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coln Hall. His next letter was in reference to His last gift and last letter came after the exthat, and is as follows:
citing political campaign of four years ago. “NEW YORK, Nov. 29, '87.
“NEW YORK, Dec. 31, '88. “MY DEAR MR. DODGE: I have purchased “MY DEAR FELLOW-WORKER FOR CHRIST: from Mr. J. S. Hartley a bronze cast of the Lin- I wish you a Happy New Year, and I send you coln head, duly framed, and suitable for hanging a thousand dollars for your work, which please up indoors in Lincoln Hall. . . . I hope it will use (after consulting Pres. Fairchild) 'where it reach you before Christmas.
will do the most good,' as the politicians say, and “ Will you kindly thank Mr. E. H. Fairchild may the Divine Master's blessing go with and for his letter of Thanksgiving Day, and tell him attend its use. that he is unduly alarmed as to my health ? As
“I am yours sincerely, Mr. Lowell said yesterday, in his address on
“ROSWELL SMITH." Copyright, . We are all of us, always, just beginning to live.'
Our sympathies are with the family and “I am very sincerely yours,
friends of this good man. “ROSWELL SMITH.”
Very truly yours,
P. D. Dodge, Besides the new building, we received from
Secretary and Treasurer. him four thousand dollars for current expenses. BEREA COLLEGE, Ky., April 21, 1892.
FROM THE REV. DR. EDWARD B. COE'S FUNERAL ADDRESS.
It was a fortunate circumstance, but it was confidence and enthusiasm, and placed at their not an accident, that during a visit to Europe, service his extraordinary executive ability. He twenty years ago, his thoughts were turned had the utmost possible faith in his associates, toward the literary project with which, in its in himself, in the work which they were together subsequent development, his name will long be doing, in the public on both sides of the Atlanassociated. I say it was not an accident, because, tic, and in the certainty of ultimate success. He as one who knew him well has stated, “to be never lost heart in the darkest times. He asidentified with a business which had to do with sumed immense responsibilities without hesitabooks and writers had always been his ambition.” tion. He worked his way steadily through diffiIn other words, he was looking for a field of wider cult negotiations. His plans were often startling and more direct influence and usefulness than in their boldness, but his patience and perseverthat which he had thus far found. Though he ance were equal to his audacity, and the novelty was not himself a practised writer, he had a quick of his methods was sometimes the secret of their sympathy with those who like himself were men success. In his dealings with other men he was of ideas and earnest desire to promote the intel- high-minded and generous often beyond the lectual as well as the moral life of the commu- strict demands of justice, giving more than he nity.
was compelled or asked to give, from a convicThe opportunity was precisely that which tion that the Golden Rule may safely be applied would best meet his genius and his tastes, and to mercantile transactions. There was, if I may give free play to his peculiar talents. It brought judge correctly, something statesmanlike in his him into intimate relations with intellectual and conduct of the business interests of which he scholarly men, whom he needed and who needed was at the head, while there was also something him. With rare tact and discernment he left romantic in his feeling about them. To his mind them free to do their work in their own way, The Century Co. was not a concern for making making innumerable suggestions, but never give money, but an organization for the advancement ing orders, while he inspired them with his own of civilization.
TOPICS OF THE TIME.
