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certain industrial and practical features. On the same level are certain mercantile and trade schools. And then come the numerous elementary schools, the accommodations of which are intended to be equal to the requirements of the Compulsory Education Act; for throughout Austria and Hungary elementary education has for a number of years been obligatory upon all. The children learn perfectly both the Hungarian and the German languages, and not infrequently they learn something of either French or English.
The Hungarians, like all the people of southeastern Europe, are ready linguists. But the ease with which they acquire other languages does not diminish their devotion to their own. The Hungarian, or Magyar, speech has no affinity with the other languages of the Austro-Hungarian empire. It is more closely related to the Turkish than to any other tongue. It is a concise language, flexible, musical, and
has a rich vocabulary; and its most enthusiastic parable with the better universities of Ger- defenders are men who cannot be charged with many. It suffered somewhat, twenty years ago, ignorance of the capabilities of the three leadby the precipitate expulsion of the German ing languages of western Europe. An extenfaculty and the too sudden transformation from sive and growing Magyar literature exists, and a German to a Hungarian basis. But it has re- the book-shops of Budapest teem with new covered, and now has a truly national charac- productions in all fields of thought. The press ter and influence. Another important official of Budapest is also very active. Indeed, the educational establishment, the Royal Poly- Hungarians claim that nowhere else in Europe technic Institute, with important technical is journalism so free, and so influential in moldcourses in engineering and applied science, ing opinion and guiding affairs. An extraordiflourishes at Budapest. Then comes a series nary number of the leading men in Parliament of collegiate establishments, gymnasien and are or have been journalists. A Budapest writer real-schulen, some of which are national and has lately remarked that “all the men who can municipal, while others are denominational be regarded as distinguished and important in with public subventions. Below these are the the field of Hungarian politics stand in close advanced schools for boys and girls, corre- relation to the press: Louis Kossuth was a joursponding in their work to our upper grammar- nalist; Francis Deák entered upon his work and lower high-school grades, and having of adjusting Hungarian and Austrian relations
with a series of newspaper articles; and in the of their curative properties by any other group list of journalist statesmen stand the names of of medicinal springs in the entire world, should the brilliant Anton Csengery, Baron Sigismund give the place great fame. Its warm spring Kemény, Moritz Jókai, Max Falk, Louis Cser- baths are very ancient. The Romans utilized nátony; in a word, the most important of the them, and they called Buda“ Aquincum” public men of Hungary are journalists, for even (Five-waters), with reference to the five springs the Prime Minister Tisza himself, in his time, that were known and used. The Huns also when leader of the opposition, cultivated public prized the healing waters; and finally the Turks, opinion through the columns of a Hungarian during their period of domination, built great journal.” In Budapest alone there are now public baths, and regarded the waters as posmore than 230 different periodicals published sessed of the highest virtue. Some of these in the Hungarian language, while there are baths now belong to the municipality and some at least 40 in the German tongue. And there are private property. For the most part they are a dozen important daily papers.
