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impaired by continuous fevers, and with faces jam had been offered us, I at once noticed that have malaria written upon them. Winter, the exceptional coldness of the demarch, who in spite of the inclemency, was thus the safest looked like a venerable and kindly man, and I season for the work of excavation.
realized that some mistake had been made. It The cause of all this unwholesomeness, from was not long before I fathomed it, and further which, it must be known, Greece is compara- acquaintance with circumstances and personaltively free, are the swamps, close to the village, ities made it all clear. running down to the sea. Up to the present, I do not think there is any other country whether from want of actual means or of ener- where political feeling, both local and central, gy, the proper steps for draining these swamps runs so high as in Greece. This warmth of pohave not been taken. It is interesting to know litical passion is still more intensified by the that more than two thousand years ago, dur- fact that, in the choice of all candidates in this ing the flourishing period of ancient Eretria, representative government, the family and there appeared to be similar difficulties, with relations of kinship form the essential guide. which the ancients coped successfully. Some And when it is borne in mind that nearly all twenty years ago an inscription was found the offices, local and central, down to the postat Chalcis which recites that a certain Chai- men and the attendants at museums, depend rephanes proposes to the Eretrians to drain upon the success of each party, and that the the marsh. He himself will bear all the ex- family will at once run to their own member pense, on condition that he is allowed to cul- of parliament to help them in releasing one of tivate the reclaimed land for ten years at a their kinsmen who has been convicted of a rental of thirty talents, to be paid to the city. crime, it will be understood how, in a small The work is to be completed in four years. The community where there are no industries but citizens are to swear in the Temple of Apollo precarious agriculture and fishing, the politiDaphnephoros that they will observe these cal differences permeate every nook and cranny terms, which terms and undertakings are to be of daily life. This fact the foreigner who would inscribed and set up in the same temple. In excavate in Greece must always bear in mind. case of war the ten years are to be lengthened In dealing with it he must, from the very by a period equivalent to its duration. Provi- outset, manifest kindness, fairness, and firmsions follow for compensation to private persons ness; and he must succeed in impressing these whose land is taken, and for the making of a three qualities upon the people with whom reservoir and sluices for irrigation. The con- he is dealing, so that they at once feel and cession is to be continued to his heirs in case are drawn out by the kindness, gain absolute of his death. Penalties are fixed for persons faith in the fairness, and learn to realize and interfering with the execution of the work. depend upon the firmness. The excavations Chairephanes, on his part, is also to furnish of a sister institution in Greece have on sevsureties for the execution of what he under- eral occasions been retarded, and almost comtakes. The recital of the terms is followed by pletely suspended, owing to the charge (of the decrees and oaths necessary to give effect course, unjustified) brought by the local auto them, and then follows a long list of names, thorities against the excavators that in the perhaps of persons who took the oaths. The choice of their workmen they had been pardate of this inscription has been settled as be- tial to that one of the two political parties tween the years 340 and 278 B. C.
which was not then in power. To mend matBut the knowledge of the difficulties with ters, they made a further mistake in agreeing which the ancients had to contend did not to see that half the workmen were chosen by lessen those which stood before us. I felt that a representative of one party and half by a the demarch— who has more or less absolute delegate from the other, which of course led authority, acting as judge, and often as tyrant, to further quarrels. in this district - was the only person who could Now it soon became clear that Mr. Foshelp us, and I was astonished that he had not sum's host, who had proved so affable and kind come down to the harbor to meet me. As a to him, was the brother-in-law of the previous rule, the arrival of a stranger, especially one mayor, and was himself aspiring to the mayorengaged in official work, is a matter of con- alty, and that there was an intense feud besiderable excitement, and there is a formal re- tween the mayor in power and the party of his ception by the local authorities, who act with predecessor. When the mayor had been partly most unbounded hospitality, and, if treated in roused out of his mistrust and sulkiness he conthe proper way, are of great service. I felt that fessed that if we desired help and workmen we our guide was not too eager to take us to the should go to the others, who, he informed us, demarch, and it was only upon my emphatic were using us to gain popularity among the indemand that I was brought to his house. After habitants. The difficulty was increased by the the customary cup of coffee and spoonful of fact that, so far as practical help was concerned,
DRAWN BY EMIL CARSEN.
