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Buckeyes are favored only in the South. thing; but after a long and fair trial (for the Originally the buckeye was a log hollowed out yachter, no matter how bigoted he may be, and shaped into a boat, and was used by the will always try a new boat) it was discarded negroes. To-day, however, buckeyes are built as a useless, dangerous, and decidedly unsatupon carefully drawn plans, and many of them isfactory kind of craft. The theory of the cataare excellent vessels. They are common on the maran's designers was that by setting sails upon coast waters south of the Delaware Bay, and two narrow, sharp hulls placed wide apart great are used chiefly for hunting-boats, their cheap- speed could be obtained, because of the small ness, handiness, and roominess rendering them resistance offered by the water against such useful to the sportsman. A true buckeye is a hulls, and because the wide spread of the two double-ender, but some large ones have been boats would render the craft uncapsizable unbuilt with an overhang stern, which destroys the der lateral wind-pressure. Theory failed to fit ideal and creates a new kind of craft. The facts, however, and the catamaran has long buckeye is not considered "pretty” by yacht- since disappeared from the surface of the waters; ing men, but it is in every respect a service- its moldering form may be seen almost anyable boat, being both speedy and safe. The lee-board, a primitive contrivance designed to check the drift of a sailing vessel, was attached to the earlier buckeyes, but nowadays the regulation center-board is used with these boats. Lee-boards are sometimes used with flat-bottomed freight-vessels such as one sees in the waters of the Great Lakes and the Gulf of California; they are also attached to some sailing canoes, but are not properly a part of the equipment of any boat worthy to be called a yacht. The lee-board is merely a blade of wood dropped at the side of a vessel to give her a hold upon the water.

Similar to the buckeye in appearance is a vessel used in waters a thousand miles distant from those which are the home of the buckeye, and commonly known as a Mackinaw boat. It is the typical vessel of Lake Superior, upper Lake Michigan, and Green Bay. This boat is also a double-ended craft, rigged generally with two leg-o'-mutton sails, sometimes with the addition of a jib. The Mackinaw boat is popular as a fisherman, and the Indian fishers of the Great Lakes use it in catching whitefish, one of the chief industries of those waters. It can outsail the average fancy yacht, and is a very trustworthy sea-boat, two excellent qualities which have led to its adoption by many yachters of the Lakes as a general cruiser and pleasure-boat. The simple Mackinaw boat has no deck, and has a very pronounced sheer and a high bow and stern, but since it became a where upon the shore of a yachting harbor, a yachting craft it has been improved by the ad- shattered monument to the time, labor, and dition of deck and cabin, and is one of the best money that were sacrificed in giving it a trial. yachts for all-round use that one can find. The faults of the catamaran were many. It did

A few years ago the sailing public was sur- indeed show speed, provided the conditions prised by the appearance upon the waters of under which it was used were exactly to its lika spider-like contrivance which its friends said ing; but Nature has a way of making her conwas a “ catamaran.” This new claimant for ditions disagreeable to the sailor and the ship, yachting favor was like the raft of the South and the genius who conceived the catamaran Sea Islanders only in name; in fact, it was not seems not to have taken this into his reckona catamaran at all, but a new device for racing ing when he created his boat. The catamaran over the water by means of sails. Wonderful was always out of order in rough water; often feats were predicted for the future of the cata- a moderate chop sea was sufficient to shake it maran, and it certainly did accomplish some. in twain; it had a bad habit of losing or break

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FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY WALTER BLACK BURN.

A SLOOP CLOSE-HAULED TO WINDWARD.

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A CATAMARAN.

Hudson is suggestive of the marc) which progress has made in a fev brief decades. The pirogue is rarely seen nowadays, but one meets i occasionally. It is generally used as a hunting and pleasure-sailing craft. Originally it was fitted with a leeboard, but in the modern boat the center-board takes the place of that discarded contrivance.

A new aspirant has recently come into the yachting field, of which much is expected by certain advocates of shoal-boat sailing. This new craft is really an improved “sneakbox," a form of duck-hunting boat in

а use all over the country. The sneakbox of the West is a rowboat, but duck-hunters on the New Jersey coast and other waters of the Atlantic seaboard inlets have always built their sneak-boxes with a view to carrying sail, and constant improvement has actually developed a boat which is an exceedingly fine sailer, and a weatherly craft. The further improvement mentioned, which has resulted in the creation of a new type of sail-boat, is known by the

somewhat non-nautical name of ing its rudders; it was even guilty of letting its "watermelon.” It is a spoon-shaped, sloopcenter-board be twisted out just when the cen- rigged craft. This unique vessel has been tried ter-board was handy to have; it would not rise to a sea, neither would it go through it steadily, as does a well-fined cutter; and it did actually capsize in a very disagreeable and unseemly manner, kicking up its heels and plunging nose down, as a cat-boat will sometimes “pitchpole,” thus turning a porpoise-like somersault, and disgracing both itself and its master. So the catamaran, after a just trial by a jury of all the yachters, has disappeared, and is not likely to be seen again.