lie on the Buda side of the river. Especially The Hungarian people have musical and ar- noted are the" Kaiser-bad,” the "Lukas-bad," tistic talents of the highest order, and their gifted and the “Königs-bad,” belonging to the Josons are constantly seeking and winning the sephsberg group, and lying at the base of that rewards that the larger European capitals have conspicuous eminence. To the same group beto offer. The painters and sculptors of Buda- long the baths of the Margareta Island. Compest go to Paris. The musicians are to be found fortable hotels adjoin these springs, and the everywhere. The most distinguished violin vir- bathing-establishments for the most part are tuosos and professors of Europe, from Joachim commodious and even luxurious. A more beauof Berlin down to men of lesser note, are nearly tiful health-resort than the “ Margareten-Inall Hungarians. One of the ornaments of the sel” can be found nowhere. Another group Andrássy-strasse is the Conservatory of Music, includes the “ Raitzen-bad," the “ Bruck-bad," where Liszt was formerly the presiding genius. and the “ Blocks-bad,” lying a little distance The high honors of the Paris Exposition were further down the river and in the vicinity of awarded to a Hungarian painter, Munkacsky. the Blocksberg promontory. On the other side The musical and artistic activity of Budapest of the city, in the Stadtwaldchen Park, the is very considerable, and it also has received municipal authorities have a hot sulphur-bath great impetus from the causes which have led establishment, supplied with water by an arteto the recent expansion of all interests in the sian well nearly three thousand feet deep. The Magyar capital. The Government maintains saline constituents of these various sources are a National Theater that has played an im- different, and some of the springs are recomportant part in the patriotic and intellectual life mended for one class of diseases, and some for of the people, encouraging poetic and literary another. The waters are used either externally, activity, and upholding the national speech. internally, or both, according to the case to Even more successful, if possible, in these re- be treated. There are in use some interesting spects is the Volks Theater, which, supported old remains of Turkish bath-house architecture, by the municipal government and conducted notably one belonging to the municipality, upon the most popular plan, fills a prominent the "Rudas-bad." The modern buildings are place in the life of the community. The most not magnificent, but they are handsome and imposing structure devoted to musical and dra. comfortable. matic art is the new Royal Opera, supported Just out of Buda, in a little plain surrounded by the Government, in the Andrássy-strasse. by high hills, are the well-known“ bitter-water” It is one of the two or three finest opera-houses springs which have made the name of Hungary in Europe, in magnificence hardly coming short more famous perhaps than any other article of of those in Vienna and Paris. The large German export. These curative mineral waters are botelement, and indeed the whole community,– tled in vast quantities and sent to all parts of for everybody understands the German lan- the world. The “Hunyadi” water, the “ FranzLuage,- is kept in touch with the musical and Josef,” the “Königs-bitter-wasser,” and the dramatic art of the German empire and of Rákóczy,” are the best-known of these poAustria through the Deutsch Theater, a splen- tent Budapest waters. It would be superfludid and thoroughly popular house, managed ous to discuss here their remedial qualities. with rare tact and judgment. It is not neces- But the baths, springs, and wells I have named, sary to mention any of the minor theatrical in- with various others in the immediate vicinity, stitutions. The four great ones already named constitute a marvelous endowment bestowed would redound to the credit of any city. by nature upon this beautiful city, and beyond
If Budapest were possessed of no other at- all doubt will be a source of very great wealth tractions whatsoever, its remarkable hot springs and fame in the future. As at Bath in Engand mineral waters, unequaled for the variety land, these healing waters of Budapest may
become at some time a property yielding a zone are assigned all distances on any of the direct and large municipal revenue.
Hungarian state lines that lie more than 225 Enough has been said, perhaps, to show kilometers away from the capital. For any that Budapest has become in recent years one point in each of these zones the fare is the of the best-appointed of modern cities. Its same. The new rates are greatly reduced, bestreets are handsome and clean, asphalt being ing in some cases one half and in other cases the prevailing material; its drainage is good; less than one fourth the former rates. The its health-system is producing beneficent re- average reduction is not far from two thirds. sults; its water-supply is about to be enlarged Railway bookkeeping is of course simplified and perfected; its local transportation system by the new system, and traveling has received is fairly adequate; its building regulations are an unwonted stimulus. It is now conceded producing a well-constructed and handsome that the innovation is a success from