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region, and to-day the coast waters from th Carolina line to Galveston, Texas, are wel supplied with sailing pleasure-boats. Most of the Southern yachts are of light draft, for the waters of the South are shallow; and the number of flat-bottomed and very shoal roundmodeled yachts far exceeds all other types. On the inlets of Florida and along the Gulf of Mexico the craft of the pleasure-seeker may be seen all the year round, for there is no beginning or end to the Southern yachting season. Though yacht-clubs are not numerous in the South, North Carolina has two, South Carolina one, Maryland two, Louisiana one, Alabama one, Georgia one, and Florida maintains three. There is also a club in prospective at Galveston, Texas. Some of these Southern clubs are strong in membership; the New Orleans club, whose yachts sail upon Lake Pontchartrain, is notable for the number and standing of its members.

The yachts chiefly used in Southern waters are, as has been stated, light-draft vessels of the generally accepted types which have been developed in the North. Sloops and cat-rigged

boats are in the majority; but schooner-rigged established club; Rochester has one, and To- sharpies are popular with those who like ledo and Kingston have two each, while the yachts of good size, and the builders of vessels great clubs of Chicago and Buffalo are as well of this type find a ready market for their boats known in the yachting world as are many of in the South. The only type of yacht which the most popular clubs of New York and Bos- is of Southern origin is the buckeye, or, as it ton. And besides, many yachts are to be found is sometimes called,“ bugeye,” a vessel which on the waters of Green Bay, the Georgian Bay tradition says was first conceived by the dugof Canada, and some of the smaller bays and out builders of the Dismal Swamp, and which river-mouths along the coast of the lakes. will be described more fully later on.

On the American side of the Great Lakes Some Americans belong to the Havana Yacht every kind of craft may be found, many of Club, an organization of several years' standthem built from designs by eminent yacht- ing, whose members cruise among the West Inarchitects. The sailor of the Great Lakes has dies, a most seductive sailing ground. Among little chance for his life in a storm if his boat the yachts of this club are many boats which be poor, since harbors of shelter are few and were built in New York, Philadelphia, and New far apart, the winds violent, and the waters England, and have made the voyage to Cuba, rough. The Canadian yachters of the Great never to return; for well-built yachts, it is said, Lakes use powerful boats, cruise far, and face find a ready sale at Havana and in other parts

a bad weather bravely. Their favorite yacht is of the West Indies. At Bermuda there is no that of their home country, the cutter, although one will find other types in their fleets. They have two clubs at Kingston, three at Toronto, and one at Hamilton. At Montreal and Quebec there are clubs whose boats cruise the St. Lawrence. There are also two sea-coast Canadian clubs, one at Chatham, New Brunswick, and the other at Halifax, Nova Scotia. The members of these latter clubs use only stanch seaboats, for the coast off which they cruise is a perilous one for all vessels. The yachters of the Canadian sea-coast are no fair-weather sailors, but boating men of the ablest sort.

Formerly the South took little interest in yachting. In recent years, however, this sport has taken a strong hold upon the people of that




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types. Pacific yachters appreciate the good points of the yawl, for the squalls which blow over the waters of the west coast are sudden and severe, and no rig meets these conditions of weather so well as does the yawl. There is also a flourishing organization at Tiburon. At Tacoma, in Washington, there is a club whose yachts fly their pennants upon the waters of Puget Sound, and cruise as far north as the British dominions. No other organized clubs exist on the Pacific coast; but private yachts are kept in many places, notably at Santa Barbara, San Diego, and Oakland, in California, and it is predicted that the near future will witness the formation of a Pacific

coast yachting fraternity similar in principle club, but yachtsmen are numerous. Schooners and purpose to the New York Yacht Racing and cutter-rigged craft prevail, the keel type Association of the East. The day is not far off of boat being the favorite. Small, light-draft when these and associations of the clubs of the boats are also in use there for pleasure-sailing. Great Lakes and those of the South will concenMany of them are built in New York and trate the American yachters in four grand dishipped by steamer to Bermuda and the West visions. Then may be formed the American Indies. Among these is a style of narrow, crank association of all yachters which some optiboat, generally open, square-sterned, and mod- mistic yachting men desire. eled much after the pattern of what is known From the organization in 1844 of the first as a “ cargo-boat," and equipped with a center- band of pleasure-sailers, the New York Yachtboard and a pole-masted rig. These boats are Club,— whose anchorage at Hoboken, New popular as “Ayers,” but can be kept right side Jersey, was the scene of the first club regatta up only by alertness and skill in the handling, ever heldin America,—the progress of the EastThey carry no ballast, the crew sitting “hard ern yachter has been steady; until to-day the to windward” to keep them “on end.” For yachting investment of the Atlantic coast is dare-devil sailing such boats, like the narrow beyond a doubt the most important aquatic canoe, are just the thing, but they scarcely de- interest in the world. It is in the East that the serve the dignity of being called yachts. problems of yachting have been propounded