Another style of craft, now out of date and rarely seen, is the pirogue, or, as it was usually called, “ periauger.” This vessel is a doubleended, narrow hull, rigged with two pole-masts each carryinga gaff-sail—whatmight be termed, in brief, a double cat-rigged boat. The pirogue was at one time the Jersey Dutchman's favorite boat, and in the early days, when New York was still remembered as “New Amsterdam " and Jersey City was known as “ Powles Hook," a pirogue-ferry was operated by the enterprising Dutch of the two towns on the opposite shores of the Hudson. In those days a “voyage" across the river against adverse winds was considered quite a journey, and the pirogue making the best time became famous. A comparison between the pirogue-ferry of those times and the equipment of such ferries as now ply across the A CUTTER BEFORE THE WIND, UNDER RACING CANVAS.

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DRAWN BY W. TABER,

FROM A PHOTOGRAPH BY WALTER BLACKBURN.

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for two seasons, and reports speak well of its impetus in the East to the building of what is performance. It is an odd-looking boat, but known as the Norton life-boat, a vessel conin the hands of a skilful sailor seems to justify structed on peculiar principles. Briefly dethe application of the old saw, “ Handsome is scribed, the Norton boat is of the following as handsome does."

design. Her water-ballast is confined in tanks Lake yachting has certain peculiarities not on each side of her keel-line; these tanks are common with yachting on the salt water. For opened to the sea at points near the keel; in example, the water-ballasted boat, which is the upper part of each tank, along each side seldom seen upon the sea, has been in use by of the boat, is an air-chamber. The theory of lake yachters for years. Some of the vessels the inventor is that, when the vessel is pressed sailed on the waters of the Great Lakes carry down to leeward, the water in the leeward no other ballast. The water ballast is some- tanks is forced upward against the air-cushions, times held in fixed tanks secured at the bottom and the resistance of the air thus compressed of the boat; in other cases it is carried in long, holds the boat up. The water in the windward narrow boxes which are stowed below like a tanks cannot escape, because the outlets are cargo. When racing with tank-ballasted yachts, below the water-line of the boat; this water it has sometimes been customary to alter the remains as “ dead ballast.” Concerning the ballast by pumping out the water, or by add- Norton boat much has been written, but no ing more, as the needs of the racer might re- positive proof has yet been furnished that it is quire. This ability to change ballast at will all that is claimed for it. It certainly behaves gives one yacht decided advantage over an- well, and is a very stiff boat in a hard blow. other with fixed ballast; since, when running Such a boat really floats upon its cabin floor, free before the wind, the water-ballasted boat or rather upon the upper limits of its watermay be lightened so that she may go more tanks. swiftly, while, when she is compelled to beat Leaving the discussion of the odds and ends to windward under lateral pressure, a refilling of yacht styles, we come, by natural progress, of her water-tanks at once adds to her stabil to a type which is destined to greater popularity and sail-carrying power. By salt-water ity as time goes on, and yachters learn the ways yachters such a practice would not be counte- of the sea, and the best methods of dealing with nanced, since it would be considered unfair. them. Although the schooner is generally

The water-ballasted boat certainly has one deemed a big yacht, it is nevertheless a fact point in its favor—if capsized it cannot sink; that smallschooners are desirable boats to have, and this desirable quality in a yacht has given and that the number of schooners of small ton