the point city; and its provisions for education and recre- of view of railway financiering; and it is even ation are highly creditable. Its public buildings more brilliant a success from the point of view are of good architecture and of considerable of the commercial and social progress of the variety. A splendid new building is about to capital city. It has given new movement and be erected for the housing of the municipal life to the sluggish population of the outlying government, the offices now being distributed parts of Hungary. Thus in 1880 the entire among several city buildings. One of these, number of persons carried by the principal the famous “Redout building,” is an impos- transportation companies of the whole country ing structure containing a vast public hall for was only 2,000,000; and in 1885, the year of balls and entertainments, the ground floor be- Budapest's exposition, the number aggregated ing used as a fashionable restaurant and café. only about 2,800,000. But in 1889, as a result Of “private-public" buildings, as hospitals, of five months of the zone tariff, the number schools, academies of art or science, hotels, reached nearly 5,500,000, while in 1890 it was and the like, the city has a most creditable about 6,850,000, and was considerably greater supply. One of the conspicuous objects on the still in 1891. Taking the Hungarian state railquay in the lower part of Pest is a large grain ways alone, for the three years 1888, 1889, elevator, built of brick in a most ornamental and 1890, we find passenger traffic amountstyle of architecture, and owned and operated ing respectively to 841,462, 1,944,588, and by the municipal government with the idea of 2,936,771. The Austro-Hungarian system of promoting the grain trade and also of intro- roads was obliged to meet the new rates and ducing, by example, this modern American in- methods, and its Hungarian lines, which in stitution. It is perhaps the only grain-elevator the half-decade preceding 1889 had carried in Hungary. It is a needlessly costly building, 900,000 people per annum, are now carrying but it has proved itself a valuable adjunct to some 2,000,000 yearly. To show more clearly the trade of the town, and within a few years, the local effect upon the movement of travel undoubtedly, private enterprise will multiply to and from Budapest, it may be stated that the number of these establishments.
at the central station of the Hungarian stateThe prospects for Budapest's continued railway system the arrivals and departures growth as a Danubian metropolis are very were 743,000 in 1888 and 2,740,000 in 1890, bright. As the center of the Hungarian state the change having been wrought altogether railway system, its commercial importance is by the cheapened rates and the general conconstantly enhanced by the development of venience of the zone system. At the station the resources of the country and the corre- of the Austro-Hungarian lines also the movesponding increase of traffic. And it is no ment has fully doubled in consequence of the longer doubtful that the capital will be the new policy. Great results in like manner are gainer to an enormous extent by the new following the more recent adoption of zone “zone tariff” put in operation on the state- tariffs and reduced rates for freight traffic. railway system in August, 1889.1 This remark- Thus the Danube valley has at length begun able innovation in railroading entirely changes to show development under the magic of modthe passenger-ticket system. From Budapestern industrial forces; and its progress within as a center 14 zones are described, the first the coming half-century bids fair to exceed that having a radius of 25 kilometers. The second of some newer regions of the Western world. is a belt lying between the inner circle and an Budapest promises to wrest from Vienna the outer one drawn with a 40 kilometer radius; commercial ascendency of the lower Danube i. e., its width is 15 kilometers. Successive valley, and it is possible that there may be in zones have a radius from the Budapest center store for it a very brilliant political future as the of 70, 85, 100, 115, 130, 145, 160, 175, 200, capital of a Danubian confederation that shall and 225 kilometers, while to the fourteenth include Hungary and the smaller states of the
1 See “ Topics of the Time " for December, 1890. Southeast. That this is the ambition of many
Hungarians is perfectly well known; and Hun- the Austro-Hungarian empire and of the Balgary is preparing to play an unprecedentedly kan peninsula, it is now certain enough that important rôle in the political life of Europe. Budapest is to take and hold its place among But whatever may be the political future of the great cities of the civilized world.
Albert Shaw. [The previous articles in this series were published as follows: “Glasgow : A Municipal Study,” March, 1890; "How London is Governed,” November, 1890; “ Paris : The Typical Modern City," July, 1891. THE EDITOR.]
COMATAS. And he shall sing how, once upon a time, the great chest prisoned the living goatherd by his lord's infatuate and evil will, and how the blunt-faced bees, as they came up from the meadow to the fragrant cedar-chest, fed him with food of tender flowers because the Muse still dropped sweet nectar on his lips.—THEOCRITUS.