only necessary for the present writer to record here the grief of all associated in business with our late President
successful enterprise one may be sure at his untimely departure, and to say a word regarding
prominently in sight, a powerful personality. The per- We do believe that Roswell Smith came nearer sonal force — alert, original, full of initiative, insistence, realizing the strictest editorial idea of what the puband enthusiasm – which has been from the beginning, lisher and chief owner of a periodical should be to in 1870, up to the past year or two of illness, behind the that periodical than has often been seen in the literary publishing corporation now known as The Century Co. and publishing world. Trusting the persons chosen was that of Roswell Smith. Others may express in to take editorial charge in a manner to call out all the these pages their impression of the man in the various energies and abilities of those so generously confided phases of his aspiration and activity. It is, perhaps, in, he spent no part of his energy in thwarting or
diverting their control, but set all his great strength to business associates and employees have all and each at the task of enthusiastically coöperating with the plans various times, and in many an hour of stress and trouble, of the magazine,-making possible, by his appreciation, found in him a kind, sympathetic, and generous friend. courage, and loyal and liberal support, enterprises in There are men of letters in this country whose lives have their way of unprecedented cost and importance. been made smoother and brighter for his faith in them,
It was always an idea — always the ideal — that, and his friendly and substantial encouragement, prof. appealing to his imagination, drew forth his deepest fered in all respect and manliness. He has done a and most active sympathies. It was especially ideas of good work in many ways; in a sense no one can
"take usefulness, of patriotism, of humanity, which com- his place”; but the spirit in which he labored will manded his most practical and zealous activities. The not soon fail of inspiration for his survivors and sucfamous War Series of THE CENTURY could not have been carried on with a publisher of a timid and time. It was part of the late President's prevision and care serving disposition. The authorized Life of Lincoln that his large interests should remain within the comwas made available to the great mass of the people largely pany, and that the business management should conthrough the liberality and determination of Mr. Ros- tinue in the hands of his trained and chosen associates. well Smith. When George Kennan was gathering in long and painful journeys the material for his great
Growth and Change in College Education. work on the Siberian Exile System, his most frequent and most sympathetic correspondent, outside of his own In an extremely interesting and valuable paper which family, was the busy President of The Century Co. he published in the February number of “ The Educa
He not only earnestly supported the most costly and tional Review,” Mr. Arthur M. Comey showed that wide-reaching plans, but from his direct suggestion the number of male students attending 282 colleges in came magazine enterprises of breadth and moment. various parts of the United States had nearly doubled in Nor was it only in large matters that his mind was ac- the decade between 1880 and 1890, though the increase tive and helpful. In many details connected with the in population during the same period had been only 25 appearance of the magazine he made improvements: per cent. He showed also in a series of clear and most for nothing to him was unimportant that tended in any carefully compiled tables that between 1850 and 1890 way to the perfection and good repute of the publica- the number of male students in these colleges had intions with which The Century Co. was identified. More creased from 8837 to 31,359; that while the increase important than everything else,- in addition to his in population during that period had been 165 per cent., sympathetic attitude, his suggestiveness, his faculty of the increase in the number of students had been 254 invention, the fertility of his resources, there was for per cent.; and that the number of students per 100,000 all near him a constant inspiration and spur to high- of population had risen from 38.1 in 1850 to 50.3 in est effort coming from his fervid faith in God and man; 1890. his unswerving confidence in the success of generous In making up his tables, Mr. Comey omitted all methods and lofty and beneficent ideas.
students in the preparatory courses of many Southern To its President The Century Co. was truly an and Western colleges, and all women in the coeducaindividual, beloved as a favorite child. There was tional institutions. He omitted also a few colleges on hardly a waking hour of his life, especially after the account of low standard, and all the scientific schools, company entered upon a separate existence, in which though he included scientific students in colleges. Had he was not pondering on and planning for its enter- he included the scientific schools, which have been or. prises present and to come. When physical infirmity ganized almost wholly since 1860, the percentage of weighed heavily upon him, in the last weeks of his increase would have been far greater than appears from long and heroically endured illness, his failing power his tables. His conclusions are that the “colleges of was expressed by himself with manly and smiling pa- the country are growing rapidly,” that “there is at the thos, when, sitting one day in his old chair in his own same time a decided tendency to raise the standard both office, he said, “My only contribution to The Century for admission and for the courses of study,” and that Co. now is one of curiosity." He, and all of us, well these facts justify “even optimistic views of the future knew that when such words could be truly spoken the of higher education.” end must indeed be near.
The figures are certainly encouraging, as showing a It seems hard that there should not have been for constantly increasing desire among the youth of the him an old age of rest and satisfaction in witnessing country to pursue their studies beyond the limits of and enjoying the fruits of such devoted labors,- labors the public schools and seminaries. But what does Mr. which were indeed essentially public in their scope and Comey mean by the term “higher education "? That intention. But, after all, our friend and associate had there is a wide difference of opinion among professional in his life the reward of clean, congenial, and success- educators themselves on this point is made evident by ful work. He took his pleasure in his labors as they an article which President Gilman of Johns Hopkins went on; and he had so poured his individuality into University has in the same number of “The Educational the corporate life which was largely his creation that Review," wherein he takes issue with General Francis he seemed to see much of his own personal energy A. Walker, President of the Massachusetts Institute of and individuality existing along the future in forms Technology; David S. Jordan, President of the new of usefulness to mankind.
