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when it had been in operation three months by one tenth of a cent per pound on sugars had cost about 374 cents per head for each produced by or exported from a country which animal inspected. It is believed that expe- pays a higher export bounty on them than on rience will reduce the cost to 3 cents. The sugars of a lower saccharin strength. To the microscopic inspection of hogs has been in American sugar-producer there is granted a operation only a very short time. For the first bounty of 2 cents per pound on beet, sorghum, month it cost 2013 cents per head, for the sec- sugar-cane, and maple-sugar testing not less ond 1373 cents per head. It is expected that than 90 degrees by the polariscope,and a bounty the cost will shortly be reduced to 5 cents. of 134 cents per pound on sugar testing less than As a result of the adoption of our inspection 90 degrees, but not less than 80 degrees. The laws, our pork products find markets now in payment of this bounty began July 1, 1891, Germany, Denmark, France, and Italy, from and is to continue until July 1, 1905. Maall of which they were formerly excluded. chinery brought to this country to be used in The British restrictions upon the importation the production of raw sugar from native-grown of American cattle have not as yet been beets is admitted duty free until July 1, 1892. modified
On the free list are jute, manila, Sisal grass, the substances used for manure, and animals
imported for breeding purposes, provided that PRESIDENT HARRISON approved October 1, they be pure-blooded, of a recognized breed, 1890, an act whose title declares that it is and are duly registered in the book of record adopted “to reduce the revenue and equalize established for that breed. duties on imports and for other purposes." Thus It is yet too early to show the results of these the McKinley Bill became a law, and the fa- provisions, but attention should be called to mous McKinley tariff was put in operation. the fact that the McKinley Act recognizes This tariff supersedes one provided for in an the farmer's claim to be taken into account act approved March 3, 1883. The McKinley in any legislation furnishing protection to our tariff contains several features which should industries. be noticed here.
RECIPROCITY. Schedule G, which in the earlier act bore the title“ Provisions,” now bears the title “ Agricul
SECTION 3 of this act is the famous reciproctural Products and Provisions," and provides ity legislation. It reads as follows: duties on live animals, breadstuffs, farinaceous substances, dairy products, farm and field pro- With a view to secure reciprocal trade with ducts, seeds, fish, fruits and nuts, meat products, countries producing the following articles, and for salt, and miscellaneous products. Other sched- this purpose, on and after the first day of Januules provide duties on wool, lumber, tobacco, ary, eighteen hundred and ninety-two, whenever spirits, wines, flax, hemp, jute, and leather. Thé and so often as the President shall be satisfied table given below, prepared from the report of that the Government of any country producing the Secretary of Agriculture for 1890, shows hides, raw and uncured, or any of such articles,
and exporting sugars, molasses, coffee, tea, and some of the more important changes.
imposes duties or other exactions upon the agriSugars are free except those above No. 16 cultural or other products of the United States, Dutch standard in color, which pay a duty of which in view of the free introduction of such one half cent per pound. This duty is increased sugar, molasses, coffee, tea, and hides into the United States he may deem to be reciprocally un- 25% from the duties provided in the tariff now equal and unreasonable, he shall have the power in force or from any which may be adopted and it shall be his duty to suspend, by proclama- hereafter: lard and its substitutes; hams; butter tion to that effect, the provisions of this act relat- and cheese ; canned and preserved meats, fish, ing to the free introduction of such sugar, molas- fruit, and vegetables; manufactures of cotton; ses, coffee, tea, and hides, the production of such country, for such time as he shall deem just, and manufactures of iron and steel not included in such case and during such suspension duties in the former list; leather and its manufacshall be levied, collected, and paid upon sugar, tures, except boots and shoes; lumber, timmolasses, coffee, tea, and hides, the product of ber, and the manufactures of wood, including or exported from such designated country. cooperage, furniture, wagons, carts, and carThen follow the duties : on sugar varying
20% ad val...
20% ad val..
20% ad val..
Other, per Ib....
ad val. Other,
32% ad val. zoc. $4. 150. $2.75. $2.00. Stemmed, 50c. Unstemmed, 35C. 25c.
riages; manufactures of rubber.
The President has suspended by proclamafrom seven tenths of a cent to 2 cents per tion the free admission into the United States pound; on molasses, 4 cents per gallon; on of sugar, molasses, coffee, tea, and hides from
, coffee, 3 cents per pound; on tea, 10 cents Colombia, Hayti, and Venezuela. per pound; on hides, 12 cents per pound.