YING in thy cedarn chest,
Didst thou think thy singing done,
THE NATURE AND ELEMENTS OF POETRY.
E have considered an- A climacteric epoch had expired in giving him cient poetry, the He- birth. His own age became Dante, as if by one braic and the classic, of the metamorphoses in the “ Inferno." And from which we so the “ Divine Comedy" is equally one with its largely derive, find- creator. The age, the poem, the poet, alike are ing even in that of Dante; his epic is a trinity in spirit as in form. the Augustan prime Its passion is the incremental heat that serves a marked departure to weld antique and modern conceptions, the from the originative old dispensation and the new.
temper of the earlier It is said that great poets are always before literatures. Centuries afterward, in Persia, the or behind their ages; Dante was no exception, “Shah Nameh,” or Book of Kings, furnished yet he preëminently lived within his time. a striking instance of heroic composition: the Above all else, his epic declares the intense work of a royal genius — Firdusi, whose name, personality that must have voice; not merely signifying Paradise, was given him by the great expression of the emotion that inspired his miMahmoud because he had made that Caliph's nor numbers— themselves enough for fame court as resplendent as Eden through his epic addressed to Beatrice, but also of his insight of “ Rustem and Sohrab,” his song of “the rise, concerning the master forces of human life and combats, death ” 1 of the Parsee religion and faith and the historic turmoil of his era. It was nationality. To produce an epic deliberately composed when he had matured through knowthat would simulate the primitive mold and ledge and experience to that ethical compremanner, in spite of a subjective, almost mod- hension which is the sustaining energy of Job, ern, spirit, seems to have been the privilege of of the Greek dramatists, of Shakspere, Milton, an Oriental, and, from our point of view, half- and Goethe. Then he cast his spirit, as one barbaric, race.
takes a mold of the body, in the matrix of the The strength of the Homeric poems and of “Divina Commedia." In this self-perpetuation the sagas of the North betrays the gladness out heinterpreted his own time as no modern genius of which they sprang, the joy that a man-child can hope to do - and this is the achievement is born into the world. They were men-chil- of personality at its highest. That he might sucdren indeed. Compared with our own reci- ceed, he was disciplined by controversy, war, tals— with even Tasso's “ Jerusalem,” Ariosto's grief, exile, until the scales fell from his eyes, “Orlando,” or the “Lusiad" of Camoëns—their and he saw, within the glory of his Church's voice is that of the ocean heard before the sigh- exaltation, the vice, tyranny, superstition, of ing of reeds along a river's brim. Nevertheless, that Church at that time, of his people, of his we must note that of the few great world-poems native state. His heart was strengthened for the subjective element claims its almost equal judgment, his manhood for hate, and his vision share.
was set heavenward for an ideal. His epic,
then, while dramatically creative, is at the apex As we leave the classic garden there stands of subjective poetry, doubly so from its expresone mighty figure with the archangelic flaming sion of both the man and the time; hence our sword. After Dante it may be said that "the chief example of the mixed type — that which world is all before" us “where to choose.” is compounded of egoism and inventive imaBehind him, strive as we may with renaissance gination. Its throes are those of a transition and imitation, we need not and cannot return. from absolute art to the sympathetic method Heine says that “every epoch is a sphinx which of the new day. plunges into the abyss as soon as its problem Dante could effect this only by a symbolism is solved.” After a thousand years of the fer- combining the supreme emblems of pagan and mentation caused by the pouring in of Chris- Christian schools. tianity upon the lees of paganism, a cycle ended; In his allegory of Hell, Purgatory, and, above the shade of Dante arose, and brooded above all, of Paradise, he is the most profound and the deep. From his time there was light again. aspiring of ethical teachers. The feebler hand1 Gosse's Introduction to Miss Zimmern's
ling of symbolism, for art's sake and beauty's, “ Stories Retold from Firdusi.”
and with an affectation of the virtues, is seen in Copyright, 1892, by Edmund Clarence Stedman.