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at Washington measures 680 feet by 280.) At- clear, large, and simple as, in great measure, tached to this building on the west is an annex to counterbalance, with their effect of spacious 550 feet long, covering about 64 additional harmony and noble proportion, the inevitable acres, for the exhibition of the rougher sorts of perplexity and confusion of a display of mismachinery. Messrs. Peabody and Stearns of cellaneous running machinery. Boston, in adjusting the constructional scheme In this way Messrs. Peabody and Stearns of their main building to this fixed area, were proposed to satisfy the principal structural and governed by the necessity of providing large practical requirements of their problem. But unencumbered spaces of considerable height the more difficult task remained to give to the for exhibits, so disposed as to facilitate classi- prosaic and unimaginative mass an exterior asfication and to avoid confusion; and by the pect of beauty and fitness, which, so far as posfact, imposed equally upon all the other ar- sible, should reconcile the spirit of materialism, chitects, that, so far as possible, the form of here, in the very central place of its power, with structure should be such that its material would the spirit of organized "rest, grace, and harbe marketable after the conclusion of the Fair. mony." The architectural formulas by which These considerations led to the adoption of this new and apparently ill-assorted marriage of a typical railway-shed 130 feet wide, covered Hephæstus and Aphrodite was to be attempted by a barrel-shaped roof 100 feet high, sup- had already been established, as we have seen,
ported on iron arched trusses 50 feet apart, by the agreement among the architects of the as a convenient basis for their plan. They court to confine themselves to a style strictly placed three of these sheds side by side. But classic, and to a definite height of 60 feet to the site of the building was such that its main the cornice. By this limitation of effort they entrance had to be placed in the center of the proposed to secure for the great quadrangle a long court-frontage, opposite the south door- harmonious aspect of stately ceremony; but in way of the great vestibule of the Exposition, so doing they sacrificed invention to conventhus establishing a clear architectural relation- tion, and were constrained, in designing their ship with its nearest and most important neigh- exteriors, to confine themselves to the combor. This condition suggested the crossing of position of a series of architectural masks or the triple hall in the center by a great transept, screens, as we have already explained. These, which, being of the same width as each of the though in general arrangement suggested by three naves, developed a noble main hall com- the divisions of the plan in each case and by posed of three bays 130 feet square, from each the uses of the building, were intended to be of which, to the right and left, the naves opened expressive rather of possible than actual strucin long perspectives of six 50-foot bays on each ture. In fact, so far as the exterior envelop side. In order still further to distinguish this was concerned, they were to be merely plastic main avenue, giving access to these minor naves, models of buildings, designed so as to be caeach of its three square divisions was covered pable of construction in permanent materials. with a conical glazed roof, giving an interior The whole, therefore, may be considered as effect of a succession of domes. The architects little more than a pageant of practicable stage thus secured a vast covered area composed of scenery on a vast scale. The architects of Mathree parallel naves with glazed roofs, crossed chinery Hall, in studying the problem of by a central main transept, the combination giv- their architectural screen, reserved for this ing a total width of 390 feet and a length of purpose an enveloping area, about 50 feet 7.30, affording every desirable condition of prac- wide, extending entirely around their central tical convenience, with structural divisions so hall. This area they occupied with external
and internal galleries of two stories. These galleries naturally develop pavilions 50 feet square
where they intersect at the corners, and they are interrupted, in the center of the two principal façades, by main-entrance pavilions; that on the north facing the Administration Building, and that on the east facing the corresponding side porch of the Agricultural Building. It has already been noted that the architects of the court considered that it was necessary to establish sheltered ambulatories along their fronts. In accordance with this agreement, the long intermediate stretches of façade or curtain-walls of this building, between the pavilions, are faced with porticos; but in this case the porticos are arranged in two stories to correspond with the interior, treated somewhat after the manner of Claude Perrault in the east front of
the Louvre, each division having Corinthian colonFIGURE IN WINDOW-FRAME OF
nades of 23 columns 2772 feet high on the long
façades, and of 9 columns on the end façades, the spacing of these columns being multiples of the structural divisions of the great interior bays. Unlike the famous Paris example, however, the basement upon which these colonnades are placed is pierced with an open arcade to form the lower ambulatory, the ceiling of the latter being treated with a dome in each bay, and that of the former with richly embellished panels. To relieve the scrupulously scholastic accuracy of the main order, and to recall the days of Columbus and of Ferdinand and Isabella, the apertures in the rear walls of the upper porticos are treated with the picturesque freedom of the Spanish Renaissance, and the arms of Spain and the portrait of Columbus are frequently repeated about them.
