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a glazed semicircular roof without columns, In studying the most effective architectural supported by arched steel trusses of 387 feet treatment of a symmetrical building more than clear span, 50 feet apart, and with a radius of a third of a mile long and almost a sixth of a 190 feet, giving an extreme height of 210 feet. mile wide, with a height of cornice limited to This roof was arranged to be hipped at the 60 feet, the architect was confronted by conends. The much admired truss of Machinery ditions of composition such as perhaps had Hall in the last Paris Exposition (the largest not occurred before. The natural dispositions constructed for roofing purposes up to that of any extended building, which is to be time) is inferior to this in span and is 58 feet adapted, not to various and different services, lower. It has been proposed to equip this vast like a royal château, with its halls of ceremony, hall, containing nearly 500,000 square feet of its wings for household convenience, its chaclear floor-space inside the enveloping building, pels and galleries, its provisions for dignity and with seats and a stage for the ceremonies of the its provisions for comfort, but to a single and inauguration, before adjusting it to its legiti- well-understood purpose, must be guided by mate objects. It was sufficiently evident that the most convenient and economical structure, the mountainous roof which covered the hall and show a distinct unity of thought throughcould not fail, from the mere power and weight out. This unity is expressed by a mutual deof its enormous structural mass, to impose upon pendence of parts. We must at least have some the scheme of the building, as a work of art, an feature of emphasis on the corners, against element unknown in the precedents of monu- which the long fronts may stop — a period, as mental architecture.
it were, and place of rest; and there is even greater necessity for pavilions of sufficient im- elevations a corresponding division of bays, of portance to give dignity to the entrances. The which 29 occur on each half of the long fronts natural place for these is in the middle of each and 11 on each half of the short fronts. These front, where the visitors may be introduced bays are treated with arches, springing from most conveniently to the great interior space, piers, and each archway embraces two stories. and receive their first impressions of its gran- It was anticipated that these long, monotodeur. We have seen how the architects of the nous, and mechanical perspectives of equal and Agricultural Building on the opposite side of the similar arches would affect the eye like the arcourt,— where it was understood that every- cades of the Campagna, and would rather inthing must be in full dress and on parade, so crease than diminish the apparent length of to speak,— in adopting this natural treatment the building; for repetition, even if mechanical, in their façade, found it necessary, for the sake is, humanly speaking, a suggestion of the inof variety and movement, to provide between finite, and the architect who has the opportunity the center and the ends certain regularly dis- and self-denial to adopt it frankly, and on a scale posed, intermediate accentuations, which the so vast, would give even to the most thoughteye, in surveying the whole façade, could read- less and most uncritical minds a memorable imily grasp and justify by an instinctive balancing pression of architectural majesty and repose. of the masses on each side of the center line. Now the covered ambulatory, or stoa, which The mind of the observer is flattered by this is made a feature of all the court fronts, should, evidence of art.
on account of the great length of these long Architecture, as compared with nature, has façades, where there is no other natural refuge been called a creation of the second order; but from the sun, be extended all around the buildthis secondary creation must be fundamentally ing, but within its lines. The lintel course or controlled by conditions of structure which, to decorated belt, which is the exterior developa greater or less degree, must impose regularity ment of the floor of the second story in each or repetition of parts, as contrasted with the ir- bay, is supported by an open, flat, segmental regularity or picturesqueness which results from arch springing from pier to pier; behind these the infinite resources and the accidental con- arches this continuous ambulatory obtains spaditions in nature. Medieval art, though often cious shade. Frequent doors open upon it from picturesque in its effects, is subject to these hu- the interior. No subordinate architectural orman conditions no less than classic art. der of columns was placed under this lintel
