Pinzon gave his views simply and written and avouched at the time. There was fully, adding his condemnation of the malconmuch murmuring against the admiral, and even tents. “Señor,” cried the brave shipmaster of a demand that he should turn back, but no in- Palos, addressing the chief, “your grace should sults or insubordination, much less revolt or hang half a dozen of these fellows and throw disorder.

them overboard, and if this likes you not, I and Yet the opposition to Columbus's purposes my brothers will bear down on them and do it; and course, even if not disrespectful and rio- for a fleet obeying the orders of such exalted tous, must have been formidable since the princes must not return without good tidings." admiral found himself forced to call a council, Hearing this, in plain Castilian, from a man of and to seek its advice touching the continuance such large experience, the grumblers consented of the voyage. Pedro Bilbao, a Biscayan, one to share Columbus's fortunes and returned to of the crew of the admiral's caravel, relates orderly obedience. that he had often heard that some of the sail- When the admiral witnessed the moral power ors wanted to turn back but were dissuaded by of Pinzon over the crew of the flagship, he the admiral, who promised them rewards. Gar- thanked him with suffused eyes and saddened cia Alonso of Palos heard the men say among voice, saying, “ May fortune ever attend you !" themselves that they were lost, whereupon the After this benediction, turning to his comrades, admiral answered that he would soon give them and doubtless feeling in his heart that they were "land ho!” In the judicial proceedings in which not far wrong in view of the indefinite prolongamany of the shipmates of Columbus testified, tion of the voyage, he added, “ Martin Alonso, only one told of a mutinous rising, but from let us do these hidalgos right; let us sail on a hearsay merely, for he did not take part in this few days more, and if therein we sight not land, first voyage. After long study of this incident, we will give another order touching our course." I agree with the account of the scene given by The lieutenant deemed this a needless conthe erudite investigator Fernandez Duro, in his cession to the malcontents, and in a voice essay touching the relations between Pinzon that rose above the tumult of wind and wave and the admiral in setting on foot the first ex- he cried, “Forward! forward! forward!" This

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