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tures of this 1860 collection,"The Impending Crisis " and “The Irrepressible Conflict,” had a very large sale, exceeding 50,000 copies each. They represent the failure of Seward to obtain the

Republican nomination, and in SARNUN

both Horace Greeley is pictured

as the chief agent of the disaster. AT SIT

In one instance Mr. Greeley is

depicted as having pushed Mr. NOW

Seward off a wharf, and as having EXHIBIG

been caught in the act by Henry J. Raymond, while General Webb gives evidence as an eye-witness. In the other, Mr. Greeley is throwing Mr. Seward overboard from a boat which Lincoln is steering, and which is very heavily loaded with the leaders of the Repub

lican party. Mr. Seward's famous AN HEIR TO THE THRONE,

phrase, which gives the picture its title, was uttered in October, 1858,

and had passed almost immeing upon the prostrate form of Buchanan after diately into the political vocabulary of the the Baltimore convention, for Douglas was the people. One of the most peculiar of the carifirst of the four presidential candidates who took catures of this 1860 campaign is that called the field that year. This is one of the best-drawn “ Progressive Democracy.” The manner in and most vigorous pictures in the collection, which the heads of the Democratic candidates and compares favorably with the caricatures of are placed upon the bodies of the mules in this the present day. The two pictures in which picture is the same as that employed in all the Lincoln is the chief figure, “ The Nigger in the earlier caricatures before the year 1800, and but Woodpile” and “An Heir to the Throne,” came rarely after that time. Early in the nineteenth out soon after his nomination, and the like- century the caricaturists began to form the ness of him which is presented in both of them human features from the face of the animal, seems to be based on the photograph which rather than to hang the human head in front was taken in Chicago in 1857. It is a powerful of the animal's ears as is done in this picture. face, full of the same sad and noble dignity which The prominent position occupied by the Tambecame more deeply marked

upon it in later years, — the face indeed, even then, of the "kindly-earnest, brave, foreseeing man" of Lowell's immortal ode.

The caricaturists of the period were quick to seize upon whatever happened to be uppermost in the public mind at the moment, with which to add point to their pictures. Thus Barnum's famous “What is it?" was used to make a point against the Abolition issue in Lincoln's election. The two companion pic



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many Indian gives evidence that the politics Fessenden, as Secretary of the Treasury, is turn

, of that period did not differ in some respects ing, shows a productive capacity which will atfrom the politics of to-day. All these carica- tract the interest, and may excite the envy, of tures of 1856 and 1860 were drawn by Louis the fiat money advocates of the present time. Maurer.

But the caricature which outstripped all others In the two specimens of the caricatures of in popularity in the early war period was that 1861, which are here presented with those of drawn by Frank Beard, called “Why Don't later date, the most interesting is that called You Take It?" (page 231). This had a sale ex“The Secession Movement." This is an almost ceeding 100,000 copies, and went to all parts of exact reproduction of a very successful carica- the North. It was reproduced, in a weakened ture of Jackson's time. Its authorship is un- form, and placed on envelops among the count

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known. In its original form it represented less other devices which were used in that way Jackson “ going the whole hog” in his quest to express Union sentiment. Aninteresting colfor popularity, reaching out for a butterfly la- lection of these decorated envelops is among beled “ Popularity," and exclaiming, “By the the archives of the New York Historical SoEternal, I 'll get it!” He was mounted upon ciety. Mr. Beard's formidable bull-dog was inthe hog which South Carolina is riding in the tended to represent General Scott, and in some present picture, and behind him upon donkeys of the reduced reproductions Scott's name was rode the members of his “kitchen cabinet,” placed upon his collar. The caricature hit the with the exception of Van Buren. The latter, popular fancy when the Confederate army was mounted upon a fox, was taking the course pur- threatening to advance upon Washington, and sued by Georgia in the later picture, and was streets were made impassable wherever it was uttering a phrase which he had made public exhibited in shop-windows. in one of his letters, to the effect that, while he The publication of these lithograph caricagenerally followed his illustrious leader, he had tures was continued through the Lincoln-Mcthought it advisable in the present emergency Clellan campaign of 1864, one specimen of to deviate a little.” This fixes the date of the which is presentedonpage 230, showing General original picture at the beginning of the cam- McClellan as a peacemaker between Lincoln paign of 1832, after Van Buren had resigned and Jefferson Davis. This likeness of Lincoln from the cabinet. The other specimen of the is so inaccurate as to be almost unrecognizable, year 1861,"Running the Machine," shows and is by John Cameron, the artist who drew the Lincoln's cabinet in session, and gives us a poor cabinet group. Caricatures were issued also portrait of him. The greenback-mill, which during the campaigns of 1868 and 1872, some

