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i.e. by gradually leading it from dam to dam. Chú Hsi says:-This chapter tells us that the nature is properly good, and if we accord with it, we shall do nothing which is not good; that it is properly without evil, and we must violate it therefore, before we can do evil. It shows that the nature is properly not without a decided character, or that it may do good or evil indifferently.’
3. THE NATURE IS NOT TO BE CONFOUNDED WITH
nature to good is like the tendency of water to
flow downwards. There are none but have this tendency to good, just as all water flows downwards.
3. Now by striking water and causing it to leap up, you may make it go over your forehead, and, by damming and leading it, you may force it up a hill;-but are such movements according to the nature of water? It is the force applied which causes them. When men are made to do what is not good, their nature is dealt with in this way.'
1. The philosopher Kâo said, 'Life is what we call
2. Mencius asked him, 'Do you say that by nature you mean life, just as you say that white is white ? ' 'Yes, I do,' was the reply. Mencius added, 'Is the whiteness of a white feather like that of
–literally, ‘the goodness of man's nature,' but | THE PHENOMENA OF LIFE. 1. 'By 4,' says Chú
Hal, is intended that whereby men and animals
we must take 善 as = (tendency to good.' 3. 激, to provoke,' cto fret,' the consequence of
perceive and move,' and the sentiment, he adds,
dam. 激而行之一(dam and walk it'
is analogous to that of the Buddhiste, who make 作用, (doing and using,' to be the nature.
We must understand by the term, I think, the phenomena of life, and Kao's idea led to the ridiculous conclusion that wherever there were the phenomena of life, the nature of the subjects must be the same. At any rate, Mencius here makes him allow this. a, 3. The L, 4th tone, all interrogative, and = 'you allow this, I sup. pose.'-We find it difficult to place ourselves in sympathy with Kao in this conversation, or to
從於日子非告性 其我彼日外子與。 百也長何也曰
might suppose that here denoted the
white snow, and the whiteness of white snow like that of white jade?' Kdo again said (Yes.’
3. ‘Very well, pursued Mencius. Is the nature of a dog like the nature of an ox, and the nature of an ox like the nature of a man?'
CHAP. IV. 1. The philosopher Kão said, 'To enjoy food and Benevolence is internal and not delight in colours is nature. external; righteousness is external and not internal.'
2. Mencius asked him, 'What is the ground of your saying that benevolence is internal and righteousness external?' He replied, "There is a man older than I, and I give honour to his age. It is not that there is first in me a principle of such reverence to age. It is just as when there is a white man, and I consider him white;— according as he is so externally to me. On this account, I pronounce of righteousness that it is external.'"
follow Mencius in passing from the second paragraph to the third,His questions in paragraph 2 all refer to qualities, and then he jumps to
It is important to observe that by denoted 事物之宜, the determining what conduct in reference to them is required by men and things external to us, and giving
others about the nature.
4. THAT THE BENEVOLENT AFFECTIONS AND THE it to them.' Kão contends that as we are moved
DISCRIMINATIONS OF WHAT IS RIGHT ARE EQUALLY by our own internal impulse to food and colours,
食色-甘食悅色. We so we are also in the exercise of benevolence, 長一
but not in that of righteousness. 2.
it is the adjec.
always grd tone. In彼長
appetite of sex.' But another view is preferred.
Thus the commentator 熙周 observes :一
| tive, but in the other cases it is the verb.
(The infant knows to drink the breast, and to 有長於我-非先有長之之
look at fire, which illustrates the text 食色
我: The second 白 is also a verb.
是楚為之乎。 之乎謂以也也外 以入悅弟 長異 異不無也 者 於識以
亦故愛則乎人馬於於 者長 長謂也愛長之之
吾之是之 之之 長長
3. Mencius said, 'There is no difference between our pronouncing a white horse to be white and our pronouncing a white man to be white. But is there no difference between the regard with which we acknowledge the age of an old horse and that with which we acknowledge the age of an old man? And what is it which is called righteousness ?——the fact of a man's being old ? or the fact of our giving honour to his age ?’
4. Kdo said, There is my younger brother;–I love him. But the younger brother of a man of Ch'in I do not love: that is, the feeling is determined by myself, and therefore I say that benevolence is internal On the other hand, I give honour to an old man of Ch'û, and I also give honour to an old man of my own people: that is, the feeling is determined by the age, and therefore I say that righteousness is external.'
