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warehouses, the work of commissioners of ag- to heavy hydraulic pressure. The fluid portion riculture and of boards of agriculture, farmers' extracted is known as oleomargarin. When institutes, district libraries, and the like. churned with a certain proportion of fresh

It is, then, the object of this article to state milk a butter is produced which mixes with very briefly the essential features of the more it, and the buttermilk imparts a flavor of fresh important recent acts of Congress bearing bútter to the mass, making an imitation so perupon the development of agricultural inter- fect that it can scarcely be distinguished by ests in the United States.

taste from fresh butter. There seems to be little doubt that the product of this process, when

made from carefully selected fats, by the best OLEOMARGARIN.

method, is pure, sweet, wholesome, and more IN 1886, at the solicitation of the dairy in- palatable than some butters. terests, Congress passed a law, which the Presi- The act above referred to, popularly known dent approved August 2, defining butter and as the Oleomargarin Act, with the exception imposing a tax upon and regulating the manu- of section 1, which contains a definition of butfacture, sale, importation, and exportation of ter, is devoted entirely to oleomargarin. It oleomargarin.

lays a special tax of $600 upon manufacturers, In 1867 a French chemist, Mége-Mouries, of $480 upon wholesale dealers, and of $48 surmising that the presence of butter in milk upon retail dealers. A stamp tax of two cents was due to the absorption of fat contained in a pound, to be paid by the manufacturer, is the animal tissues, began experiments on the assessed upon every pound or upon every packseparation of the oils of animal fat. He suc- age containing a fraction of a pound. It proceeded in separating fatty matter into stearin vides for exportation free of tax, and subjects and oleomargarin, the second of which he imports to an internal revenue tax of 15 cents used for butter-making. His discovery be- per pound in addition to any customs duty. came known, and when introduced into the Each package is to be marked, stamped, and United States, led to the development of a branded as prescribed by the Commissioner large industry for the manufacture of artificial of Internal Revenue. Severe penalties are imbutter from beef fat. This fat is composed posed for manufacturing or selling without chiefly of three oils or fats- stearin, olein, paying the proper tax, for buying from those and palmatin. The second and third are the who have not paid the proper tax, and for faillargest constituents of butter. Stearin appears, ing properly to label packages. The law, as inbut in very much reduced proportion. The troduced in Congress, was doubtless intended manufacture is based upon the circumstance to prohibit the manufacture; but, as passed, it that the three fats melt at different tempera- is a protective measure. It protects the buttertures, olein requiring the least heat and stearin maker not, as originally intended, by imposing the most. The animal fat is first carefully a tax sufficiently great to deprive oleomargarin washed in cold water and cleaned from all of the advantage of cheapness, but by freeing portions of flesh and from other impurities. It butter from the competition of oleomargarin is then heated until melted. The mixture of under the name of butter. It protects consumoils obtained is allowed to cool until some of ers from the imposition of imitation butter for the palmatin and a large part of the stearin real. The reports of the Commissioner of Interbecome solid. The mixture is then subjected nal Revenue show the following figures :

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221

35291

June 30, 1890+!

786,292

65,524

32,324,032

2,693,669

179 1

June 30, 1891

1,077,924

89,827

44,392,409

3,699,367

19 0

255 0

5914

* For 8 months from November 1, 1886, when the law went into operation. | For the "special tax year" ending April 30. + The cheapness of butter and stringent State laws account for the decrease. $ For 14 months ending June 30, 1891. The law of Oct., 1891, made the "special tax year" end June 30, to conform with fiscal year.