On the one hand the author of these almost course, as was done with singularly happy reinterminable façades felt that he could not treat sults in the Agricultural Building, because it them picturesquely or accidentally without sac- was apparent that such an order would not have rifice of truth and dignity, and, on the other been in scale with the rest of the design, and hand, that to break them with frequent pa- would have introduced an element which would vilions, however subordinate to a preëminent have complicated with unnecessary details the central feature, would fail to procure for them careful simplicity of its lines and the studied all the advantages of symmetry; because, in a breadth of its general treatment. length so great, the mind could not readily dis- The adoption of a severe classical formula cover and, at a glance, compare that corre- for the building naturally led to the adoption spondence of parts on each side of the center of a common motif for the four central pavilwhich is essential to effects of this sort. The ions, and another, adapted to its situation, for rule of composition which properly governs a each of the corner pavilions. These repetitions building 500 to 800 feet long and 60 feet high were encouraged by the fact that all the façades cannot be applied successfully to one two or were of equal importance. As these pavilions three times as long and no higher. The archi- must be distinctly recognized as the main tect, therefore, remembering the imposing ef- porches, they must break the monotony with fects of certain long porticos and aqueducts of emphasis, or they will not be adequate. ConRoman structure, had the courage, in this case, sequently at these points there should be a sudto withstand the temptations furnished by the den change in the architectural scheme of the customs of the Renaissance architects in their fronts. But the strictly classic ideal does not palaces and other public monuments, and to seem to be favorable to the absolute interrupleave his sky-line and his frontage unbroken by tion of all the horizontal lines of frontage by the any competition of pavilions save the one in the pavilions; there must be some connection by center and that on each angle of each front. By continuity of lines between them. The Greek this severe measure he hoped to make the unity of his design clear to the most casual observer. 1 The solution of this continuity, boldly attempted The module or unit of measurement, of 25 central towers, which, as we have noted, interrupt all
by the architects of the Machinery Building in their feet, with which the architect found it conve- the lines, constitutes the most remarkable feature of nient to lay out his plan, communicated to his their design. This, as we have said, is contrary to the
KARL BITTER, SCULPTOR,
PART OF GROUP ABOVE MAIN ENTRANCE OF MANUFACTURES AND LIBERAL ARTS BUILDING.
idea of a monumental entrance is a columned course over its two side arches, and as an impropylæum; that of the Romans, who better un- post, from which springs its great central arch. derstood pomp and ceremony, is an arch. The Over the whole is carried a horizontal entabformer would be appropriate ifthe general archi- lature with a high attic, and in front of the four tectural character of the façades were based upon piers are lofty pedestaled columns, after the manan order of columns or pilasters; in the present ner of buttresses, supporting figures against the case the latter would more naturally follow. attic, thus closely following the characteristics
Thus the architect, by logical process, en- of the Roman prototypes. The order employed countered the idea of inserting in the midst of for these columns is the sumptuous Corinthian his arcades the triple triumphal arches of Con- of the temple of Jupiter Stator, the columns stantine or Septimius Severus, and of stopping being 65 feet high with a lower diameter of his arcade at the corners with the single arch more than 6 feet. We have already intimated of Titus or Trajan, the motif in both cases be- that the architect turned the four corners of this ing very greatly enlarged from the original in building with a single arch on each adjacent order to fit the greater scale of the building. face of the angles; these also are decorated The architectural connection of the central pa- with magnificent coupled Corinthian columns, vilions with the mass of the structure is estab- as in some of the Roman examples. The width lished by bringing their two side arches into the of the corner pavilions is adjusted to the width same scale as those of the curtain-walls, and by of the ambulatory which enters them on each causing the main cornice line to be continued side. The esthetic function of these boldly acacross the central pavilion or pylon as a string- centuated buttress-columns, which are clearly strict classic idea, but in so far as this interruption does cessful stroke of one who dares to put his fate to the not destroy the unity of the composition, it is the suc- touch, “ to gain or lose it all.”