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of which are to be had now. They did not differ have not followed his methods. He gave to materially from the earlier ones, showing very the satiric art of caricature a power that it had little progress in either design or drawing. never before known in this country, and seldom

The death-knell of the lithograph sheet cari- in any country. It is impossible to look at this cature was sounded when the illustrated news- work of his, in the light of what had preceded papers began to publish political caricatures. it and of what has come after it, and not say They did not do this till the close of the war, that Nast stands by himself, the creator of a though Thomas Nast made his first appearance school which not only began but ended with in “ Harper's Weekly” while the war was in him. He had drawn political caricatures before progress. His pictures during the war were se- he had Tweed and his allies for subjects, and rious in purpose, and cannot be classed as cari- he drew other political caricatures after his decatures. He began his career as a political structive, deadly work with them was finished, caricaturist when Andrew Johnson started to but his fame will rest on his work of that period. “swing round the circle,” but his fame rests on While he had no successor in artistic methachievements of a later period. His series of ods, the success of caricature in the pages of an about fifty cartoons upon the Tammany Ring, illustrated newspaper was so clearly demonduring and following the exposures of 1871, strated by him, that he pointed the way to the constitute a distinct epoch in American politi- establishing of the weekly journals devoted to cal caricature. He was unlike any caricatur- that purpose which have since sprung up, and ist who had preceded him, and his successors which have so completely occupied the field that "Harper's Weekly" and other similar com- for a time, and also reappeared upon the local petitors have practically withdrawn from it.



stage as an actor. In September, 1876, the first The founder and chief developer of contem- number of “ Puck” of the present day was isporary political caricature in America, as we be- sued in German, and in March, 1877, the first hold it in the many-colored cartoons of“ Puck” number in English made its appearance. The and“ Judge,” was a young artist and actor from "Puck” of those early days was a very differVienna, named Joseph Keppler, who reached ent thing from what it is now. Its cartoons were St. Louis in 1868 in search of his fortune. He drawn on wood, and were in white and black. had studied drawing under the best teachers The drawing was strong, but the composition in Vienna's Academy of Fine Arts, but a strong of the pictures was almost as crude as that of


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inclination for acting had taken him upon the the old lithograph sheets. Keppler at first folstage. During the first year or two after his lowed the French and Italian schools of cariarrival in America he went about the country cature, exaggerating the size of the heads and as a member of a traveling theatrical troupe, the length of the legs. He very soon abanappearing in the theaters of many cities, in- doned this, however, and began to feel his cluding those of St. Louis, New Orleans, and way toward the gradual unfolding of what unNew York. His hand turned naturally to cari- der his guidance has become a distinctly Amercature, and after vain attempts to sell some of ican school of caricature. In 1878 he began his drawings to daily newspapers in St. Louis, to draw on stone, and in order to brighten the he started in that city in 1869 an illustrated effect of his pictures he commenced to tint them lithographic weekly, in German, with the title slightly with a single color. In 1879 two col“ Die Vehme.” The subject of his first carica- ors or tints were used, and from that time on ture was Carl Schurz, at that time a conspicuous the growth has been steady and rapid until the figure in St. Louis. The paper had a short life, bright and multicolored cartoon of the present and was succeeded in 1870 by a new venture day has been reached. called “ Puck." Two volumes of this were is- No one can look at the lithograph sheet carisued, that of the first year being in German catures of 1856 and 1860 and not be struck with alone, and that of the second in both German the strong general resemblance which they bear and English. The enterprise was doing fairly to the cartoons of to-day. There is the same well, when Keppler was compelled to abandon use of many figures in both, and the same minit. He went to New York city in 1873, where gling of editors, politicians, and other prominent he did some work for a weekly illustrated paper personages in groups and situations illustrating

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and ridiculing the political developments of the rections. The “Punch” cartoon of to-day is day. Instead of using the overhead loops to confined in almost all instances to a few figures, explain the meaning of the picture, however, and, except in the great advance made in arour contemporary artists build up elaborate tistic merit, does not differ in general style from backgrounds and surround the central figures the “ Punch ” cartoon of fifty years ago. The with details which, if the cartoon be a success, American cartoon, on the contrary, is a modern help to tell its story at a glance. The artistic creation. It has taken the old group idea of merit of the modern cartoon is, of course, far Gillray and Doyle, has made it gorgeous with in advance of its predecessors. The style is very colors, has built it up and fortified it with backdifferent from that of the “ Punch” cartoon, grounds, and has imparted to the figures and which has been developed from the same origi- faces of its personages a freedom of humor and nal source as the American. Both trace their a terrible vigor of satire which are peculiarly pedigree straight back to Gillray and Doyle, American. The author and gradual unfolder but the development has been in different di- of this cartoon is Keppler, who has the honor

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