Those who wished to prohibit the manufac- Moreover, an increase in the number of the ture and sale have been disappointed, for the details to be considered, such as would result oleomargarin industry has actually increased from making the districts very much smaller since the passage of the act. It has not, how- than the States, would greatly augment the difever, failed in noteworthy results. It has helped ficulty of making any predictions at all. It to raise the price of butter, especially that of will be seen that it is impossible for one obgood butter. Further, by confining the oleo- server at Washington to make local predictions. margarin competition to the poorer grades of The farmer, however, cares very little to know butter, it has doubtless caused improvement in that rain is to fall in his State or that a frost is these grades. Again, by preventing oleomar- likely to occur within three or four hundred garin from masquerading as a more expensive miles of him. He wants to be warned of the article, it has kept the price down, greatly to frost and the summer downpour that now find the advantage of consumers. And, lastly, by him unprepared. But in order to make such compelling oleomargarin to be sold under its predictions as his needs require, it is necessary own name, it has relieved that product from to take local conditions into consideration. Á the reproach of being a fraudulent article and lake, a river-valley, or a forest may affect the has given it an honorable position in com- weather of adjacent regions. Mountains or hills merce as a legitimate means of utilizing waste quite insignificant in the calculations of the products, and as a cheap, wholesome substitute Washington prophet will sometimes determine for an expensive necessity.

the weather of many farms. If these influences are to be considered, the work of forecasting

the weather must be divided, and, in addition THE FARMER AND THE WEATHER.

to the general predictions from Washington, we The weather service of the United States must have local predictions prepared by officers was until recently under the charge of the War in charge of small districts. Such officers have Department, and its conduct was a part of the already been appointed by the Secretary of work of the Signal Office. Under this manage- Agriculture, and their number will doubtless be ment it devoted itself chiefly to the interests of increased when the usefulness of their work is commerce, though some attempts were made shown. This, however, can not be fully demonto help the farmer by warning him of frosts and strated until, by the cheapening of telegraph floods, and by studies in lines in which he is and telephone service, and by the extension of especially interested. By an act approved free mail delivery, effective means are found for October 1, 1890, the weather service was carrying the predictions to the farmer in time transferred from the War Department to the for his use. The present work of the local obDepartment of Agriculture, of which it became servers is of service in perfecting their methods, a bureau, and it is expected that every effort and their forecasts are of great usefulness to the will now be made to increase the value of the farmers who can be reached; but their full value service to agriculture. The development of the can never be realized until it is possible to put work of this bureau will be of great interest to them promptly into the hands of all the farthe farmer. In the past, good reasons have ren- mers who can use them. dered it impossible to make the weather service It is also to be expected that the Weather of very great value to him. In the main its Bureau will undertake the study of those probwork has been the preparation of the familiar lems which lie in the common domain of mepredictions, which have been made for large teorology and agriculture. Thus it will doubtareas. At present the areas selected are single less make systematic studies of the climate, States. The predictions are made by an officer which is almost if not quite as important to in Washington to whom observations are re- the farmer as the soil which he cultivates; for ported from a large number of stations situated it is the climate more than the soil which fits a in various parts of the country. He glances given region for particular crops. We speak of over these reports, noting the places where rain the peach land of New Jersey and Delaware, has fallen, and the network of temperatures and but it would be nearer the fact to speak of barometric pressure; sees how the conditions the peach climate. It is chiefly climate that have been changing since the last predictions fits Florida and California for the orange, were made; and, perhaps with scarcely time to the North for corn and wheat, and the South weigh the reasons for his conclusions, makes for cotton and sugar-cane. In this line the up his predictions in regard to the weather of Weather Bureau can be of great service to the immediate future. He can give but a very the farmer, and it need not wait for improvesmall amount of time - perhaps two minutes- ments in the facilities for communication, for to each State. Any decrease in the size of the climate is permanent, and there will be no difdistricts would, by increasing their number, ficulty in presenting results of its study in time. make shorter the time to be devoted to each. Very little work of this kind has yet been done, but the following quotation from an article by materially hastened the maturity of the plant the present chief of the Weather Bureau, writ- and brought it well within the length of the ten before his appointment, will indicate some season. Similar determinations of meteoroof the possibilities:

logical requirements should be made for other The State services have in several cases pub

staple crops.