ENGRAVED BY R. C. COLLINS.
the mayor's enemy, with his influence over the greater number of the workingmen, and the greater practical readiness which he had acquired abroad, could not be dispensed with. It was, then, our aim, while acquiring the friendship of both parties, to turn their animosity into rivalry as to who could help us the more. We brought both parties together, and made them a simple speech, in which we told them that we had not come from America to practise Greek politics, and could assure them that we had enough of that kind of thing in our own home; that we were friends of both parties, and came to confer a boon upon the place, as many years ago our fathers had actively helped the Greeks in their struggle for independence. I may say that an appeal to these memories always strikes on fertile soil among the Greek people. They can never forget the ship-loads of provi- Dartmouth College, and by Mr. Brownson of sions and clothing that were sent from America Yale University, one of the students of the during their war for independence. We further School. We sailed out of the Peiræus on the assured them that they would always find us evening of Wednesday, February 18. The fair, and that what we wanted were good work- weather had been somewhat stormy during the men of whatever party. If they worked well they day, but seemed fairly settled when we set sail. would be retained; if they worked badly they Now the voyage from the Peiræus to Chalcis would be rejected. If they suspected our fore usually occupies from nine to ten hours. Almen of unfairness they could always appeal to though, during the night, we had every reason us, where they would meet with justice; but that to be aware of the inclemency of the weather, dig we would, and that without delay, and we upon awaking early in the morning we expected counted upon their help, and felt sure they to be very near Chalcis. But we were much aswould not belie the hospitality for which they tonished to find the vessel rolling and pitching were noted. That evening Mr. Fossum dined in a very violent manner, which we knew was and slept with the anti-mayor party, and I quite impossible in the sheltered Euripus. It dined and slept with the mayor, who, after a was by no means pleasant to be informed that frugal dinner, with an ample provision of res- we had not got further than Cape Sunium,- a inated wine, waxed more and more cordial, few miles from the Peiræus,—and that, in fact, and gave us reminiscences of his former life we were then engaged in an apparently futile as captain of a brig. All his ancestors had effort to round that point. It was blowing a been seamen, and his father's brig was the hurricane, and we were trying to sail right first Greek sailing vessel to enter an Ameri- in the teeth of the wind. Our captain seemed can harbor.
somewhat uneasy, and for the present was conThe next day we found our workmen, and fining his ambition to an attempt at reaching even two horses with carts, and at once began the harbor of Laurium, which is only a few our excavations at the theater, which have since miles by rail from Athens, there to await betproved so strikingly successful in disclosing ter weather, as it was impossible for the ship remains that have a most important bearing to cope with such a storm. With full steam upon the much-debated question of the ar- on, and with much puffing and staggering rangement of the Greek stage. The work having of the vessel, which was fairly seaworthy, we fairly started, I soon returned to the School succeeded, at ten o'clock in the morning, in business at Athens, leaving Mr. Fossum in reaching the harbor of Laurium. But even in charge. Nearly a fortnight elapsed before I this harbor we were not completely sheltered was able to return to Eretria, and it was then from the storm. It was impossible to send a that our hardships really reached their extreme boat ashore, or in fact to have any communipoint.
cation with the mainland, and we lay there On this occasion was joined by my col- tossing about, with some English and other league at the School, Professor Richardson of coaling vessels close to us, in constant danger
VOL. XLIV. – 55.