Stanford University in California; and Professor GoodRoswell Smith had somewhat of the reserve at- win of Harvard, as to what should constitute a liberal tributed to the New England character, and his mind education. General Walker had contended that the was concentrated on the principal work of his life with scientific schools were doing a work “not surpassed, peculiar intensity. Yet collectively and individually his is indeed equaled, by that of the classical colleges,”
and are turning out “better-educated men, in all that no matter whether it be acquired in the oldest or youngthe term implies, than the average graduate of the or
est university, in the old-fashioned college or the modern dinary college.” Messrs. Jordan and Goodwin had culture may be acquired without the aid of seminaries;
school of science. I may go further and say that “liberal" contended that old ideas as to what constituted a lib. scholars may appear in the walks of business, in the solieral education had passed away, and new ideas, adapted tudes of rural life, on the boards of a theater, in politics, to the demands of the time, had taken their place. The in philanthropy, in exploration ; and they cannot be pro
duced by narrow, cramping, or servile training. new ideas, briefly summarized, are : not to compel all students to take the same course of study, with Latin and Greek as the basis, but to permit each student to
All this amounts to saying that the best college course take the course which best suits his tastes and abilities,
is only a beginning, and that its main purpose, its highand to supply for each student the best facilities for
est achievement, is to start the student in the right dipursuing the course of his choice.
rection. “Culture," says Matthew Arnold, “is readIt is not our purpose to follow the ramifications of ing; but reading with a
urpose to guide it, and with this discussion, or to attempt to decide which method system. He does a good work who does anything to of education can more accurately be pronounced help this ; indeed, it is the one essential service now “higher” or “liberal.” The great and encouraging
to be rendered to education.” That is what the college facts which Mr. Comey's statistics and the discussion ought to teach first of all, and if the instruction be thor. disclose are that the colleges of the country are attract oughly imparted, the foundation of a liberal education ing a steadily increasing number of students, and are
is laid. Montaigne said he read books that from them making such changes in their methods of instruction he might learn “how to live and die well.” Every as enable them to extend their influence to fields hith student who is taught to read or study with a purpose erto not occupied by them. Upon one point the dis. finds in his books the secret of how to live and die putants are agreed, and that is that the main object of well; that is, learns how to become a good citizen, education is to make good citizens. General Walker that most valuable influence in a community. He car. calls it adding to the manhood and citizenship of the ries into life a deference to acquired knowledge, a country,” and President Gilman, in a passage which respect for the teachings of experience, which are of deserves to be put on record as a comprehensive and incalculable value among a people prone to think that accurate definition, says of “liberal education":
they can solve all problems for themselves, and have
no need to profit by the results of similar experiments In every “liberal" course these elements should be com- by the generations that have preceded them. bined: mathematics, ancient and modern languages and Especially is this true of the study of political science, literature, science, history, and philosophy. The more one has of all these elements the better. It is obvious also
to which many of our colleges, following the excellent that a “liberal" education is not to be limited by the pe- example of Harvard and Columbia, are devoting inriod devoted to the college course or a course in technol- creasing attention. In this they are doing the whole ogy: It begins in the nursery, it goes on in the domestic country a most useful and greatly needed service : a circle, it continues through school, college, and university, and ends only with
life. All science, all knowledge. subject which we shall soon discuss in its bearings on all culture, not essential to bread-winning, is " liberal," public life.
The Pressing Need of Forest Reservation in the notable of all these judicious undertakings, whether the Sierra.
extent of domain be considered, or attention be turned ONE too early comes the announcement that the to the varied splendor of the scenery, or to the effect
Interior Department has under consideration the as insuring a permanent yield of lumber according to establishment of a very extensive forest reservation in the efficiency of the system of forestry, or yet to the California's Sierra Nevada, to the south of the Yosem- influence on agriculture in the lowlands. As contemite National Park, and including the wonderful King's plated, the proposed reservation would include the River Cañon described by Mr. John Muir in the No. sources to which the upper San Joaquin Valley, comvember CENTURY.