3. 異於, at the commencement, have crept 楚人, indifferent people, strangers. 以 by some oversight into the text They must no 我爲悅以長爲悅the meaning disregarded. 白馬白人長馬 |is, no doubt, as in the translation, but the use 人白and 長 are the verbs, = the 長之 of悅 in both cases occasions some diffoulty. below.且謂云云, ‘and do you say ? Here again I may translate from the 日講
&c.,' but the meaning comes out better by ex- which attempts to bring out the meaning of I love my younger brother and do not
panding the words a little. The says:-1:
"The recognition of the whiteness of a horse is love the younger brother of a man of Ch'in ; not different from the recognition of the white- that is, the love depends on me. Him with ness of a man. So indeed it is. But when we
acknowledge the age of a horse, we simply whom my heart is pleased, Ilove(悦乎我 with the mouth pronounce that it is old. In 之心則愛之), and him with whom
acknowledging, however, the age of a man,
there is at the same time the feeling of respect my heart is not pleased, I do not love. But in the mind. The case is different from our the reverence is in both cases determined by
recognition of the age of a horse.' 4. 秦人, the age. Wherever we meet with age, there we
此誰一謂以關外: 国外有以 之 子與然
5. Mencius answered him, 'Our enjoyment of meat roasted by
a man of Ch'in does not differ from our enjoyment of meat roasted by ourselves. Thus, what you insist on takes place also in the case of such things, and will you say likewise that our enjoyment of
a roast is external ?'
CHAP. V. 1. The disciple Măng Chi asked Kung-ti, saying, On what ground is it said that righteousness is internal?'
2. Kung-td replied, We therein act out our feeling of respect, and therefore it is said to be internal.'
3. The other objected, ' Suppose the case of a villager older than your elder brother by one year, to which of them would you show the greater respect ?) (To my brother' was the reply. But for which of them would you first pour out wine at a feast?' 'For the villager.' Mäng Chi argued, Now your feeling of reverence rests on the one, and now the honour due to age is rendered to the other; -this is certainly determined by what is without, and does not proceed from within.'
5. THE SAME SUBJECT;-THE DISCRIMINATIONS
have the feeling of complacency(凡遇長 皆在所悅), and it does not necessarily Chi was a younger brother of Măng Chung,
OF WHAT IS RIGHT ARE FROM WITHIN. 1. Măng
proceed from our own mind. After reading mentioned in Bk. II. Pt. II. ii. 3. Their relaall this, & perplexity is still felt to attach to the tion to each other in point of age is determined
use of t. 5.--Mencius silences by the characters fit and
Măng Chi had
bis opponent by showing that the same diff-heard the previous conversation with Kão, or culty would attach to the principle with which subject he applied to Kung-tû (Bk. II. Pt. II. heard of it, and feeling some doubts on the he himself started; namely, that the enjoy. v. 4) for their solution. (On what ground is it ment of food was internal, and sprang from the said ?’——i.e. by our master, by Mencius. 3. The inner springs of our being. questions here are evidently by Măng Chi.
冬果 日,在日 子敬敬將孟也
之 父 將敬日 白都
人也日子弟乎答 季庸在日為敬以 木子則子敬位惡尸弟告 然曰敬聞在故在
4. Kung-td was unable to reply, and told the conversation to Mencius. Mencius said, 'You should ask him, "Which do you respect most, your uncle, or your younger brother?" He will answer, "My uncle." Ask him again, "If your younger brother be personating a dead ancestor, to which do you show the greater respect, to him or to your uncle?" He will say, "To my younger brother." You can go on, “ But where is the respect due, as you said, to your uncle ?" He will reply to this, "I show the respect to my younger brother, because of the position which he occupies," and you can likewise say," So my respect to the villager is because of the position which he occupies. Ordinarily, my respect is rendered to my elder brother; for a brief season, on occasion, it is rendered to the villager."'
5. Măng Chi heard this and observed, 'When respect is due to my uncle, I respect him, and when respect is due to my younger brother, I respect him;--the thing is certainly determined by what is without, and does not proceed from within. Kung-th replied, In winter we drink things hot, in summer we drink things cold; and
伯is in the general sense of 長 'elder." | the descendante, if possible—was made the 尸,
4. The translation needs to be supplemented, or 'personator of the dead,' into whom the spirit to show that Mencius gives his decision in the of the other was supposed to descend to receive
form of a dialogue between the two disciplem the worship 惡在其敬—the 其 权必‘a father's younger brother, but used
generally for 'an uncle.'弟爲尸,-insacri. you said' 斯須-暫時; compare the fioing to the departed, some one-a certain oneofl Doctrine of the Mean,'ia 5.湯 水, (hot