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受以君悅不

其君 字、賢

可問能

粟拜謂國養餽

庖稽養君也

人首矣。

能蓋

OFE

敢不

伋蓋自是臺無餽也悅賢

日今而後知君之犬馬畜

北面稽首再拜而不受

也標使者出諸大門之

問亟餽鼎肉子思不悅於

曰外問

後稽

使鼎

繼而日養 1. 養謂 賢畜受之於

Mû to Tsze sze-He made frequent inquiries after Tsze-sze's health, and sent him frequent presents of cooked meat. Taze-sze was displeased; and at length, having motioned to the messenger to go outside the great door, he bowed his head to the ground with his face to the north, did obeisance twice, and declined the gift, saying, “ From this time forth I shall know that the prince supports me as a dog or a horse." And so from that time a servant was no more sent with the presents. When a prince professes to be pleased with a man of talents and virtue, and can neither promote him to office, nor support him in the proper way, can he be said to be pleased with him?”

5. Chang said, I venture to ask how the sovereign of a State, when he wishes to support a superior man, must proceed, that he may be said to do so in the proper way ?' Mencius answered, At first, the present must be offered with the prince's commission, and the scholar, making obeisance twice with his head bowed to the ground, will receive it. But after this the storekeeper will continue hands to the bent forehead, was called; If they were received, the party performed his lowering the hands in the first place to the obeisances inside. To bring out the meaning of we must

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ground, and then raising them to the forehead, for that properly belongs to 蓋 was called 拜; bowing the head to the earth translate it here by 'and so.’臺-the desigwas called Taze-sze appears on this nation of an officer or servant of a very low class. occasion to have first performed the most pro

found expression of homage, as if in the prince's 5. 以君命將之一將-奉君命

presence, and then to have bowed twice, with a message from the prince,' reminding of course his hands to the ground, in addition. All this the scholar of his obligation. he did, outside the gate, which was the appropriate place in the case of declining the gifts.

an adverb, 'the appearance of being troubled.'

臣義

百使養

在也。 萬日畝 官其君

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王之 子

庶之何

羊九之

侯 上舜女舜

敢 致之後倉男道

莽在問會舉廩事 也。僕

之國不賢而備之堯

臣曰。見著加以

市諸也。諸養

鼎肉使已僕僕爾亟拜也非

太不以君命將之子思以爲

大節

肉不

位於焉也非為

to send grain, and the master of the kitchen to send meat, presenting it as if without the prince's express commission. Tsze-sze considered that the meat from the prince's caldron, giving him the annoyance of constantly doing obeisance, was not the way to support a superior

man.

6. 'There was Yao's conduct to Shun:-He caused his nine sons to serve him, and gave him his two daughters in inarriage; he caused the various officers, oxen and sheep, storehouses and granaries, all to be prepared to support Shun amid the channelled fields, and then he raised him to the most exalted situation. From this we have the expression--" The honouring of virtue and talents proper to a king or a duke."'

CHAP. VII. 1. Wan Chang said, 'I venture to ask what principle of righteousness is involved in a scholar's not going to see the princes?' Mencius replied, A scholar residing in the city is called "a minister of the market-place and well," and one residing in the country is called "a minister of the grass and plants." In both cases he is a common man, and it is the rule of propriety that common

6. Bee Pt. Li3. 二女女焉,the second charaoters; Wan Chang evidently intends Men

cius himself.

is read sû, in 4th tone.

,'city,' as in chap. iv. par. 4.

7. WHY A SCHOLAR SHOULD DECLINE GOING TO 茶-here as a synonym, in apposition with

SEE THE PRINCES, WHEN CALLED BY THEM, Com

pare Bk. III. Pt. II. i, et al. 1. We supply 草臣.in 市井草莽之臣。

as the subject of; and other verbal different from the below. Every in

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i篇 則也之也則之於人, 天為也往不役諸庶 其何 見往則侯人

也。也不賢 見往禮不 則召也也義之役也。傳 吾師曰哉也。何君萬質 而為 且也欲章為

見聞況其 君曰見曰臣 於欲諸多 往之庶不 見侯 思賢 乎,也聞見 ·義之召見

暨實

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而召之也繆公亟見於子思

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多欲

men, who have not presented the introductory present and become ministers, should not presume to have interviews with the prince.' 2. Wan Chang said, 'If a common man is called to perform any service, he goes and performs it ;-how is it that a scholar, when the prince, wishing to see him, calls him to his presence, refuses to go ?" Mencius replied, 'It is right to go and perform the service; it would not be right to go and see the prince.'

