Puslapio vaizdai

history. This proved a fortunate rencontre for him. Sun Ch'ung took him home, and kept him for several years concealed somewhere ' in the centre of a double wall.' And now it was that he solaced his hard lot with literary studies. He wooed the muse in twentythree poetical compositions, which he called 'Songs of Adversity',' and achieved his commentary on Mencius

On the fall of the T'ang faction, when a political amnesty was proclaimed, Ch'i emerged from his friendly confinement, but only to fall a victim again to the intrigues of the time. The first year of the emperor Ling, A.D. 168, was the commencement of an imprisonment which lasted more than ten years; but nothing could crush his elasticity, or daunt his perseverance. In 185, when he had nearly reached fourscore, he was active as ever in the field of political strife, and wrought loyally to sustain the fortunes of the falling dynasty. He died at last in A. D. 201, when he was over ninety, in Ching-châu, whither he had gone on a mission in behalf of his imperial master. Before his death he had a tomb prepared for himself, which was long shown, or pretended to be shown, in what is now the district city of Chiang-ling in the department of Ching-châu in Hû-pei3.

3. From the above account of Chao Ch'i, it will be seen that his commentary on Mencius was prepared under great disadvantages. That he, a fugitive and in such close hiding, should have been able to produce a work such as it is, shows the extent of his reading and acquirements in early days. I have said so much about him, because his name should be added to the long roll of illustrious men who have found comfort in sore adversity from the pursuits of literature and philosophy. As to his mode of dealing with his subject, it will be sufficient to give his own account:—

'I wished to set my mind on some literary work, by which I might be assisted to the government of my thoughts, and forget the approach of old age. But the six classics had all been explained and carefully elucidated by previous scholars. Of all the orthodox school there was only Mencius, wide and deep, minute and exquisite, yet obscure at times and hard to see through, who seemed to me to deserve to be properly ordered and digested. Upon this I brought forth whatever I had learned, collected testimonies from the Classics


'復壁中. ·层屯歌,二十三章. ·湖北荆州府, 江陵縣

and other books, and divided my author into chapters and sentences. My annotations are given along with the original text, and of every chapter I have separately indicated the scope. The Books I have divided into two Parts, the first and second, making in all fourteen sections.

'On the whole, with regard to my labour, I do not venture to think that it speaks the man of mark, but as a gift to the learner, it may dispel some doubts and resolve perplexities. It is not for me, however, to pronounce on its excellencies or defects. Let men of discernment who come after me observe its errors and omissions and correct them ;-that will be a good service1.'



1. All the commentaries on Mencius made prior to the Sung dynasty (A. D. 960) having perished, excepting that of Chao Ch'i, I will not therefore make an attempt to enumerate them particularly. Only three names deserve to be mentioned, as frequent reference is made to them in Critical Introductions to our philosopher. They were all of the Tang dynasty, extending, if we embrace in it what is called 'The After T'ang,' from A.D. 618 to 936. The first is that of Lu Shan-ching 3, who declined to adopt Châo Ch'i's division of the whole into fourteen sections or parts, and many of whose interpretations, differing from those of the older authority, have been received into the now standard commentary of Chú Hsi. The other two names are those of Chang Yi and Ting Kung-chu', whose principal object was to determine the sounds and tones of characters about which there could be dispute. All that we know of their views is from the works of Sun Shih and Chú Hsi, who have many references to them in their notes.

2. During the Sung dynasty, the commentators on Mencius were a multitude, but it is only necessary that I speak of two.

The most distinguished scholar of the early reigns was Sun Shih, who is now generally alluded to by his posthumous or honorary epithet of 'The Illustrious Duke". We find him high in favour and 1 See the 孟子題辭. △ D. 960 陸善經.‘張益.‘丁公著.‘孫奭.'宜公

'Some date the commencement of the Sung dynasty in

reputation in the time of T'âi-tsung (976–998), Chăn-tsung (9981022), and Zăn-tsung (1023-1063)1. By imperial command, in association with several other officers, he prepared a work in two Parts, under the title of 'The Sounds and Meaning of Mencius,' and presented it to the court. Occasion was taken from this for a strange imposture. In the edition of 'The Thirteen Ching,' Mencius always appears with 'The Commentary of Châo Ch'i' and 'The Correct Meaning of Shun Shih3.' Under the Sung dynasty, what were called 'correct meanings' were made for most of the Classics. They are commentaries and annotations on the principal commentator who is considered as the expounder of the Classic, the author not hesitating, however, to indicate any peculiar views of his own. The genuineness of Shih's 'Correct Meaning of Mencius' is questioned by few, but there seems to be no doubt of its being really a forgery, at the same time that it contains the substance of the true work of 'The Illustrious Duke,' so far as that embraced the meaning of Mencius and of Chao Ch't. The account of it given in the preface to 'An Examination of the Text in the Commentary and Annotations on Mencius,' by Yuan Yüan of the present dynasty, is-Sun Shih himself made no "Correct Meaning;" but some one-I know not who supposing that his Work was really of that character, and that there were many things in the commentary which were not explained, and passages also of an unsatisfactory nature, he transcribed the whole of Shih's Work on "The Sounds and Meaning," and having interpolated some words of his own, published it under the title of "The Annotations of Sun Shih." He was the same person who is styled by Chu Hsi "a scholar of Shâo-wû.”’

