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WORKS OF MENCIUS

靈是之水激夫 與生告也

使 也、 下。也 人豈額

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tendency of man’s nature to good is like the tendency of water to flow downwards. There are none but have this tendency to good, just as all water flows downwards.

3. Now by striking water and causing it to leap up, you may make it go over your forehead, and, by damming and leading it, you may force it up a hill ;-but are such movements according to the nature of water? It is the force applied which causes them. When men are made to do what is not good, their nature is dealt with in this way.'

CHAP. III. 1. The philosopher Kâo said, 'Life is what we call nature.'

2. Mencius asked him, 'Do you say that by nature you mean life, just as you say that white is white?' Yes, I do,' was the reply. Mencius added, “Is the whiteness of a white feather like that of - literally, 'the goodness of man's nature,' but | THE PHENOMENA OF LIFE. 1. 'By,' says Cha we must take as="tendency to good.' 3. Hsi, 'is intended that whereby men and animals

perceive and move,' and the sentiment, he adds, thto provoke,' 'to fret,' the consequence of a is analogous to that of the

Buddhists, who make dam. dele TTT TT Z;- dam and walk it,' H I doing and using,' to be the nature. i.e. by gradually leading it from dam to dam. We must understand by the term, I think, the Cha Hsi says:- This chapter tells us that the phenomena of life, and Kao's idea led to the nature is properly good, and if we accord with ridiculous conclusion that wherever there were it, we shall do nothing which is not good; that the phenomena of life, the nature of the subjects it is properly without

evil, and we must violate must be the same. At any rate, Mencius here it therefore, before we can do evil. It shows that the nature is properly not without a decided makes him allow this. 2, 3. The film, ath tone, character, or that it may do good or ovil in all interrogative, and = you allow this, I sup. differently.'

pose.'—We find it difficult to place ourselves in 8. THE NATURE IS NOT TO BE CONFOUNDED WITH sympathy with Kao in this conversation, or to

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之長也。孟也屬之性玉白 從於日子非性强 。 其我彼口外子與。 白也長何也日 之 於猶而以義食 性 外被我謂外色 生然雪 也白長仁也性 故而之内非也。 謂我非義仁 猶 之百有外也內 人之白

王之白與日然然則犬之 白雪之白白雪之白猶白

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white snow, and the whiteness of white snow like that of white jade?' Kdo again said “Yes.'

3. Very well,' pursued Mencius. 'Is the nature of a dog like the nature of an ox, and the nature of an ox like the nature of a man?'

CHAP. IV. 1. The philosopher Kao said, 'To enjoy food and delight in colours is nature. Benevolence is internal and not external; righteousness is external and not internal.'

2. Mencius asked him, What is the ground of your saying that benevolence is internal and righteousness external ?' He replied,

There is a man older than I, and I give honour to his age. It is not that there is first in me a principle of such reverence to age. It is just as when there is a white man, and I consider him wbite ;according as he is so externally to me. On this account, I pronounce of righteousness that it is external.' follow Menoius in passing from the second para.jptIt is important to observe that by graph to the third. His questions in paragraph is denoted the Ź, the determining 2 all refer to qualities, and then he jumps to others about the nature.

what conduct in reference to them is required 4. THAT THE BENEVOLENT AFFECTIONS AND THE it to them.' Kao contends that as we are moved

by men and things external to us, and giving DISCRIMINATIONS OF WHAT IS RIGHT ARE EQUALLY by our own internal impulse to food and colours, 1. H. We so we are also in the exercise of benevolence,

but not in that of righteousness. might suppose that there denoted the

長, appetite of sex! But another view is preferred. always grd tone. In it is the adjec. Thus the commentator observes :

tive, but in the other cases it is the verb. “The infant knows to drink the breast, and to TT #-###Ź Ź look at fire, which illustrates the text ## The second É is also a verb.

INTERNAL

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是楚為之乎。謂以也也外 以人悦弟長異無也 長之者則 者 於識攻 癌長也不弟義長長異異 党亦敌愛則乎人馬於於 者長蕭也愛長之之 吾之是之 之之笔

之長長 之内以秦者也。

但也之 長長我

長我人義且 且無白白

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3. Mencius said, 'There is no difference between our pronouncing a white horse to be white and our pronouncing a white man to be white. But is there no difference between the regard with which we acknowledge the age of an old horse and that with which we acknowledge the age of an old man ? And what is it which is called righteousness ?—the fact of a man's being old ? or the fact of our giving honour to his age ?'