On the Pacific coast, throughout the whole and solved. The distribution of yacht-clubs range of the sea-board, from the tropical over the Eastern waters is uniform, and everywaters of Lower California to Puget Sound, wherever there is a bay that will afford harbor, and a town that will support people, the yacht is used as a vehicle of pleasure. The number of organized clubs on the Pacific coast is small, but the clubs which have been formed there are all strong in membership and active in yachting. San Francisco, of course, takes the lead with two very good clubs and a fleet of yachts that would not shame any seaport town of the East. Many of the San Francisco boats are large schooners, a number are powerful seagoing sloops, while of smaller craft there is an abundance of almost every type, although the New York catboat and the flat-bottomed sharpie of Long Island Sound are seldom met with, and seem not to be in favor. The keel cutter has its representatives in the harbor of the Golden Gate, and the yawl-rigged boat is very popular, perhaps the favorite above all other







where in accord with the availability of the yachts innumerable, and the sail-boats of many sailing grounds. There are clubs enough, and rowing and canoeing clubs, the total composnot too many; these clubs are forming alli- ing a fleet of pleasure-craft greater than that ances which lead to harmony and good feeling of any other part of the world. throughout the whole fraternity, and their op- Concerning the craft used by the yachters portunities are boundless, for they have at of the East it will be needless to speak, excepttheir doors every outlet that a yachter can de- ing in a general way. In the mass of vessels sire. There is inland water on the innumerable which make up the total of their squadron of bays which everywhere indent the coast; there yachts may be found every kind of boat, from

the great steamer, which is really an “ocean greyhound" in appearance and speed, to the modest little skipjack. There are cutter and sloop, schooner and yawl, sharpie and sandbagger, each filling its place, and all getting on very well together. The center-board boats of course outnumber the keel boats, and the sloops outnumber the cutters; but there is no especial type of yacht which can be said to be the distinguishing Eastern style. Everything is in use, and it is safe to assert that everything new will be tried and, if found good, adopted by these masters of the art of sailing.

The earliest form of yacht was, of course, a rowboat with a sail. This in time gave way to the wider-beamed boat with greater sail-carrying ability and a center-board. With the adoption of the center-board the era of American yachting really began. The steady improvement of center-board models, and the importation from England of the cutter type of narrow, deep-keeled boats, furnished yacht-builders and -designers with material for thought and experiment during many years; and their endeavors to improve are not less earnest to-day than they

have been in the past. From the primitive spritare great rivers upon which the lover of nat- sail pleasure-boat comes the ever-present and ural scenery may sail his boat; deep waters for universally favored center-board catboat, a type the cutter-lover, and shoal inlets and sounds of yacht which for speed, handiness, and unsafefor the advocate of the sharpie; Long Island ness has never been surpassed. Keel catboats Sound gives the short cruiser a field for his are also built, but the typical American “cat” water rambles such as can be found nowhere is the center-board boat of light draft, big beam, else on the globe, and for him who would cruise and huge sail. The two objectionable points over pleasant waters between green mountains about boats of this class are their capsizability, there is the beautiful Hudson; while “old and their bad habit of yawing when sailing beocean's gray and melancholy waste” lies out- fore the wind. Yet the cat is the handiest lightside, inviting the bolder yachtsman to wander weather boat made. It is very fast, quick in stays, far from land. No such field exists anywhere and simple in rig; but it can never become a else as that granted the sailer of the Eastern first-class seaworthy type of yacht. It belongs coast, and he is availing himself of his advan- among the fair-weather pleasure-boats, and is tages to the utmost.

The yachts of the Eastern clubs may be classified in five general groups: Those which make their home ports between Cape Cod and the coast of Maine are enrolled in thirty-two clubs; those of the Sound and the south shore of Long Island comprise thirty organizations; those of New York harbor and northern New Jersey waters are entered in twenty-one different clubs; the Hudson River has eleven wellestablished yachting homes; and Delaware Bay has four. To these should be added private







not a good cruiser. Its popularity in the waters synonymous terms with a great many yachters, of New York harbor and the Sound is often a and no one can deny that these boats, like cause of perplexity to old yachters, who have Brother Jasper's sun, “ do move." learned by much experience that it is not by While describing the sandbaggers it may be any means the best boat that can be used for well to call attention to a type of yacht hull pleasuring. But its simplicity of design and rig, which has been in use for many years, and which and its handsome appearance, seem to insure is in every practical respect identical with the it perpetual good will and a long life among ordinary light-draft hull

. The difference bethe favorite boats of the time.

tween this type of hull and others is wholly one Cat-rigged boats with heavy keels are un- of cost and appearance. From a sailing point doubtedly safe and serviceable cruisers, since of view this boat, called a “skipjack," or they are not easily overturned and can face "smoothing-iron,” is merely a hard-bilged rough weather. They are popular in the wa- light-draft boat; that is to say, its peculiar ters about Boston harbor and Newport, but shape has no perceptible effect upon its use as

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are not favored by yachters of New York and a vessel. The skipjack is always an odd-lookvicinity; in the shoal waters of the South they ing boat, is never handsome in appearance, and are never seen, for the patent reason that light cannot be made to appear pleasing to the naudraft only will serve for use in Southern yacht- tical eye; but its sailing qualities are excellent. ing grounds.