This section may be taken as an express This provision was intended to secure trade privileges in return for the free admission of
acknowledgment by the country that it is the products into this country. Under it there duty of the National government to make it have been concluded treaties providing for
possible for the farmer to find favorable mar
kets abroad. reciprocity with Brazil, Cuba, and Porto Rico, the Dominican Republic, Salvador, Trinidad,
COLLECTION AND DISSEMINATION OF Barbadoes, Leeward Islands, Windward Isl
INFORMATION. ands, British Guiana, and Jamaica, Nicaragua, Germany, and Honduras. To describe the AMONG the most important acts of Congress provisions of all these treaties would require touching the welfare of the farmer are those too much space. That with Brazil admits the which provide for the establishment of instifollowing articles, products of the United States, tutions of learning which are to give special free of all duties, national, State, or municipal: attention to agriculture and the sciences rewheat; wheat-flour; maize and its manufac- lated to it; for the maintenance of agricul. tures; rye, rye-flour, buckwheat, buckwheat- tural experiment stations which are devoted flour, and barley; potatoes, beans, and peas; to the scientific investigation of agricultural hay and oats; salted pork; fish, salted, dried, or problems; and for the elevation of the United pickled; cotton-seed oil; coal; rosin, tar, pitch, States Department of Agriculture to a cabinet and turpentine; agricultural tools, implements, department. All these acts will be sufficiently and machinery; mining and mechanical tools, noticed in other articles in this series. These implements and machinery, including station- three educational agencies, the colleges, the ary and portable engines, and all machinery for stations, and the Department, are the most manufacturing and industrial purposes except important ones now at work for the bettersewing-machines; instruments and books for ment of agricultural matters, for nothing can the arts and sciences; and railway-construction benefit the farmer so much as a knowledge of material and equipment. In addition, the fol- the best methods of farming for the region in lowing articles are admitted at a reduction of which he may live.
A. W. Harris.
TOPICS OF THE TIME.
Responsibility for Political Corruption.
supply the money, not the men who are tempted to take it at the sacrifice of their honor.
When we to State and municipal politics,
main responsibility for it upon the ignorant voters. “If to the same sources, and we find an even greater one in we had not such a large ignorant vote, a great deal of the buying and selling of legislation in the legislative it foreign,” they say, we should get along much bet. bodies. It is a matter of common knowledge that all ter. We should not have so much money used cor- the great railway and other corporations, all the banks ruptly in carrying elections, or in influencing the course and chartered institutions which have large vested of legislation.” Is this an accurate diagnosis of the rights and interests to protect, are obliged to keep close case? Let us consider the chief forms of corruption, watch by means of hired agents upon the law-making and see whether it is.
bodies of the various States, to guard themselves against To begin with national politics, the chief method of hostile legislation, or to promote the passage of facorruption is the use of large sums of money in carry- vorable measures. In many instances large sums of ing Presidential elections. A great deal of this money money are devoted each year to this work in the legis. is used for legitimate purposes, but a great deal more latures. It is disguised under some such term as “ legal of it has been used in the recent past for the direct pur- expenses,” but the managers of the corporations and chase of votes. This was conceded to be the case in the institutions who authorize its expenditure know what campaign of 1888, when both political parties raised its purposes are. It is admitted, indeed, by many of unprecedentedly large campaign funds, each making them that the money is used for corrupt purposes, but excuse that it must do so to counteract the other. The it is claimed that such use is an absolute necessity for corrupt purpose of these rival funds was disclosed by the protection of the property which is in their charge. the fact that they were raised during the final days of They argue that so long as legislative bodies are conthe campaign, when the legitimate work of electioneer- stituted as they are at present, with venal elements ing had been finished. There were no more documents frequently holding the balance of power, direct bribery to be distributed, no more halls and headquarters to is the only method for warding off injurious legislation, be hired, few or no more parades to be organized or or securing desirable legislation. mass meetings to be held.