DRAWN BY W. H. DRAKE.
of drifting into one another by the dragging had fulfilled his part of the contract, and had of anchors. The whole of that day and night taken us to the river of Vasilico; that now and the next day we remained in the harbor, he wished to be paid, and that we must clear and I really believe that we would have re- out. This, after much wrangling and exciting mained there for another day and night if our talk on his part, ended in our meeting him with provisions had not given out, and we had not MacMahon's words, “ J'y suis et j'y reste” all joined in urging the captain to make a bold (“Here I am and here I remain"). We refused attempt at weathering the point, which would to leave the carriage until he had provided the bring us into the Euripus. At one o'clock in horses. The other alternative was that heshould the morning of the third day we steamed out take us back to Chalcis and make proper arof the harbor, and in six or seven hours suc- rangements the next day. He angrily gave
in, but assured us that we should have to pay the same large sum for each journey. We told him that this would be decided by the magistrate of Chalcis, and so we all drove back in the rain and at once proceeded to the police station. With some difficulty the judge, who was smoking his narghile in the adjoining café, was found, and, coming into the dingy court-room, proceeded to make and to offer us some coffee. We then sent for the irate coachman, who appeared on the scene, and seated about a small brazier, with several lounging and interfering Greeks standing about us, the legal
proceedings began. We mustered up our best ceeded in reaching the Euripus, landing at Greek, throwing in here and there a touch Chalcis in the rain and wind at about eleven of Demosthenes and Æschines, which, I fear, o'clock in the forenoon.
was lost upon the unclassical Greeks; and, after With a number of boys and men carrying allowing the coachman to lay his charge before our baggage, we walked through the rain and the court with much gesture and vehemence, mud to a small cook-shop, where we proceeded we opened our case, turning the defense into to take what we then considered a very sump- an accusation. We claimed that, owing to the tuous meal. We were eager to push on, and breach of contract in not providing, as had been at once began to seek for horses in order to promised, means for the continuance ofourjourcontinue our journey to Eretria, but we were ney at Vasilico, we had lost our day, and had informed that the roads were thick with mud, suffered much discomfort; had to defray the and that the stream at Vasilico, half-way be- expenses of a night's lodging at Chalcis, and tween Chalcis and Eretria, was so swollen by had caused our friends at Eretria considerable the rain and snow that to ford it would be im- anxiety. We were therefore justified in claimpossible — in short, we met with flat refusalsing heavy damages from the false coachman, wherever we asked for horse, mule, or donkey. who had dealt with us not as a Greek but as a At last the owner of a carriage told us that he Turkish brigand. But, considering his youth, would take us as far as the river of Vasilico, and recollecting the friendly relations which and assured us that there he would find for us subsisted between the American republic and horses or a cart which could carry us across, the kingdom of Greece, and swayed by the and thence to Eretria.
affection which we felt for the whole Greek Having made our bargain, and acceded to people, especially the inhabitants of Eubea, his unusually high demand, we started on our we should not press our suit, and should only drive about two o'clock in the afternoon. All demand that on the next day we be put in went well until, after an hour and a half, the a position to continue our journey. We were coachman pulled up in the middle of a mud- prepared not only to waive our claim that any dy field, and blandly informed us that we had money should be paid to us, but we might arrived at our destination. I had noticed that even give the handsome remuneration which as we were nearing this point he had asked a we had promised to allow for one journey as rapid question of a stray shepherd, or of a peas- covering the two. When we had finished, the ant lounging in front of his hut, and when I judge gave a long pull at his pipe, blew the asked him where the horses were which would smoke through his nostrils, and declared that take us across the river, and where the river there was much justice in what we had said, was, he told us that the river was some five but that he knew the lad (who was over thirty hundred yards further on, and that we must see years of age) well ; that he knew his father and whether we could get horses or not; that he mother, and that he was a good lad; that we were good and distinguished foreigners; and mails for Eretria had not been forwarded that he felt sure we would not deal hardly by for more than a week, and so we insisted the poor man. We answered that we had felt upon carrying the mails with us, among which sure, from the first moment of gazing into the we afterward found several letters written countenance of the youth, that he was a good by us more than a week before, and which man, but that his goodness had for once for- our friends were anxiously awaiting. The saken him; that as he was young there was judge, joined by the chief officers of the city, time for him to make amends for his faults; came to our aid, and that evening insisted that we should not press him hard; and that, upon showing us great attention in the chief if he would fulfil his contract on the next day, café. we would, if satisfied with him, give him The next morning our coachman arrived in a handsome present in addition to the pay good time and good spirits, and, having loaded we had agreed upon for the first journey. the mails, our packages, instruments, and a By this time the whole party were in good large demijohn of good Chalcis wine upon humor, the coachman himself humbly begged our vehicle, we again drove through the fertile our pardon for his too emphatic insistence Lelanthian plain to the scene of the wrangle upon what he had erroneously conceived to on the previous day. We walked to the bank
WHITE LEKYTHOI, GREEK FUNERAL VASES, OF FIFTH CENTURY B. C., FOUND IN GREEK GRAVE AT ERETRIA.