Many men who desire a small yacht adopt the From the center-board catboat grew the jib- skipjack, and from such a boat get much fun and-mainsail sloop, a type of yacht which has with small outlay of money. A strong, wellalways been noted for its great speed and gen- built, and correctly molded skipjack is just as eral unhandiness. Small yachts of this kind are good a boat from a sailor's point of view as a always racers, and the interest in racing is suf- sharp-bilged, round-finished vessel of the same ficient to keep them in the lists of popular boats. general shape. In design they are like the catboats, the only Passing the sandbaggers, the next popular difference being in their rig. These two boats, and most universally used yacht is the ballasted the center-board cat and the jib-and-mainsail sloop. A sloop may be a center-board boat, or sloop, are what yachters call " sandbaggers”; a keel boat, or a combination of both. She has that is to say, their ballast consists of bags of only one mast, and carries a topmast. Her sails sand which are shifted to windward with every are many, and, like the cutter, she is permitted tack and thus serve to keep the yachts right side to carry clouds of canvas in a race. Technically up. A boat ballasted in this manner can carry speaking, a cutter differs from a sloop only in more sail than rightly belongs on her sticks, one point, as the terms “sloop” and “cutter” but she cannot be very safe or comfortable. really apply to the rig of the yacht. The cutter Her place is in the regatta. It is not beyond has a sail set from her stem to her masthead; the truth to assert that the sandbaggers con- the sloop has not. This is the technical point stitute probably two fifths of the total of small of difference. This sail is called a forestaysail, yachts. They will never cease to be popu- and its presence marks the cutter rig. The term lar, for the reason that speed and sport are “cutter,” however, is usually applied to the





nated in a liking for certain classes of very small boats,—"single-handers” they are called, and this liking has given impetus to the building of some little vessels which are really marvels in their way. Simplicity and handiness of rig have been considered in their construction, and this has led in many cases to the adoption of what is known as the yawl style, a rig which for safety and convenience has never been surpassed by any other. The yawl is really a schooner with very small mainsail

. For small cruising-yachts it is an excellent rig, and preferable to the cat rig. Cat-yawls are also in use; they are merely yawls without jibs. With such rigs as these, a yachter can go alone upon the water without fear of trouble, and with no need of assistance. Naturally, with men of moderate means who love the water, these small singlehanders have become very popular. Some of them are not over sixteen feet long, yet the solitary skipper-crew-and-cook, all in one, of such a boat finds in his yacht comfortable sleepingquarters, cook-stove, dinner-table, and all necessary“ fixings.” The ingenuity displayed in fitting out the cabins of these little boats is quite remarkable.

Of the many nondescript rigs which are applied to small yachts, two are in common use. One of these is the sharpie, a simple leg-o'-mut

ton rig used with flat-bottomed boats. Large long, narrow, deep-keeled vessel, and has in sharpies have been built with fine cabin accommon parlance grown to mean a boat of commodations, and such boats are particularly that type. It is in that sense that it is gen- adapted to the shoal waters of the South. They erally understood. It is worthy of notice that are fast sailers, but, owing to their long, narnearly all yachters who cruise about in summer, row bodies and light draft, are not always trustand especially those who are fond of speedy worthy. They are cheaper to build than boats boats, use either sloops or cutters; and it is re- of other designs. Numerous modifications of markable to see how much comfort can be found the sharpie exist, but the genuine sharpie is alin boats of these types, even when quite small. ways flat-bottomed and leg-o'-mutton rigged. A little cutter or sloop not twenty-five feet long The sharpies of the Sound are famous in their will be provided with berths for four men, din- way, and some of the sailers of those waters ner-table, lockers, cook-stove, and many other have even gone to the extreme notion of asgeneral comforts; and a yacht thirty-five feet suming that they are preferable to any other long will sleep six people without overcrowd- type of vessel for yachting purposes. Such an ing, and have one state-room. The deep-keeled assumption is of course absurd, for at best a boat is of course the more comfortable yacht, sharpie is an imperfect vessel, owing to its flat because she has head-room enough to enable bottom. As an old sailor once remarked, when one to stand erect in her cabin. Any one who asked his opinion about boat hulls, “A wessel has done much yachting knows how uncom- wot 's more out o' water than she 's in ain't no fortable a shallow boat becomes during a long safe wessel for them as likes to keep dry.” But cruise.

the sharpie has its place among the yachts, deThe average yachting man, if he be of that spite the old sailor's opinion, and that place is stuff of which good seamen are made, soon clearly defined by Nature, who has made so finds his chief delight in being master of his many shallow sailing grounds upon which no own vessel. He likes to feel that it is his skill, other type of boat can go. The sharpie, like his prowess, his intellect, that rule the ship in the gunboats of which President Lincoln once which he sails; and finding this complete mas- spoke, “can go wherever it is a little damp," tery of the vessel to be impossible aboard a big and its ability to do this entitles it to much reboat, he longs for one which he can handle spect from the American yachter, who must, if alone. This independent and sportsmanlike he would sail at all, often frequent very shoal instinct of the American yachter has culmi- water.

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