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usage, lends dignity to modern inscriptions, for the Mining Building is included within and, by tradition, embalms the liturgical service construction-lines giving an extreme length of the Roman Catholic Church. For reasons of 700 feet and an extreme width of 350, and equally obvious, the other buildings, which are he has found it convenient, for reasons heremainly in charge of the local architects, and after to be explained, to establish 21 feet which are to be placed in a region where nat- as a general module of dimension in laying ural conditions are intended to prevail, might out his construction. The general scheme receive a development much less restricted in of an interior the greater part of which is to regard to style, and, by following more roman- be occupied by masses of classified ores, by tic lines, might be more happily adjusted to their heavy mining appliances of all kinds, and other surroundings. These surroundings invite pic- bulky exhibits requiring large space and conturesqueness, freedom — qualities peculiarly siderable clearheight, should provide for a wide, grateful to American genius, which is naturally central, open area as little encumbered by colimpatient of authority and discipline. But we umns as possible. Thus the preliminary considthink it will be seen that the architects of Chi- eration of this problem seemed to point directly cago have known how to express these qualities to a study of construction. The roofing of large without that license which unhappily is also American; yet with an exuberance, or even joyousness, entirely consistent with refinement of feeling, and in every way appropriate to an occasion of high national festival.
Because of its intermediate position, the Electricity Building may perhaps be considered, in some respects, a transition between these two extremes of architectural thought. At all events, in its sister building, that Mines and Mining, which occupies a site next west of the Electricity Building, lies parallel with it, and is of nearly the same dimensions, the architect, Mr. S. S. Beman of Chicago, has made a frank departure from the pureclassic tradition, exhibiting an adaptation of form to use, of means to ends, in entire conformity with the practical spirit, without caprice, and without sacrifice of any essential quality of art. The contrast between these two buildings clearly illustrates how even the conventional forms of architecture may be so handled as to express a fundamental difference of sentiment, corresponding to the difference of occupation.
Mr. Beman's plan
DRAWN BY H. G. RIPLEY.
spaces under similar conditions for the Pullman Company had prepared Mr. Beman to apply a valuable prac. tical experience to the conditions here presented, the result of which was that he was enabled to roof in an area 230 feet wide by 580 feet long (60 feet inside his boundaries all around) by the use of a very light and elegant system of cantaliver trusses, supporting longitudinal
han central louver with clearstory lights, and bearing upon two rows of steel columns, spaced lengthwise 64'2 feet on centers (or three of the modules above noted), and, transversely, 115 feet; the outer ends of these cantalivers being anchored to two corresponding rows of columns 5772 feet outside of the inner rows. It would be difficult to devise a simpler, a more economical, or a more effective distribution of constructive features. The extreme height of this shed-roof is 94 feet in the center and 44 feet at the bottom of the slope.
The main practical object of the building being thus happily attained, it remained for the architect to surround this center shed or nave with a system of two-storied aisles 60 feet wide, covered with a continuous louvered roof provided with clearstories for light. The conjunction of roof-slopes, where the aisles and the central nave are joined, creates a valley from which the water can be conducted in spouts carried down with the outer line of main columns. Nothing could be more workmanlike and more practical than this whole arrangement.
However much or however little of decorative character may be permitted on the envelop or inclosure of a building of this sort, it cannot
STATUE OF “GODDESS OF FORTUNE." be elevated into the domain of architecture unless this inclosure is developed rationally from sentiment, however various, desirable to be conthe essential conditions of structure behind it, veyed in building as a fine art. It naturally foland is in some way made expressive of its uses. lows that the unusual distribution of the interior Moreover, in the present case it is essential that supports of the roof structure, 64 % feet on cenit should be brought, as a whole, into the great ters, should be expressed in the architectural architectural family of which it is to form a part, scheme of the exterior on the sides by a correby any concession or adjustment that may be sponding distribution of piers, and that these found most convenient. At the outset it would piers should be made massive, as if constructed seem that the uses of the building, the compara- with heavy rusticated masonry laid upin marked tively coarse and rough character of the exhibit horizontal courses. In order to give additional within, require a massive treatment of the ex- emphasis to these expressive buttresses of terior, and that the architectural language em- strength, the whole entablature or cornice of ployed should in general be such as to express the building is broken around them, and they this idea, as it is capable of expressing every are surmounted by decorated pedestals or so
DRAWN BY C. A. VANDERHOOF.