4. Kdo said, “There is my younger brother ;-I love him. But the younger brother of a man of Ch'in I do not love: that is, the feeling is determined by myself,

and therefore I say that benevolence is internal. On the other hand, I give honour to an old man of Ch'u, and I also give honour to an old man of my own people: that is, the feeling is determined by the age,

and therefore I

ay

that righteousness is external.' 3th, at the commencement, have crept 1 - indifferent people, strangera y by some oversight into the text. They must be HUWEAT-the meaning disregarded. BÉNS, no doubt, as in the translation, but thouse

人一白and 長 be are the verbs, -the Zoppad in both cases oocasions some dimoulty. below. DEZ, and do you say? Here again I may translate from the &c.,' but the meaning comes out botter by ex. which attempts to bring out the meaning of panding the words a little. The says:- *** - I love my younger brother and do not •The recognition of the whiteness of a horse is love the younger brother of a man of Ch'in ; not different from the recognition

of the white that is, the love depends on me. Him with acknowledge the age of a horse, we simply whom my heart is pleased, I love (1 ## with the inouth pronounce that it is old. In acknowledging, however, the age of a man,

ŹŹ), and him with whom there is at the same time the foeling of respect my heart is not pleased, I do not love But in the mind. The case is different from our the reverence is in both anson determined by recognition of the age of a horse.' 4 the age. Wherever we meet with age, there we #TH) and it does not necessarily Chi was a younger brother of Mäng Chung. proceed from our own mind.' After reading mentioned in Bk. II. Pt. II. ii. 3. Their relaall this, a perplexity is still felt to attach to the tion to each other in point of ago is determined meno o s.-Mencins silences by the characters fupi and Măng Chi had bis opponent by showing that the same diti. heard the previous conversation with Kao, or culty would attach to the principle with which

此誰一謂以 臺 外有以之 所先歲之謂孟與然異外 長日則內義季 者於也 在先誰也。丙子 也習日 彼的敬。鄉也問 然喜營 果鄉日人日) 則免秦 在人敬長行都 者夫人 外所兄於菩子 炙物之 非敬的伯敬日 亦 由在則兄故何 有亦無

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5. Mencius answered him, “Our enjoyment of meat roasted by a man of Ch'in does not differ from our enjoyment of meat roasted by ourselves. Thus, what you insist on takes place also in the case of such things, and will you say likewise that our enjoyment of a roast is external ?'

CHAP. V. 1. The disciple Măng Chi asked Kung-tû, saying, On what ground is it said that righteousness is internal ?

2. Kung-tů replied, We therein act out our feeling of respect, and therefore it is said to be internal.'

3. The other objected, 'Suppose the case of a villager older than your elder brother by one year, to which of them would you show the greater respect ?' •To my brother,' was the reply. But for which of them would you first pour out wine at a feast ?' • For the villager.' Măng Chi argued, Now your feeling of reverence rests on the one, and now the honour due to age is rendered to the other; —this is certainly determined by what is without, and does not proceed from within. have the feeling of complacenoy (AOR), 6. THE BANEZ SUBIECT ;="HE DEBORIMINATIONS 皆在

heard of it, and feeling some doubts on the he himself started ; nam

subject he applied to Kung-ta (Bk. II. Pt. II.

that the enjoy. v. 4) for their solution. 'On what ground is it ment of food was internal, and sprang from the said?'-i.e. by our master, by Mencius. 3. The inner springs of our being.

questions here are evidently by Măng Chi.

冬果之兄也,其

兄也,其誰彼子。内 日,在日 斯子敬敬。將孟也。

外敬 須亦叔彼旦学公 飲 = 本 日父 敬日 都

艾敬在也日 叔敬三 复

位彼敬父叔不 日也。敬鄉故將弟日父能 則公敬人也日子弟乎答

弟季庸在日敬以 光子則子敬位惡尸弟告 然日敬聞在故在則乎孟

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uncle.”

.”

4. Kung-ta was unable to reply, and told the conversation to Mencius. Mencius said, 'You should ask him, “Which do you respect most, your uncle, or your younger brother?" He will answer,“My

Ask him again, " If your younger brother be personating a dead ancestor, to which do you show the greater respect, to him or to your uncle?" He will say, “To my younger brother." You can go on, “But where is the respect due, as you said, to your uncle ?” He will reply to this, "I show the respect to my younger brother, because of the position which he occupies," and you can likewise say,So my respect to the villager is because of the positiod which he occupies. Ordinarily, my respect is rendered to my elder brother; for a brief season, on occasion, it is rendered to the villager.")

5. Măng Chi heard this and observed, 'When respect is due to my uncle, I respect him, and when respect is due to my younger brother, I respect him;--the thing is certainly determined by what

is without, and does not proceed from within. Kung-tà replied, 'In winter we drink things hot, in summer we drink things cold; and 14 is in the general sense of elder.' the descendante, if possible—was made the P, 4. The translation needs to be supplemented, or personator of the dead, 'into whom the spirit to show that Mencius gives his decision in the of the other was supposed to descend to receive korm of a dialogue between the two disciples the worship ##the # tale a father's younger brother,' but used generally for'an uncle. *AF-in mori. you said'-; compare the fioing to the departed, come one-a certain one ofl 'Doctrine of the Mean'i e s. , hot

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