Studies should also be made of the way in lished climatic studies of their own States which are useful, although they have not exhausted even which plants are affected by removal from one the material on hand. They are in all cases to be climate to another. We know that an apple looked on as provisional, mere sketches and out- which is successful in New York may be an lines, to be followed by more complete studies. entire failure in Virginia, but we know little There are also many individual problems which of the laws which govern the adaptability of have been studied with more care. Professor plants to climates. Still other problems are conChickering has called attention to the warm band nected with forests, soils, the movement of existing half-way up the Alleghanies. Mr. Alex- water in the soil, and the effect of climatic conander has found a cold island in southeastern ditions on insect and other pests. Michigan. Mr. Curtis has made a careful study of the hot winds of the plains. More complete

It is easy to see that when specialists tum are the studies made by Dr. Waldo on the distri- their attention to this field of work, as yet bution of average wind velocities over the States; almost unexplored, many opportunities will by Professor Davis and others on the sea breezes present themselves for investigations of great of the Massachusetts coast; and by Professor T. moment to the farmer, and it is not improbRussell on our cold waves. These are all of high able that the act which placed the weather serimportance to the farmer, but the number of vice in charge of the Department of Agriculture them is so small that they hardly do more than serve as specimens of what can and ought to be may some day come to be regarded as one of done for him.

the most important originating in the eventful

Fifty-First Congress. This work will doubtless be entered upon at once, and we may confidently look forward to

A NEW SUGAR INDUSTRY. the time when we shall have a complete climatology for each region of our country. From this The act making appropriation for the United the farmer may learn the danger of torrential States Department of Agriculture for the fiscal rains or cloud-bursts, the amount of dew to be year beginning July 1, 1891, contains the folexpected, the average temperature and the ex- lowing provision : tremes of variation, the frequency and amount of rain, danger of droughts, distribution of snow,

Any manufacturer of sugar from sorghum may amount of sunshine, and the like. These data used solely for the manufacture of such sugar dis

remove from distillery warehouses to factories will go a long way toward indicating the pos- tilled spirits in bond free of tax, to be used solely sibilities of profitable culture in any region.

in such manufacture; all distilied spirits when There are other important problems which so used may be recovered by redistillation. the bureau will study or which it will perhaps assist the agricultural experiment stations in For a number of years sugar-making experistudying. Among these are, for instance, the ments with sorghum have been conducted meteorological conditions most favorable to the by the Department of Agriculture. Sorghum, growth of individual plants. It has been found sometimes called Chinese sugar-cane, is a cane

, that the cotton-plant requires in the earlier part like grass, having the general appearance, statof its growth plenty of warmth and moisture ure, and habit of broom-corn and the taller to develop stem and foliage, while in the later varieties of maize, but more slender than the period of growth less moisture is desirable in latter and bearing no ears. It contains an order to favor full and early development of amount of sugar which many years ago caused seed and lint. The meteorological conditions it to be regarded as likely to become one of the of South Carolina are generally favorable, but important sources of our sugar supply, but till the right cultivation of the soil is necessary. recently this expectation has not been realized; Of late years the improvements in the regula. for although a ton of sorghum contains 200 or tion of the moisture by the management of the more pounds of sugar, but 80 pounds could be soil are noteworthy. Sea-island cotton is fa- crystallized out of the concentrated syrup, or mous for its quality, and brings a high price, yet molasses. To ascertain the cause of this fact, some years ago it was thought that the culture the Department made investigations which of this cotton must be abandoned even on the led to the discovery that the substances which sea islands, largely because its season of growth, prevented the crystallization of the sugar were which was so long as to render it liable to be chiefly gums, which could be entirely taken out caught by frosts, made the crop very uncertain. by the addition of alcohol to the juice. Alcohol Improved methods of culture have, however, causes the gums to collect and settle, so that