Before inquiring as to the responsibility for this kind Who supplied the money for those funds ? Did it of corruption, let us see to what it leads. It has brought come from the ignorant and foreign portion of the elec- into public life a class of men known as legislative torate, or from its intelligent, native, and more respec- “jobbers” or “ strikers.” Frequently, in order to get table elements? It is unnecessary to answer these elected, these pay sums several times as large as the questions. Did not the contributors suspect that their salary which the office affords, their object being to money was to be used for corrupt purposes? If they get into a position in which they can traffic in legisladid not, what other use did they think would be made tion. They introduce measures designed to injure corof it? If they did suspect, why did they, as reputable porate and vested rights, in order to be "bought off” citizens, upright and honorable members of society, from pressing them. They organize “cliques" and contribute it? Simply because they had become so "combines,” and require payment for the votes of this interested in the campaign, so desirous of partizan organized gang of plunderers for or against any meavictory, that their moral sense was blunted to practi- sure in which they think there is “something for them.” cal extinction. They shut their eyes and consciences These men would never have thought of going into a at the same time; gave their money, asked no questions legislature had not the business of paying for legislaas to its use, and got ready to toss up their hats with tion been encouraged and built up by the corporations joy at the victory which they hoped it would bring. and other aggregations of capital. Yet if their money went into the hands of a professional Is there any doubt about the responsibility for this corruptionist, who distributed it among his agents, kind of corruption? Does it rest upon the miserable which agents went with it into the slums of great cities creatures who have been attracted, like flies to offal, hy and bought with it the votes of ignorant and foreign. the bribes offered in the halls of legislation, or upon born electors, thus debauching the suffrage - upon the men of character and standing in the community whose head rested the responsibility? Which was the who as presidents, directors, and managers of corporamore guilty in the sight of God and man, the poor, tions and institutions furnish the bribes ? What would ignorant wretch who yielded to the temptation of the happen if these presidents, directors, and managers, man who went to him with the money in his hand, or from one end of the land to the other, were to come the respectable, intelligent, honorable member of so- together and declare that henceforth not a cent would ciety who supplied the temptation ?
they authorize for use in influencing legislation of any Partizanship is not the only motive for such giving. kind ? What would happen if they were to agree that Positions of honor and profit in the public service, in every instance in which a demand were made upon legislation of great value to private business interests, them by a legislator or his agent for money as a price are bought and sold in advance of election, the goods of legislation, they would make public exposure of the to be delivered in case of success at the polls. Here same, and do their utmost to have the guilty person again the authors of the corruption are the men who punished ? Would not the whole nefarious and demor
VOL. XLIV.- 62.
alizing business disappear, and with it the legislative anxious to obtain it to work together for that end with“jobbers” and “strikers ” it has bred and nourished out regard to the considerations of national politics, until they have made popular government a mockery, It is proposed to have a club-house which, in addition and the halls of legislation, in more than one instance, to the usual accompaniments of such buildings, will a den of thieves ?
have facilities for publishing and distributing docu. There has never been any corruption in politics, in ments and other educational literature. The minimum any nation that the world has ever seen, in which the membership of 500, proposed as a beginning, was responsibility did not rest upon the man who offered quickly reached, and the membership is approaching the bribe rather than upon the man who took it. It its first thousand. The idea is to organize ultimately does not lessen this responsibility if there be one the intelligence and morality of the community as or a dozen middlemen between the bribe-giver and thoroughly as the cupidity and ignorance of it have the bribe-taker. What is wanted is a moral sense for years been organized by the political machines, and which will be as keen in political matters as it is in thus to make the former a power which shall drive the private and commercial matters. No reputable man latter from the control of the government. ought to give a dollar for political purposes unless he The alacrity with which eminent citizens of all politican have in return an accounting for its use. Every cal faiths have joined in the movement furnishes eviman who contributes to a large campaign fund, to be dence, as encouraging as it is surprising, that there is expended by a professional corruptionist without any an abundance of public spirit in the city which has public or private accounting of the uses to which it is generally been accused of having less of that quality put, is an accomplice in a gigantic scheme of bribery than almost any other in the country. which he has helped to make possible. Every man But in how many other cities do the most intelligent who contributes a penny to the blackmail levied elements of the population neglect entirely municipal against him, either as an individual or as a member affairs for the greater part of the time, taking only a of a corporation, is an accomplice in the systematic de- brief and often misdirected interest in them for a few bauching of popular government which is in progress weeks preceding an election ? The men who make in the legislative bodies of this country to-day. politics their occupation and means of livelihood devote