be his rights, and they all wanted to take us of the river (where the two large piers of a very to the nearest café and to stand us drinks. fine bridge which had been waiting for two This we refused, and, having sent a telegram years for the iron girders that are to span to the demarch of Eretria to meet us next the river, and to make the new road benoon by the river near Vasilico, we arranged tween Chalcis, Eretria, and Batheia practicato make an early start the next morning. ble, were still gaping in imposing solidity, but At the post-office we ascertained that the affording no help to us), and shouted and
shouted for half an hour for the man with Proceeding up to the village, we there found, horses or carts whom we expected to be there staying with the doctor, the coachman of the from Eretria, but with no success. Our coach- demarch of Eretria, who had insisted upon sendman then hunted about for horses on the nearing his own horse and coachman and a Eurobank, and assured us that he would procure pean-looking wagonette to meet us. We left them; but after wasting another half-hour our luggage to be brought by a cart, and as he succeeded in finding only one little white the day was drawing to an end, and was growhorse that looked like an over-grown dog, ing more and more chilly, we all huddled and we were left with Hobson's choice. The together in the wagonette and drove along sturdy lad who owned the horse said he could the muddy road to Eretria, which we reached take us and our luggage over one by one on in two hours. Mr. Fossum and the anti-mayor this poor beast. Each one of the party taking had walked some way out of the town to as much as he could carry, we packed the re- meet us, and in the town itself the mayor mainder of our baggage on the horse, and pro- and nearly all the inhabitants came to give us ceeded along the slippery and muddy fields a hearty greeting. Immediately upon returnto that part of the river-bank where there ing from my first visit to Eretria, I had sent was a chance of fording. But even in this to Mr. Fossum our trusty cook and master of short distance we were not free from accident. all trades, Nikolaki, who had accompanied Every member of the party slipped and fell with us on two of our previous campaigns. He his load, and at last the poor little white horse was a carpenter by trade, but was, as most rolled over on its side (fortunately not upon Greeks are, an excellent cook, and in every the demijohn), and stuck fast in the mud. Un- way a man of many resources. He had loading what he had on him, the lad caught brought with him wood and tools, a store of him by the tail, and two of us got him by the provisions, camp-beds, and all the necessaries head, and we literally lifted the poor beast out we could think of; had taken in hand one of the mud. But it was out of the question of the deserted houses; had cleaned it thorthat, with the rapid stream, we could trust oughly, repairing the fireplace, so that wood either ourselves or our baggage to the preca- could be burned therein, though it smoked rious legs of the poor animal; and we at last vigorously; had constructed a long table and had to accept the proposal of our sturdy guide benches with the boards he had brought, and that he should take each one of us in turn on now stood grinning at the door of the hut, his shoulders and carry us across the stream. telling us he had prepared a vasilico geuma, a And this he did successfully, bold Christopher royal feast. We at once invited the mayor that he was.
and his opponent, who stood scowling at each