3. 'And, added Mencius, ' on what account is it that the prince wishes to see the scholar ?'‘Because of his extensive information, or because of his talents and virtue,' was the reply. If because of his extensive information,' said Mencius, such a person is a teacher, and the sovereign would not call him ;-how much less may any of the princes do so? If because of his talents and virtue, then I have not heard of any one wishing to see a person with those qualities, and calling him to his presence.

4. ' During the frequent interviews of the duke M1 with Tsze-sze,

dividual may be called a, as being a subject, i. e. it is right in the common man, to perform and bound to serve the sovereign, and this is service being his or office. And so with the meaning of the term in those two phrases. the scholar. He will go when called as a scholar In the other case it denotes one who is officially

should be called, but only then. 3. The 爲 tone; see Bk. III. Pt. II. iii. I, and notes. There are all in the 4th tone. It must be borne in mind that the conversation is all about a scholar

'a minister.傳-通:質,一chi, in grd

is

in a force in the 於, in見於諸侯 which who is not in office; compare par. 9

4 千

it is difficult to indicate in another language.

a. It is right to go and perform the service,乘(in 4th tone) 之國-千乘之君

[graphic]

之事臣悅云思
君我也也乎不古

勇不
士至召求者何 豈 悅
不將與與也敢不 1.乘
忘殺齊之與日友古之
喪之景友可君以之之國
其志公而以 友位
位云人以

不與 則乎有发

孔不招

1.何

子忘虞得友德君 龚 在人也千則也之事 取溝以而乘子我不 我不之子

he one day said to him, "Anciently, princes of a thousand chariots have yet been on terms of friendship with scholars;-what do you think of such an intercourse ?” Tsze-sze was displeased, and said, "The ancients have said, 'The scholar should be served:' how should they have merely said that he should be made a friend of?" When Tsze-sze was thus displeased, did he not say within himself,-"With regard to our stations, you are sovereign, and I am subject. How can I presume to be on terms of friendship with my sovereign? With regard to our virtue, you ought to make me your master. How can you be on terms of friendship with me?" Thus, when a ruler of a thousand chariots sought to be on terms of friendship with a scholar, he could not obtain his wish:-how much less could he call him to his presence!

5. The duke Ching of Ch'i, once, when he was hunting, called his forester to him by a flag. The forester would not come, and the duke was going to kill him. With reference to this incident, Confucius said, "The determined officer never forgets that his end below; =with all his dignity, (yet' 云有言人君於士當師事之 乎一云爾Bk.IV.PL. II. xxiv. 1, et al., but 豈但如君所言友之云乎 the second 平 also responds to : The 5. See Bk. III. Pt. IL. i. a. 6. The explanation paraphrase in the 日講 is: 古之人 of the various flags here is from Chd Hsi, after

路欲欲以庶人 也其見不人,死 人死 禮

賢賢 庶 不大! 虞

敢去

人,

賢人之招招

。庶問焉 人招

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豈 往之 何

以招以 以。不

門以 往士招旂 旂曰,往 子也其賢哉之虞 大以

能天道人况招人夫 人夫皮日 由義猶乎乎招虞以冠敢

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may be in a ditch or a stream; the brave officer never forgets that he may lose his head." What was it in the forester that Confucius thus approved? He approved his not going to the duke, when summoned by the article which was not appropriate to him.'

6. Chang said, May I ask with what a forester should be summoned?’Mencius replied, With a skin cap.. A common man should be summoned with a plain banner; a scholar who has taken office, with one having dragons embroidered on it; and a Great officer, with one having feathers suspended from the top of the staff.

7. 'When the forester was summoned with the article appropriate to the summoning of a Great officer, he would have died rather than presume to go. If a common man were summoned with the article appropriate to the summoning of a scholar, how could he presume to go? How much more may we expect this refusal to go, when a man of talents and virtue is summoned in a way which is inappropriate to his character!

6

8. When a prince wishes to see a man of talents and virtue, and does not take the proper course to get his wish, it is as if he wished him to enter his palace, and shut the door against him.

the Chau Li. The dictionary may be consulted | ching, II. v. Ode IX. st. r. Julien condemns

about them. 何以何用: 7. A man of the translating 周道by 'the way to Chau,.

talents and virtue ought not to be called at all; but that is the meaning of the terms in the

the prince ought to go to him. 8. 閉之門, ode; and, as the royal highway, it is used to

indicate figuratively the great way of righteous

-this is another case of a verb followed by

the pronoun and other objective;literally, ness 底-in the ode 砥 (chih), the 3rd tone. ‘shut him the door.’詩云, see the Shih- The ode is attributed to an officer of one of the

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