Why is it that it is so difficult to secure a more hon- all their energies to the business every day in the year. est administration of the government of a great city They have their meeting places, or halls, and their or. like New York? There are many reasons, but the chief ganization is in constant readiness for a contest. They of them is not the cupidity and ignorance of the lower would never make the blunder of allowing their organclass of voters. Why do men not only consent to pay ization to go to pieces after each election, trusting to luck “assessments” to the Tammany dictators as the price to get it together again in time to carry the next election. of nominations for office, but why do they also consent to There is not a city in the land in which the respectable contribute directly to its campaign funds under fear of and intelligent citizens are not in an overwhelming mahostile treatment in case they refuse ? An instance is jority. Bad municipal government in the United States, within our knowledge in which the members of a firm which is the almost universal rule, exists only because of were as individuals deeply interested in the campaign the refusal of these citizens to take control of their own of the People's Municipal League against Tammany affairs. They allow themselves, in the first place, to be Hall in 1890, and as individuals were contributors to divided into two factions because of their national pothe League's fund, yet as a firm they contributed also litical affiliations. This gives the politicians who get to the Tammany Hall fund in order to be on good their living out of bad municipal government their most terms with Tammany after election. The idea that their important point of vantage: they have the enemy surely moral obligations as good citizens were greater than and permanently divided. Having given the politicians their business interests did not occur to them, or, if it this advantage at the outset, the intelligent and respecdid, was not powerful enough to control their conduct. table citizens give them the further advantage of re.
Instead of being the source of our political corrup- fraining from all permanent organization. These are tion, the ignorant voter is the victim of it. If he be for- notorious facts, and it is unnecessary to dwell upon them, eign-born, almost the first lesson he receives in Ameri- or upon the results which flow naturally from them. can politics is that elections are controlled by cor- The City Club idea is aimed directly at the two worst rupt men for corrupt purposes, and that the rich and evils of our present system. It requires its disciples respectable members of American society supply to say that they will leave national politics out of the money for this work of debauchery. Instead of educat. problem, and that they will enroll themselves as mem. ing him to a high and just conception of his duties and bers of a permanent organization, paying annual dues privileges as a citizen, we are teaching him the lowest for its support and for the prosecution of its work, and one possible. The dangerous consequences of such holding themselves in readiness at all times to unite in teaching need not be pointed out. Every instinct of a common movement for a common purpose. It is based patriotism, as well as every moral obligation, ought to on the belief that the intelligent citizen will find in civic show to every man who loves his country what his duty pride an incentive to political work as powerful and abis in the premises.
sorbing as the ignorant and corrupt politician finds in
the spoils of office. We do not believe that this is a mis. A New Movement in Municipal Reform.
placed confidence. There is no lack of civic pride in A FEW public-spirited young men in New York City any city of America. It exists everywhere in constantly have set on foot a project which ought to find imitators increasing volume, because of the shame which the in all other large cities of the land. They have founded scandals of municipal misgoverninent are bringing a City Club, composed of men who are in favor of bet- upon us as a people. With proper organization it can ter municipal government, and who are sufficiently be converted into a tremendous power for good, and
such organization the City Club idea seems surely to derful powers as a controversialist, published a series of promise.
pamphlets or letters addressed to the tradesmen, shopEvery patriotic citizen, and every sympathizer with the keepers, farmers, and common people in general, on hardships and sufferings of his fellow-creatures, ought the subject of the debased coin, which made a power. to rejoice at an opportunity to join an organization of ful impression in both England and Ireland, and has. this character. Municipal misrule is a scandal and a tened the repeal of Wood's patent. These letters shame, but its most deplorable aspect is the suffering were signed “ Drapier,” and are known in the collecwhich it causes to the most helpless portion of every tions of Swift's works under that title. We shall make city's population, the poor. It is upon them that the a few quotations from them with a view to showing evil of dishonest and ignorant government bears most how perfectly his arguments against the folly of deheavily in the end. In the model governments of cities based or cheap money, made 170 years ago, apply to like Glasgow, Berlin, Edinburgh, and Birmingham, it the proposal to inflict upon the American people a de. is the poor whose health, happiness, and security are based silver dollar worth only 70 cents. most carefully provided for and protected. In many It was urged in defense of Wood's money that copof our cities the government not merely ignores their per halspence were scarce in Ireland; that the people needs, it brutally aggravates and multiplies their dis- needed more copper money for the transaction of their tresses. It does nothing to soften the hardness of their business; and that if the supply were greater every. lives, but nearly everything possible to make their bur- body would be more prosperous. All that sounds very dens heavier.
familiar. It was also said, in answer to a query as to
whether Wood would keep his coinage within the Another Word on “Cheap Money."