In the twelfth century Chû Hsî appeared upon the stage, and entered into the labours of all his predecessors. He published one Work separately upon Mencius, and two upon Mencius and the Confucian Analects. The second of these, Collected Comments on the Analects and Mencius,' is now the standard authority on the 太宗,眞宗,仁宗. ’孟子音義,二卷 孟子音義,二卷.-In or about the ye


year 1008, a book was found,' at one of the palace gates, with the title of "The Book of Heaven'

(#). The emperor at first was inclined to go in state and accept it, but he thought

of consulting Shih. Shih replied according to a sentiment of Mencius (V. Pt. L. v. 3) that 'Heaven does not speak,' and asked how then there could be any Book of Heaven. Was this Book of Heaven, thus rejected on Shih's counsel, a copy of our Sacred Scriptures, which some Nestorian Christian was endeavouring in the manner indicated to bring before the court of


China? 漢趙氏註,宋孫奭疏.‘阮云孟子註疏校勘 記序.‘孟子指要‘論孟集義;論孟集註

subject, and has been the test of orthodoxy and scholarship in the literary examinations since A. D. 1315.

3. Under the present dynasty two important contributions have been made to the study of Mencius. They are both published in the 'Explanations of the Classics under the Imperial Dynasty of Ch'ing'.' The former, bearing the title of 'An Examination of the Text in the Commentary and Annotations of Mencius,' forms the sections from 1039 to 1054. It is by Yuan Yuan, the Governor-General under whose auspices that compilation was published. Its simple aim is to establish the true reading by a collation of the oldest and best manuscripts and editions, and of the remains of a series of stone tablets containing the text of Mencius, which were prepared in the reign of Kâo-tsung (A.D. 1128-1162), and are now existing in the Examination Hall of Hăng-châu. The second Work, which is still more important, is embraced in the sections 1117-1146. Its title is--The Correct Meaning of Mencius, by Chiâo Hsün, a Chü-zăn of Chiang-tu.' It is intended to be such a Work as Sun Shih would have produced, had he really made what has been so long current in the world under his name. I must regret that I was not earlier acquainted with it.



1. We have seen how the Works of Mencius were catalogued by Liû Hsin as being in 'eleven Books,' while a century earlier Sze-mâ Ch'ien referred to them as consisting only of seven.' The question has very much vexed Chinese scholars whether there ever really were four additional Books of Mencius which have been lost.

2. Chao Ch'i says in his preface :-'There likewise are four additional Books, entitled "A Discussion of the Goodness of Man's Nature," "An Explanation of Terms," "The Classic of Filial Piety," and "The Practice of Government." But neither breadth nor depth marks their composition. It is not like that of the seven acknowledged Books. It may be judged they are not really the production of Mencius, but have been palmed upon the world by some subsequent imitator of him3.' As the four Books in question are lost, and only

1 See vol. i. proleg. p. 133. ’孟子正義, 江都焦孝廉循著 △又有外書四篇,性善辯,文說,孝經,為政,其文不能

a very few quotations from Mencius, that are not found in his Works which we have, can be fished up from ancient authors, our best plan is to acquiesce in the conclusion of Chao Ch't. The specification of 'Seven Books' by Sze-mâ Ch'ien is an important corroboration of it. In the two centuries preceding our era, we may conceive that the four Books whose titles are given by him were made and published under the name of Mencius, and Hsin would only do his duty in including them in his catalogue, unless their falsehood was generally acknowledged. Ch'i devoting himself to the study of our author, and satisfied from internal evidence that they were not his, only did his duty in rejecting them. There is no evidence that his decision was called in question by any scholar of the Han or the dynasties immediately following, when we may suppose that the Books were still in existence.

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The author of 'Supplemental Observations on the Four Books',' "It would be better to be without books says upon this subject:than to give entire credit to them ";"-this is the rule for reading ancient books laid down by Mencius himself, and the rule for us after-men in reading about what purport to be lost books of his The seven Books which we have "comprehend the doctrine of heaven and earth, examine and set forth ten thousand topics, discuss the subjects of benevolence and righteousness, reason and virtue, the nature of man and the decrees of Heaven, misery and happiness 3.” Brilliantly are these things treated of, in a way far beyond what any disciple of Kung-sun Ch'âu or Wan Chang could have attained to. What is the use of disputing about other matters? Ho Sheh has his "Expurgated Mencius," but Mencius cannot be expurgated. Lin Chin-sze has his "Continuation of Mencius," but Mencius needs no continuation. I venture to say-" Besides the Seven Books there were no other Works of Mencius.'

3. I have said, in the note at the end of this volume, that Châo Ch't gives the total of the characters in Mencius as 34,685, while they are now found actually to amount to 35,226. This difference has been ingeniously accounted for by supposing that the continually recurring

宏深,不與內篇相似,但非孟子本真,後世放而託 tt. 1 See vol. i. proleg. p. 131. * Mencius, VIL. Pt. II. iii.

This is the language

of Chao Ch'i. Ma Twan-lin mentions two authors who had taken in hand to expurgate Mencius, but neither of them is called. He mentions Lin Chin-sze, calling him

Lin Shän-sze (B), and his Work.

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