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nage is increasing. There is no denying the ad- A word concerning the endless "centerboardvantage of the schooner's rig over that of the and-keel” controversy may not be out of place sloop. A schooner of forty feet is handier, safer, here. As applied to small cruising yachts, it is and less expensive to run than a forty-foot sloop. not out of the way to state that, unless shoal The rig of the schooner is peculiarly adapted waters make it imperative that one should have to all weathers, and a small crew can handle only a light-draft boat, the deep-keel vessel is such a vessel with ease, when to manage a much the better craft for the yachter to use. In sloop of equal size would require the best ef- such a boat depth gives accommodation, the forts of “all hands and the cook.” The reason absence of the center-board trunk leaves the for this is that the schooner's sails can be at- cabin freed from a great inconvenience, while tended to one at a time, which is not the case the stability of such a boat contributes to safety. with the big-mainsail sloop. Any yachter of It is generally agreed that the best small cruiser experience can relate tales of hard trials with a is a boat of good beam and draft, carrying sloop in rough weather that would not have her ballast on her keel. Such a yacht is uncapworried a schooner's crew at all. The waters sizable, a great advantage in a small vessel. of the eastern Sound and of Boston Harbor The compromise, or keel-and-centerboard type have many of these little schooners, and their of boat, is also popular. A boat of this kind owners get from them an amount of comfort has good draft, lead or iron keel-ballast, and that can never be appreciated save by one who the center-board is considered a benefit to her has had experience with both schooner and in going about and in racing. The very lightsloop. A typical yacht of this kind is the flag- draft center-board yacht is not the best cruiser, ship Edith of the New York Yacht Racing the only excuse for her use in that capacity Association. Her owner, President Prime, has being the necessity of light draft in waters cruised in her to Florida, and found her as safe which are shallow, as are the waters of many and handy at sea as many a large vessel. Such of our small harbors. A general deduction a yacht is cheap to build, cheap to run, and from these points of view may be summarized very roomy. For men who seek to yacht for thus: use a keel boat if you can; a center-board pleasure, comfort, and safety, the schooner and boat if you must. the yawl are beyond question ideal boats. With racing yachts the case is different. A racing be the desire of the yachting man, how- racer should be built with one idea— to win ; ever, the cat, jib-and-mainsail

, sloop- and cut- and if light draft and a big center-board will ter-rigged yachts are the boats in which he win, one should use them. For rough-water should invest and sink his cash.

racing, however, it has been demonstrated

If

quite conclusively that the “ skimming-dish,” So a reckoning was made for overhang, and as the light-draft boat is called, is not the best this is the general practice to-day. When the yacht. In bad weather the yacht with good New York Yacht Racing Association was orbody and draft, and ballast well down, has of- ganized, this question of racing-length was ten proved herself the champion. The narrow- decided in a manner so satisfactory that no just beamed cutter with very deep draft has also complaint of unfairness has ever arisen; and the held her own in such weather against all com- majority of clubs in the country have adopted ers. And just here a note in reference to the the association rule, which is simple, sportsdiagrams shown in a and b may be interesting. manlike, and free from the complications that These drawings show the development of the always cause trouble in clubs which use tondeep, narrow boat from the shoal type. They nage and sail-area rules. The association rule are from the scale plans of well-known yachts, measures a yacht by this formula:

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over all fourteen feet beam, three feet pine inches deep, exclusive

of trunk , Body-plan of typical English cutter, thirty-eight

that is to say, one half of the overhang of the stern is allowed.

Concerning this association a word should be said, because its organization marks a new

era in yachting. It was formed in 1889 by ten 6

clubs, the object being to create a sportsmane, M+chip section of typical center-board sloop-yacht, forty feet long like spirit and a feeling of cordiality among all

yachters. Its growth in popularity was rapid, feet long over all, six feet beam, and six feet draft.

and in a year its membership had doubled. Toand serve better than words to mark the dif- day it includes nearly every yacht-club on the ferent types. The plan b is an excellent form of waters of New York harbor, New Jersey, and keel type, being excessive neither in draft nor in the western Sound. Its annual regattas have beam; but a is too light for a stable boat. A made it a success, as a few figures will show. In compromise between a and b would give a the regatta of 1889, 120 yachts entered, the good type of boat for general all-round yacht- largest number ever sailed in any race. In 1890, ing purposes.

the entries numbered 180; in 1891, 160 boats Racing with small yachts has for many years entered. The association has been a boon to been one of the delights of yachters. With the yachters, bringing them together in friendly growth of yachting and the development of or- intercourse, and fostering a spirit of good-felganizations this sport grew rapidly in popularity, lowship and kindly rivalry. The association and now racing is always the great feature of has a cruise every year, and this feature has a club's yachting season. In the earlier days become almost as popular with its members as of yacht racing some droll things occurred. It the regatta. Sixty yachts participated in the was soon discovered that a big boat could beat cruise of 1890. In 1891, one hundred little a small one, and the necessity of time-allow- vessels sailed the waters of Long Island Sound, ance rules became obvious to the yachters. At first it was deemed sufficient to grade the boats acrording to size; and actual size being an unattainable measure, length was adopted as a standard of size. So the yachts were measured over their decks for the purpose of classification. Therf began an era of building to beat the racing rule, and the result was a boat longer on the keel than over deck. Objection was made to this unfairness, and the rule was changed, the measure of length on the keel being adopted as fair. In a short time the yachting world witnessed the birth of a new type of boat with the keel cut away forward and aft. Again the boat was made bigger than her measure indicated. Next came the water-line rule of measurement, which was fair, excepting that it took no account of the overhang sterns of many yachts, which thus gained advantage over square-sterned boats of equal water-line length.

Vol. XLIV.-4.

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OLD-STYLE PIROGUE WITH LEE-BOARD.

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