£108,000 limit, that he would be guided in that respect
by the“ exigencies of trade.” That phrase also sounds With the failure of the free-coinage bill in Congress, very familiar. Here is what Swist says on that point: the danger that this country might be called upon to pass through the quagmire of a fresh cheap-money experi. less the exigencies of trade require it: First, I observe
Wood proposes that he will not coin above £40,000 unment seems to have been averted, for the present surely, that this sum of £40,000 is almost double to what I proved and in all probability for a long time to come. It is ap- to be sufficient for the whole kingdom, although we had parent now that whatever of popular sentiment there be judge when the exigencies of trade require it? With
not one of our old halfpence left. Again I ask, who is to may have been behind the free-silver movement at its out doubt he means himself, for as to us of this poor king; beginning, there was very little behind it at the time dom, who must be utterly ruined if his project should of the free-coinage bill's failure, and even less at this succeed, we were never once consulted till the matter was moment than there was then. The American people ther will these be ever at an end till he and his accom
over, and he will judge of our exigencies by his own; neihave always shown great quickness in educating them- plices will think they have enough. selves on financial and economic questions, and the sudden subsidence of the free-silver “craze" shows that the
In reference to the effects of cheap halfpence on the work of education, so far as that form of cheap money people of Ireland, Swift said: is concerned, has been practically accomplished.
Mr. Wood will never be at rest but coin on : so that in THE CENTURY rejoices sincerely in the assurances some years we shall have at least five times four score and which have come to it from many sources that its ef- ten thousand pounds of this lumber. Now the current forts to assist in this work of education have not been hundred thousand pounds in all; and while there is a
money of this kingdom is not reckoned to be above four unsuccessful. Now that the work is ended for the silver sixpence, these blood-suckers will never be quiet. present, it may not be amiss, in taking leave of the sub. When once the kingdom is reduced to such a condition ject in these columns, to quote a few striking passages, estates will all turn off their tenants for want of payment,
I will tell you what must be the end: The gentlemen of on the evils of cheap money, from the writings of two because the tenants are obliged by their leases to pay masters of vigorous English who studied different sterling, which is lawful current money of England; phases of those evils in former times. The truth of
then they will turn their own farmers, run all into sheep
where they can, keeping only such other cattle as are their forcible language will be all the more appreciated necessary; then they will be their own merchants, and now, since we are coming more and more each day to a send their wool and butter and hides and linen beyond proper realization of the perils from which, as a na
sea for ready money and wines and spices and silks.
The farmers must rob or beg or leave the country. The tion, we have had so narrow an escape.
shopkeepers in this and every other town must break and In 1722 one William Wood, a hardware merchant, starve, for it is the landed man that maintains the merobtained from the British crown a patent to coin cop. chant, and shopkeeper, and handicraftsman. I should
never have done, if I were to tell you all the miseries that per money for Ireland to the amount of £108,000.
we shall undergo if we be so foolish and wicked as to He had no power to compel any one to take his half- take this cursed coin. . . In short, those halfpence pence, which he coined under this grant and sent to are like the accursed thing, which, as the Scripture tells Ireland; and when a large batch of them arrived there will run about like the plague and destroy everyone who
us, the children of Israel were forbidden to touch ; they the people refused to take and use them as money. lays his hands upon them. They were made of such base metal, and were so much smaller than the English halfpence, that they were Carlyle, in his “ French Revolution,” uses scarcely worth in gold or silver not more than a twelfth of their less vigorous, and even more picturesque, language in face-value. When the Irish people refused to accept regard to the assignats which were issued in France them as money, there was talk of Wood's obtaining or between 1789 and 1796. These were in the form of ders from the crown compelling the king's commission paper money, based at first upon the security of coners and collectors of customs in Ireland to take them as fiscated church lands, and afterward upon all the namoney, and thus force them into circulation. Upon this tional domains and other property. They were issued proposition Dean Swist, then in the full vigor of his won- to the amount of over forty-five billion francs, and be.