It became evident to the architects, in the evolution of their design, that the light and open character of these long twostoried porticos needed some strongly contrasting form of relief and support, to be obtained by transition to an expression of solidity and massiveness in the corner and middle pavilions. For this reason they were led to treat the latter very boldly as plain wall-surfaces abruptly interrupting all the horizontal lines of the orders of the curtain-walls, and carried 35 feet higher, there finishing with a level cornice. On each front this plain wall-surface they divided in three pavilions, of which the outer, 29 feet wide, are treated as towers, the wider intermediate part being slightly recessed between them. Upon these towers, which contain staircases, they placed open octagonal lanterns, in three diminishing stories, rising to the height of 102 feet, like spires enriched with balustrades and finials, somewhat Romantic in character, and following suggestions contained in Spanish or Mexican examples. On the north pavilion toward the court, and opposite the south entrance of the Administration Building, the architects embedded in this central division a temple-like portico 75 feet wide and go feet deep, the portion developed outside the pavilion, and forming the exterior, being apsidal or semicircular in plan. This portico they treated with a colossal Corinthian order 60 feet high, crowning the apsidal projection with a low half-dome behind a balustrade, with a pedestal and statue over each column somewhat like the
famous circular porch of the calidarium in the seen, in parts by motives suggested by the highly Baths of Caracalla. The east portico practically ornate Renaissance of Spain. Enriched proreceived the same treatment, the temple-por- fusely with sculpture and emblematic statues, tico, however, in this case being 75 feet square and with effects of decorative color behind the in plan, two fifths of it projecting outside the open screen of the porticos, this composition, pavilion and finishing with a pediment, and the if it does not succeed in revealing the mysteriremainder being embedded, as it were, in the ous relationships between machinery and art, interior. It would be difficult to conceive of a may at least stand as a beautiful model of more majestic welcome to this department of highly organized academic design adjusted to the Exposition. With the object of keeping modern uses. the corner pavilions subordinate to those in the Theiconographic scheme of this building emcenter, and to establish unity of design on the braces statues representing the Sciences and the adjacent sides, the two-storied orders of the long Elements, and figures bearing escutcheons in colonnades are continued around them, but em- scribed with the names of famous inventors. In phasized by a slightly projecting loggia on each the great east pediment Chicago presents to face. The interior of each of these pavilions America, and to the judges of the nations, varicontains a grand double staircase inclosed in a ous inventors and mechanics submitting their circular cage of columns supporting a dome. handiwork. The windows are surmounted by This domical treatment is expressed externally groups of infants bearing mechanical tools, and by a much higher dome, raised upon a circular holding festoons composed of chains of mearcaded drum or podium supported on the cor- chanical implements instead of the convenners by small circular pavilions and finishing tional fruit and flowers. with a lantern.
Before proceeding to the consideration of the The long level sky-linesofthese great façades, Agricultural Building, which lies east of Ma thus broadly accentuated at the corners by chinery Hall, and, with its noble façade, comdomes, and in the center by the aspiring lines pletes the southern closure of the great court. of twin towers nearly 200 feet high, were de- it is necessary to consider the treatment of th vised to form an engrossing foreground to the minor court, which, with the southern extension long higher roofs of the triple naves behind, of the main canal from the basin, lies between broken by masses of decorative skylights with these two buildings. The terraces in front o clearstories, and by the three low conical roofs them are connected by a bridge thrown acro of the main central transept. On the shorter the canal, and the southern closure of this m fronts these naves present their glazed circular nor court forms a connecting link of two-sto ends behind and above the façade in the man- ried corridors between the two buildings, soli ner used in the great Roman baths. In this way below and open above, and repeats the orde. every principal feature of the main structure is of the curtain-walls of the Machinery Buil. made to play a noble and expressive part in the ing, which, in their turn, are not unlike tho. decorative scheme. The details of this design of the facade of the Museo of Madrid. Ti: have been kept in rigid conformity with classi- light construction is flanked at each end by cal and scholarly traditions, relieved, as we have solid pavilion, still of marked Spanish accer
without pilasters, and treated as a wing of the the center of the screen. The southern end of main building. One of these pavilions is de- this canal will be decorated by a fountain with signed for a restaurant, and the other for a hall spouting lions and an obelisk. of assembly. The transition from these to the All the architectural modeling of this builddelicate open peristyle of the connecting corri- ing is executed by John Evans & Co. of Bosdors is still further eased by the interposition of ton, and the figures in connection with it are small towers, crowned by circular belvederes, modeled, under their direction, by Mr. Bachwhich break the sky-line with great elegance. mann. The statues of the Sciences and the EleThis screen, while making a noble connecting- ments, and the groups on the entrance to the link between the two buildings, serves as a Live-Stock Exhibit, are the work of the sculpfrontage for the amphitheater and offices of tor Waagen. The statues on the semicircular the Live-Stock Exhibit, which will be designed north porch, and the figures in the spandrels by Messrs. Holabird and Roche of Chicago, over the entrance to the Live-Stock Exhibit, and which are entered by a triumphal arch in are executed by Mr. Krauss.