when the juice is filtered or strained they can tries. The reason assigned for these regulations be pressed into a hard mass on the filter-cloths, was the absence of any United States governand easily removed. This method of treatment ment inspection of live stock and meat proincreased the yield of crystallized sugar from ducts to guarantee them free from disease. 80 to 160 pounds per ton of cane. Studies Two acts of Congress, one approved August were then instituted looking to the recovery of 30, 1890, and the other March 3, 1891, authe alcohol, with the object of using it again thorize the Secretary of Agriculture to inspect and again. Experiments conducted on a labo- animals and meats intended for export or for ratory scale showed that the alcohol, after interstate trade. In compliance with the law having been used, might be recovered by dis- he has established, through the Bureau of Anitillation with a loss of less than 5 per cent., and mal Industry, an inspection of live stock for often of not more than 1 per cent., and that export and an inspection of meats. the gums themselves might be fermented and The inspection of live stock is intended to made a source of the alcohol used in the pro- detect all animals that are diseased or infected cess. The only difficulty in the way of using with disease, and to prevent stock from becomthis process was the cost of the large amount ing diseased in transport

. The veterinary inof alcohol needed. This did not result from the spection of neat cattle and sheep to be exported expense of making the alcohol, which is slight, to Great Britain, Ireland, and the continent of but from the heavy internal revenue taxes. Europe is made at a number of interior cities

The legislation referred to above was in- and at seaports from which stock are shipped. tended to remove these taxes and to make the The cattle inspected at interior cities, when newly discovered process applicable to the prac- found free from disease and from exposure to tical manufacture of sugar; and it is reasonable contagion, are tagged and shipped to the port to expect that it will at an early date lead to of export, where they are again inspected. Railthe establishment of a new sugar industry. This road companies are required to furnish clean will belong almost entirely to the United States, and disinfected cars. Persons who ship live for the sorghum can not be grown successfully stock must give the name of the place from north of us, nor extensively south of us. The which the animals come and the name of the growing of sorghum will not, like the cultiva- feeder, to enable the bureau to trace diseases tion of sugar-cane, be confined to a small dis- to their origin. The inspector at the interior trict and to a small number of great planters, city, after passing cattle and tagging them, forbut will be profitable in the enormous semi-arid wards to the veterinary inspector in charge of region, including the central part of southern the port of export for which they are destined Kansas, Oklahoma, and a large part of Texas. the tag numbers and a description of the cars

During the last summer and fall experiments in which the animals are shipped. At the port have been made on an extensive scale to test the animals are unloaded from the cars at the the value of this process from a commercial wharves, whenever possible; and when it is nestandpoint, and a very important development cessary to transport them to ocean steamers by is the fact that the sugar made is unusually pure. means of boats, these must be cleaned and thorThe refining of sugar is simply a process of oughly disinfected, and must not receive more cleaning or washing, by which impurities ad- cattle or sheep than can be carried comfortably. hering to the crystals are removed. With cane- No vessel with cattle or sheep for Great Britain, sugar this usually results in raising the percent. Ireland, or the continent of Europe can receive age of pure sugar from a figure ranging between clearance papers until the veterinary inspector 90 95 before refining to 99.8 per cent. after certifies to the collector of the port that the anirefining. The raw product of the alcohol pro- mals have been duly inspected, and that the cess is already about 95 per cent. pure, and law has been fully complied with. will serve for many purposes as it is. This will As Great Britain has insisted upon the exismake it possible for the producer of sorghum tence of contagious pleuropneumonia in Amersugar to put a large part of his product upon ican cattle when the United States Department the market without refining, will save the ex- of Agriculture claimed that infection did not pense of that process, enable the producer and exist, the Secretary of Agriculture, through the consumer to deal directly with each other, and State Department, recently obtained permission by reducing the power of the refiners will de- from the British government for American vecrease the danger of sugar trusts.

terinarians to participate with the British officers in inspecting American cattle landed at

British ports. In August, 1890, three American INSPECTION OF LIVE STOCK AND MEATS.

inspectors were sent to England. Up to SepFor many years our exports of live stock tember 19, 1891, they examined 374,000 head and meat products have been very much re- of cattle with the most gratifying results. The stricted by hostile regulations in foreign coun- English officers alleged contagious pleuro

and

pneumonia in only three cases, and in these that they consume. How it gains entrance cases the judgment of the American inspectors, to American swine is not known. The worms who disputed the English diagnosis, was con- when eaten pass into the intestines of the host firmed by the highest English veterinary au- animal, where they multiply, each female givthorities.