RICHARD W. BOCK, SCULPTOR.
cles supporting banner-staffs. Considerations closed with windows, and the intermediate of proportion give to these piers a width of 10 arches being open with a two-storied loggia feet. It also follows logically that the wide bays behind; but in the central bay the idea of the between these great piers are divided into three portal compels the raising of its cornice, the segmentally arched divisions of one module crowning of it with a highly decorated frontiseach,corresponding to the spacing of the minor piece in pedimental form, and a marked insupports of the gallery floor; which, in its turn, crease in width, height, and depth of the arch, compels the establishment of a horizontal pan- which is not divided by the loggia of the seceled division in each of these arched divisions, ond story. The superior height and developthus forming the first and second-story window- ment of this feature also seems to mask the openings needed for the proper illumination of glazed gable-end of the great roof of the centhe building. In all their divisions and subdi- tral hall; which, however, may be seen in pervisions, therefore, these bays are developed from spective 60 feet behind the line of frontage. the structure by growth, and not forced upon The corner bays are furnished with visible low it by caprice.
domical roofs supporting circular lanterns. In The necessity of bringing the north and south order to obtain a necessary amalgamation beends of the design into a common scale of height tween the monumental masses which form the with the court buildings, at the points where ends of the building and the long inferior curcomparison is challenged between them, sug- tain-wall with its nine bays on the east and west gests the raising of the main cornice here to sides, it is found necessary in the central bay a level 11 feet higher than that established on of these sides to establish a proportionate disthe long fronts by structural conditions. These tribution of masses by repeating in it the moends are thus converted into distinct façades tive of the corner bays with their higher enof seven great bays, the two corner bays and tablature, and by crowning it with a pediment, the central bay in each becoming marked as treating the archway as a subordinate entrance pavilions, the former being 60 feet wide, to cor- or exit in the middle of the long fronts. respond with the width of the inclosing gal- Mr. Beman has not attempted to follow the leries behind them, and the latter, which, from historical styles with precision. Indeed, the logiconsiderations of proportion, grows into a width cal development of his façades has necessarily of 80 feet, becoming the main portal of the conferred upon them a proper modern charbuilding. In all cases the massive and but- acter. We, however, may see here the influtress-like character of the piers is insisted on, ence of the example of the great modillion and, in order to preserve the unity of the de- cornices of the Italian palaces of the sixteenth sign, each constitutes the pedestal of a banner- century, and much other Italian detail of the staff, thus conferring the conventional holiday best eras, mingled with some of the elegant liaspect on a sky-line which might otherwise ap- cense of the modern Renaissance of France; pear too serious and severe for association with and in the treatment of the balconies of his the other buildings of the group. The larger loggia, and of the Doric order which upholds scale of the north and south fronts and their them, we may discover a return to the Rome more monumental character have suggested of the Cæsars. The sculpturesque modeling of the occupation of each of these seven bays by a this building was executed in the ateliers of the great arch, those on the corner pavilions being Phillipson Decorative Company of Chicago.
THE CHATELAINE OF LA TRINITÉ.
By Henry B. FULLER.
Author of “ The Chevalier of Pensieri - Vani."
URELIA WEST, on witnessing the departure of her Italian acquaintance
from Flüelen, by the grandest of all the routes leading down into his own native country, had supposed herself irretrievably devoted to the Teutonic side of the Alps, and reasonably beyond the reach and influence of any other land or race. Had she not just passed within a few hundred yards of the Rütli, still flourishing greenly with the memories of mountain freedom? Was she not now within a mile or two of the birthplace of the liberator and hero of the land ? Had she not beheld within the last hour the monumental rock commemorating at once the hero and his poet? Was she not now surrounded on every hand by scenery the noble grandeur of which might well match and offset even such name and fame? Aye, truly. How pitiful, then, that a wall dingily stuccoed and rudely lettered with the simple word albergo should so put the unthrift and melody of Italy before her as to wipe out completely the glorious Vierwaldstätter See, and make all Switzerland as but a thing that was not ! How deplorable that the good-natured clamor of a company of untidy, uncoated young fellows playing tenpins with the ordinary sprinkling of sei and sette and otto, and no more than the usual allowance of adesso and allora, should have been equal to the canceling of the lines on Tell's own pedestal, and even able to obliterate the lofty inscription on the Mythenstein itself! To think that Schiller and William Téll, and Altdorf and the Axenstrasse and the Frohnalpstock, and other Teutonicalities innumerable, should have been bowled over and sent flying helter-skelter by the hand of an ignorant, unwashed Italian peasant! To think that one who had but to pick and choose among the multiplied magnificences of all Helvetia should, even for a single moment, experience an unreasoning impulse to forego Leman and Lucerne, Pilatus and the Jungfrau, the Tête Noire and the Gemmi, the Oberland and the Dolomites, in order to plunge headlong across the St. Gothard and make one's instant way to Como and Venice and Rome! But such is Italy.
1 Copyright, 1891, by Henry B. Fuller. Vol. XLIV. – 72.