detached from the mass of the building, is suffi- to-day is self-denial in the use of his treasures. ciently evident in the perspective views of the He who squanders them in his work betrays long fronts. They furnish the only strongly his trust, and depraves the art of his time. He marked vertical lines in the composition, and who can be refined in the use of the splendid by contrast suffice to relieve the design from the resources furnished by his knowledge of the excessive predominance of its horizontal lines. past, who can be simple in the midst of the
It is to be noted that as yet the architectural temptations to display his wealth, is rendering expression of this building, the development high service to a civilization which, in the midst of which we have been following in the natural of its complications and sophistications, needs order of design, has been confined to the exte- the refreshment and chastisement of pure types. rior closure of a vast interior space. Before it It is evident that within his classic Roman had been happily determined to cover the in- frame Mr. Post has desired, in his detail of decterior court with a great glazed roof, it was the oration, to bring his design into sympathy with professional instinct of Mr. Post to indicate ex- modern civilizations; for we shall see that the ternally that the area enveloped by his façades luxury of Napoleon III. affects the sculpture was not empty, but had a magnificent interior of his spandrels and panels, and that nearly all central feature in his original circular hall. To the ornament bears traces of the influence of this end, and in order that this feature might be the latest French Renaissance and the last Paris come evident from afar as an essential element Exposition. Moreover, in order to relieve his of design, it became necessary to cover it with a design from theserious expression imposed upon dome sufficiently lofty to be seen over the sky- it by the grandeur of his leading motives, he lines of the inclosing galleries from usual points makes a very proper concession to the festive of view, and to form a crown and finish to the and holiday aspect which should pervade the long, low mass of his building. This feature, if place by planting permanent standards and executed, would have exceeded any similar gonfalons on his triumphal arches, and by decstructure yet erected; but as it challenged orating his battlements with banner-staffs and comparison with the dome of the porch of the bunting. Exposition, the preëminence of which it was We have repeatedly stated that these papers considered desirable to maintain, it was reluc- do not embody either a description or a crititantly abandoned. But the final treatment of cism, nor yet an apology, but constitute an the central court as a hall, 1287 x 387 feet in attempt to explain the architectural developfloor area, covered with a semicircular roof, ment of the Exposition buildings. But it may whose longitudinal ridge rises far above the be proper, before leaving the consideration of cornice of the façades, at once suggested an the largest of these buildings, to look back upon entirely different architectural aspect for the Mr. Post's immense façades, and to ask whether, building. By the upward succession of cor- if they had been treated with the variety, connice-line, 60 feet high, and clearstory-line, 108 trast, and balance of motives customary in the feet high, culminating in a central ridge-line, works of the Renaissance, if they had been bro210 feet high, a pyramidal effect was secured; ken by towers and campaniles, or tormented by the low-lying mass at once obtained adequate gabled pavilions, they would not have presented height; its vast extent was condoned and ex- a somewhat confused and incoherent aspect, plained; a dominant expression of unity was wanting in apparent unity of thought, and reconferred upon the composition; the upper out- sembling rather a combination of many buildlines of the façades were projected against a ings of various use than a single building of one colossal roof instead of the empty sky; and the use; and further, whether the simplicity of treatroof itself, wisely left to the majesty of its di- ment which he has preferred (and which some, mensions and to the simplicity of its structure not considering its detail and the unusual diffifor architectural effect, enhanced the refinement culties of the problem, might call poverty) has and purity of the architectural screens below. not resulted in a composition having architec
Indeed, this design as a whole admirably tural qualities which, instead of confusing and illustrates the fact that reservation rather than puzzling the mind, can be read, understood, and expenditure of force is the secret of noble art. remembered with pleasure. The civilization of The modern architectural mind is an archæo- our time owes a debt of gratitude to any archilogical chaos ofideas inherited from Egypt,from tect, or to any writer, who, in the midst of the the far East, from Greece and Rome, from the temptations which beset us to force effects of middle ages, and from the Renaissance. Under beauty by affectations and mannerisms, dares these circumstances the highest virtue which to make his work at once strong, simple, and can be exercised by the educated architect of elegant.
Henry Van Brunt.
“Excused for to-day. I have some business
to attend to." AD Alan only spoken on one of His step was not heard on the porch at his
those two or three happy days usual hour for exercise. Dolly, watering her before the London letter came! roses outside the study window when the house But a tendency to mischance shadow fell that way, heard him tramping about of one sort or another was char- the room, and pronouncing words to himself in
acteristic of the boy's headlong, a deep, perturbed voice. At dinner the young sanguine temperament. The good moment people stood waiting for him to take the head passed, and a change in the household at- of the table. mosphere created a new barrier between him “ Margaret, will you ask him if he's coming ? and his father.
He never minds you,” Dolly pleaded. Dolly had ridden home at the top of Modoc's Margaret sighed, and smoothed her hair back speed, to make up for all foolish delays; for from her flushed face, and laid aside her kitchen Dunsmuir knew to a moment how long it took apron before knocking at the study door. a rider to meet the stage, and was ever on the “Will the denner wait, sir, till you 're by watch for its distant wheels and the messenger's wi' your writing ?” she asked when he had return. She gave him the packet, and went to shortly bidden her, “Come!” her room to make herself neat for lessons. In “What! is it dinner ? Let the children sit the dining-room Alan joined her, loitering be down without me. Margaret, which of the men hind, his eyes still upon his half-learned task. go to town to-morrow?” It was the day beThey knew that something was amiss from fore the Fourth. the answer that their father gave to Dolly's Why, sir, I think they 'll all be going but