ing rise to about 1800 offspring. The young The Department also makes inspection of pass through the walls of the intestines, and meats upon application of the proprietors of wander through the body until they reach the slaughter-houses or packing-houses. An in- muscular tissue. Muscles, when divided into spector is appointed for each establishment. He their last component parts, consist of long, must be given full and free access at all times slender bodies made up of a case and into all parts of the building or buildings used for closed matter. It is upon this matter that the slaughter of animals and the conversion of the worms prey. They seldom prove fatal to their carcasses into food products. He inspects swine, but when they attack the breathing all animals in the pens, allowing none to pass and swallowing muscles of man in sufficiently to the slaughter-room until inspected, and also large numbers, death quickly ensues. Cookmakes a post-mortem examination. Any ani- ing that causes pork to become heated in mal found to be diseased is condemned, and all its parts to a high temperature for a halfits owner must remove it from the premises, and hour or more destroys the worms, and renders dispose of it as required by the laws of the State. even highly infected meat quite harmless. To An owner who wilfully causes or permits any thorough cooking is largely due the fact that diseased animal to remain upon his premises this parasite has caused comparatively few beyond the time allowed for its removal forfeits deaths in this country. But in countries like the privilege of inspection, and is refused cer- Germany, in which large quantities of pork tificates for his product. Carcasses of dressed are eaten nearly or quite raw, the danger is beef are marked with a numbered tag, a rec- very much increased. In European counord of which is kept in the Department at tries, and especially in Germany, inspection Washington. Each package of food products has been made by the Government for many made from the carcasses of the inspected ani- years, and they have objected to receiving mals is carefully marked with a label, which American pork, which until very recently has must bear at least the Department number of been subject to no inspection whatever. the establishment and the statement that the When the slaughtered hog is passed into the product has been examined. A copy of this cooling-room, three samples are cut from the label is filed in the Department at Washington, body, one from the pillar of the diaphragm, one and becomes the mark of identification. In from the tenderloin, and one from the shouladdition it is required that each package der. These are marked, placed in self-locking shipped shall have printed upon it the De- tin boxes, and sent to the microscopist. He or partment number of the establishment, the an assistant takes from each sample three small location of the factory, the number of pieces portions, making nine in all for each carcass. or pounds contained, the trade-mark, and in These are flattened out between two glass large letters the words “For Export” or “In- plates and subjected to examination under the terstate Trade," and shall bear a Department microscope. The worms, if present, are easily of Agriculture stamp. For each consignment discovered coiled in a spiral and inclosed in of carcasses or their food products exported to a cyst, or sack. Samples that are condemned foreign countries, the Department gives a certifi- by an assistant microscopist as containing tricate stating the number of the factory, the name chinæ are again viewed by the chief microof its owner, the date of inspection, the name of scopist. All carcasses that are found to be the consignee, the country to which the articles infected are removed from the premises by are to be exported, and the numbers of the the proprietor, and disposed of as the State stamps attached to the articles. The certificate law requires. Up to the present time proprieis in triplicate, one copy being delivered to the tors, according to agreement with the Departconsignor, one attached to the invoice, and ment, have sent condemned animals and meat one filed in the Department of Agriculture. to the rendering-tank. The Department has,

An important part of the regulations for however, no legal authority to compel them meat inspection is the provision for a micro- to take this course, as the supervision of local scopic examination of hogs at the time of markets is left to local authorities. slaughter in order to detect any infested with The cost of the inspection is borne by the the animal parasite called Trichina spiralis. Government. The Secretary of Agriculture, in This parasite is a small worm found chiefly in his report for 1891, stated that the inspection hogs and rats and occasionally in other animals of live stock for export had cost, for the ten that eat animal food. In Germany it is be- months during which it had been in operation, lieved to gain entrance to swine through rats $8500 per month, and that the meat inspection

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