prising the great counties of Fresno, Tulare, and Kern, It will be remembered that by a recent enactment must forever look for a supply of water for that irrigaof Congress the President was authorized to withdraw tion which is necessary to successful agriculture in this from the offerings of public lands for sale those districts land of inadequate rainfall. It would also include those where the preservation of the forests might appear, in steep declivities on which, if denuded of their restraining his discretion, to be necessary for the security of the vegetation, the melting snows and falling rains would supply of water for irrigation and other purposes. Un- unite to form torrents that would, a little later, take the der that act an important addition has been made to form of such devastating floods as have but recently the Yellowstone National Park, and, more lately, a ter- taught the Spaniards how Nature revenges herself on ritory largely exceeding a million acres in extent has those who trifle with her forces. been designated as a reservation in the State of Colo- At present the population of the whole valley region rado, the area thus set apart covering much of the higher overlooked by the proposed reservation is probably not watershed of the Colorado River. The projected new more than 70,000 in number. Under comprehensive reservation in California would perhaps be the most irrigation the land would easily be able to support several millions of inhabitants, and all in a high average as the author of the Wright Irrigation Act, whereby the of rural or urban comfort. Even a cursory inspection system of irrigation districts sustained by public taxaof the wealth of those irrigated oases which have been tion has been introduced as one of the most noteworthy created at intervals along the line of the railway, dur- parts of the order of the State. Mr. Wright's letter says: ing the last dozen of years, is enough to carry convic- I think it would be universally admitted that the existtion that the head-gate of the irrigation ditch is the door ing supply of water in the streams, if all conserved, is sufto a future whose magnificence cannot easily be over. ficient to meet present and, very likely, prospective uses, drawn by the liveliest fancy. In the county of Fresno so far as the demands of irrigation go. The paramount
importance of comprehensive irrigation is almost, if not alone there are now about 150,000 acres actually wa. quite, unanimously admitted. The interests to be served tered by means of canals, and thus brought into an ad- by the removal of the forests, as compared with those to mirable condition of prolific and highly remunerative be secured by comprehensive irrigation in the great val
leys of California, are insignificant. So far as additional husbandry. The canals existing would suffice for the reservations will secure the use and deter the abuse of forirrigation of several times the acreage named, and the est areas, they ought to be established. I consider Fedcounties of Tulare and Kern are ambitious rivals of eral control and action as the only practicable means of
affording the protection needed. their neighbor in the matter of profitable agriculture through the vivifying influence of the ditch. Yet all To the San Joaquin Valley the subject of transportathat has been accomplished and the vastly greater re- tion by water is second in importance only to that of irsults that may be accomplished in the proximate future rigation. Such transportation will, however, soon be are imperiled to satisfy the desire of a few men for listed among the dim recollections of things that were, gain, and by the supineness of the many in the face of or that might have been, unless prompt measures shall dangers that promise disaster to the well-being of be taken to restrain the flood-borne detritus from the their children, if not of themselves.
hills, now laid bare by the hoof of the sheep and by fire. That the hazards which have accumulated under the As a sufficient warning of the most practical description, policy of indifference are not imaginary is perfectly one need only point to the ruined navigation of the well known to such persons as have considerable know. Sacramento River, and to the buried farms lining ledge of the mountains. Not long ago one of the best the course of that stream, which were, not so many informed landed proprietors in the San Joaquin Valley years ago, the pride of northern California. The whole related that he had traveled over about 700 square miles of that melancholy and calamitous work is the result of of the King's River watershed, and had rarely seen a
causes strictly analogous to the denudation which has tree under thirty years of age. The age of the young. made such progress on the sierras that slope toward the est trees at all commonly noticeable would therefore valley of the San Joaquin, and which has already had nearly coincide with the invasion of the mountains by the most injurious effects on the navigation of the river numerous bands of sheep, and with the attendant fires of that name. There is one stretch of thirteen miles due to negligence or deliberate incendiarism. With no where the detritus from the mountains has during the younger growth coming on and with the mature or ma. last few years formed bars that divert the water into turing trees rapidly vanishing in flame, or by natural sloughs leading off from the main channel. On this causes, it is easy to foresee what will soon be the fate stretch boats drawing six feet of water had formerly no of those forests (which are occasionally described as difficulty in navigating. I am informed by a letter of “ inexhaustible ") under the policy of public inaction. Mr. H. J. Corcoran, of Stockton (who represents the Add to the destructive agencies already at work the river navigation interests), that the channel has now a uncontrolled operations of lumbermen, who are only maximum depth of thirteen inches. It is perhaps neednow beginning to push their industry on a formidable less to add that Mr. Corcoran “is in every case in favor scale in the part of the Sierra in question, and the dis- of the preservation of the forests.” appearance of the forests that stand guard over the wel.
In the case of the Sacramento River the National Gov. fare of the San Joaquin Valley becomes a supposition ernment has interfered to prevent further destruction ; whose realization may well be witnessed by men now
but before the interference the damage had reached long past youth. “If the policy heretofore followed,” such an extent that if a practicable remedy be at all apsays an unusually well-informed correspondent of the plicable it will be attained only by the means of heavy writer,“ be much longer continued, we shall have so de. pecuniary expenditure. It is not too late to save the nuded the rock of our mountain ridges that within half San Joaquin. Little money will be needed for the una century all our streams will be torrents for a few brief doing of the mischief already wrought. And for the weeks in spring and dry beds of sand all the rest of the future there need be no fear is the plain, common-sense year. Massive reservoirs of masonry will have to be method of precaution be adopted, — the method of mainbuilt at vast expense to take the place of the beautiful taining at every point the only means — to wit, forest reservoirs of pine and redwood which nature created.” vegetation - by which the mountains can be prevented
With reference to the advisability of the projected res. from becoming the worst foe, instead of the best friend, ervation, the present writer was led of late to make of the inhabitants of the valley. some extended inquiry concerning the opinions held by After nearly six continuous years spent in the Sierra, men of acknowledged enlightenment, of large views, the writer entertains not a shadow of doubt of the truth and whose interests in the San Joaquin Valley are of of what is said by Mr. Emil Newman, of Porterville, undoubted extent. The result of this inquiry was to Tulare County: disclose a uniform agreement in the idea that there I, for one, believe that the reservation of forest lands should be an immediate abandonment of the old policy in the mountains, and intelligent legislation in regard to of laisser-faire. As fairly representative I quote, by in order to prevent this valley from reverting to desert
the preservation of the forests, are absolutely necessary permission, the substance of the reply made by Hon. conditions. C. C. Wright, a gentleman known to all Californians
George G. Mackenzie.
This fair rosebud, Elsie, see,
W'En dis ol' man comes ter die, Gathered by my hand for thee,
Death is mos' unsightly. While the morning yet was new,
Doan' yo' lay me in no room And its leaves all wet with dew.
Wid de pull-down curtain gloom : It may die – but if for thee,
'T ain' de place de dead should stay, Who would not the rosebud be?
W’en de sperit's gone away,
Off ter whar hit 's brightly.
'Struct de pa’son 'fo' he 'gins, It can bring no thought of me.
Tech de subject tritely; By this token know, young maid,
'Ca’se hit 's gen’ly undastood Rosebuds are not all that fade.
I hain't been so pow'ful good; Wouldst thou quite believe, if told,
And fo' him ter shout and groan That I was not always old ?
'Bout me settin'roun' de frone, Yet the floweret prithee take;
'Low hit won't look rightly. Wear it for the giver's sake. Though it breathe to thee in sooth,
W'en de fun'al 'gins ter start, But of beauty, now, and youth,
Shove mah box in tightly. When it fades into the sear,
'Member I is in de hearse; It may then suggest me, dear.
Yo' am comin', but I 's firs'.
Ef de mo’ners grieve and mope,
So 's ter make de hosses lope,
Keep de team up sprightly. To an Old Guitar. 1892.
Lowah me slowly in de grave; HER slender fingers, jewel-drest,
Drap de earf down lightly. Stole softly to and fro,
Need n’t linger long, and, say, And in and out among the strings,
'Spense wid prayer's de better way; To tunes of long ago.
Don't keer ef nobody sings.
Jes ter know de chu'ch bell rings The golden ribbon kissed her throat
'S gwine ter please me might’ly. Where sain his lips would be Oh, how he loved her very breath,
Aphorisms for Men and Women.
He who sues for woman's favor in the guise of a In seventeen-ninety-two!
slave, is apt, the suit won, to appear in his native char
acter of savage. My songs are not so quaintly sweet As those she sang to him,
MANY a woman is unhappy because she has not marMy love and I no picture make
ried the man that she loves. But often she would be Like theirs, with time grown dim. infinitely unhappier if she had married him. But music lingers still in thee,
FRIENDSHIP frequently ripens into love; but very And love is just as strong,
seldom does love react into friendship. When it does, As when sweet Marjorie was young
it is permanent. And tuned thee to her song.
MATCHES made in Heaven frequently turn out as
if they had been matches made in ihe other place. My love and I will pass away Some day, and then will be
Men are never such heroes, or such fools, as in the Another hand to touch thy strings,
presence of women. And find thy melody.
MANY women wish either to tyrannize over men, or
to be tyrannized over by them. Thus men, the reverse Do you not wonder, old guitar, Whose hand 't will be, and who
of despotic, are often constrained to be despots in order
to have peace. Will sing the sweet love-songs to him Of nineteen-ninety-two ?
MANY a man's love is but gratified egotism; many a
woman's love only the confirmation of her vanity. I am not sad to think it true (The present is so sweet),
If tenderness be passion in repose, passion must be That Joy and Sorrow must unite
tenderness aroused. Tenderness, indeed, is the source To make thy chords complete.
and sanctity of the deepest passion.
No man or woman can be all that he or she should For what is Sorrow, Pain, or Death
be who has not the qualities of both sexes. To us whose souls are strong! Time cannot put an end to thee,
The one thing a woman cannot forgive in a man is Dear Life, and Love, and Song!
weakness. The one thing a man cannot forgive in a
woman is strength. Annie Louise Brakenridge.
Junius Henri Browne. THE DE VINNE PRESS, NEW YORK,