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人而悻然 之民足

孟也。後然哉

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悻然見於其面去則窮日之力
然哉諫於其君而不受則怒倖

墨孟子去齊充虞路問日夫子

受是

有歸志予雖然豈舍王王由

晝而王不予追也予然後浩然

安子舍

則王然

小庶豈哉後

誠之 怒丈幾徒

小力悻

夫齊由

then, and not till then, was my mind resolutely bent on returning to Tedu. But, notwithstanding that, how can it be said that I give up the king? The king, after all, is one who may be made to do what is good. If he were to use me, would it be for the happiness of the people of Ch'i only? It would be for the happiness of the people of the whole kingdom. I am hoping that the king will change. I am daily hoping for this.

6. 'Am I like one of your little-minded people? They will remonstrate with their prince, and on their remonstrance not being accepted, they get angry; and, with their passion displayed in their countenance, they take their leave, and travel with all their strength for a whole day, before they will stop for the night.'

7. When Yin Shih heard this explanation, he said, 'I am indeed a small man.'

CHAP. XIII. I. When Mencius left Ch'i, Ch'ung Yu questioned him upon the way, saying, 'Master, you look like one who carries

-'the king is, after all, competent to do good,', paragraph Confucius's defence of Kwan Chung, but expresses more than that. Analects, XIV. xviii.

13. MENCIUS'S GRIEF AT NOT FINDING AN OPPORI.

conveys in itself no more than the trans-TUNITY TO DO THE GOOD WHICH HE COULD. lation, but the king's change of course involved Ch'ung Yü,-the same mentioned in chap. vii. Mencius's recall to Ch'i. Perhaps we have in the

words an amplification of Mencius's thoughts Though Ch'ung Yü attributes the maxim before he quitted Chau 5. Compare with this 怨天尤人 to his master, we find it

之歲

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者興其閒必有名世者由甲

不豫 當今之世舍我其誰也吾何

欲平治天下也如欲平治天下

矣以其時考之則可矣夫天未

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誰可以世百

也平 其者。年尤虞
吾治
數由“必人聞

為下

則周有

過而主彼夫

an air of dissatisfaction in his countenance. But formerly I heard you say "The superior man does not murmur against Heaven, nor

grudge against men.

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2. Mencius said, 'That was one time, and this is another.

3. 'It is a rule that a true royal sovereign should arise in the course of five hundred years, and that during that time there should be men illustrious in their generation.

4. From the commencement of the Châu dynasty till now, more than seven hundred years have elapsed. Judging numerically, the date is past. Examining the character of the present time, we might expect the rise of such individuals in it.

5. 'But Heaven does not yet wish that the kingdom should enjoy tranquillity and good order. If it wished this, who is there besides me to bring it about? How should I be otherwise than dissatisfied?' in Confucius, see Analects, XIV. xxxvii. 3.|of the last century, little more than ifty years ‘goo years,’——this is speaking in very round and removed from the extinction of the dynasty.

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loose numbers, even if we judge from the him 以其時考之則可矣, literally, tory of China prior to Mencius. By the time examining it, then may,' i.e. such during them, but the meaning is at the same

time with the sovereign shall arise men able to

assist him 名世-有or著名于世

things may be. 5. 舍我其誰 literally,

onapter, par., and many other places, where

'Letting me go, then who?' Compare last

4 The Chau dynasty lasted altogether 867 Mencius speaks of what he could accomplish. years, and Mencius died, according to some On the reference to the will of Heaven, comaccounts, at the age of 10a, in the second year pare Analects, IX. v. 3.

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CHAP. XIV. 1. When Mencius left Ch'i, he dwelt in Hsiû. There Kung-sun Ch'âu asked him, saying, Was it the way of the ancients to hold office without receiving salary?'

2. Mencius replied, ' No; when I first saw the king in Ch'ung, it was my intention, on retiring from the interview, to go away. Because I did not wish to change this intention, I declined to receive any salary.

3. Immediately after, there came orders for the collection of troops, when it would have been improper for me to beg permission to leave. But to remain so long in Ch'i was not my purpose.'

14. THE REASON OF MENCIUS'S HOLDING AN determined. It is not to be confounded with HONORARY OFFICE IN CH'I WITHOUT SALARY, THAT the ancient principality or barony of the same

HE W SHED TO BE FREE IN HIS MOVEMENTS. 1.

Hsid was in the present district of Tăng (籐)

name. 得見 is evidently=始見 3 師 in the department of Yen-châu. Kung-sun may be as in the translation, or 'the Chau's inquiry was simply for information. appointment to the position of a Tutor,' i. e. This appears from the with which it is honorary adviser to the king. This is the interanswered. 2. Ch'ung must be the name of pretation of the glossarist of Chao Ch'i, and is a place in Ch'i, which cannot be more exactly perhaps preferable to the former.

BOOK III.

TĂNG WĂN KUNG. PART I

日言孟自言孟將

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彼成 成乎

覵夫日

齊一子

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自楚反復見孟子

和滕

歴文

舜道宋鳫

滕文公章句上

世性而世句

子善見子上

CHAPTER I. I. When the prince, afterwards duke Wăn of TTMăng, had to go to Ch'a, he went by way of Sung, and visited Mencius. 2. Mencius discoursed to him how the nature of man is good, and when speaking, always made laudatory reference to Yao and Shun.

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3. When the prince was returning from Ch'ti, he again visited Mencius. Mencius said to him, Prince, do you doubt my words. ? The path is one, and only one.

4. Ch'ăng Chi'en said to duke King of Ch'i, “ They were men. I am a man. Why should I stand in awe of them ?" Yen Yüan said,

TITLE OF THIS BOOK. The duke succession should be unbroken from generation to Wan of Tăng.' The Book is so named from generation.' Ch'a and Tăng bordering on each the duke Wan, who is prominent in the first other, the prince must have gone out of his three chapters. Chao Ch'i compares this with way to visit Mencius. In the Topography of the title of the Fifteenth Book of the Analects, the Four Books, continued,' it is said:-Since 1. HOW ALL MEN BY DEVELOPING THEIR NATURAL to lift his feet and pass into Ch'û, why must the Tăng and Ch'û adjoined, so that one had only GOODNESS MAY BECOME EQUAL TO THE ANCIENT crown-prince go round about, a distance of SAGES. 1. The duke Wăn of Tăng,-see Bk. I. more than 350 li, to pass by the capital of Sung? Pt. II. xiii. Wän is the posthumous title. The The reason was that Mencius was there, and crown-prince's name appears to have been the prince's putting himself to so much trouble,

Hung () Previous to the Han dynasty, in going and returning, shows his worthiness. the heire-apparent of the sovereigns and the 2道言, a verb, (to speak or discourse princes of States were called indifferently世 about.’必 not ‘necessarily,' but ‘he made it 子 and 太子. Since then, 太子 has a point' 得 is taken by Chû Het and others

been confined to the imperial heir. The title in the sense of to appeal to. This is supported by par.3, but the word itself has only the mean|ing in the translation, with which, moreover,

of 世子 was given, it is said,

世不絶, (to indicate the wish that the Chao Ch'i agrees 3-道一而已一道

瘳國短周若何夫 人

書將

啄書日若藥不瞑肢厥疾不

「將五十里也猶可以爲 公豈欺我哉今滕絕長補

心終不忘今也不幸至於

日者孟子嘗與我言於宋於

滕定公薨世子謂然友已

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幸言謂

於宋友

大於日、

我儀何

日人

文也哉

滕王有顏

厥以絕我為淵

師者曰

"What kind of man was Shun? What kind of man am I? He who exerts himself will also become such as he was." Kung-ming said, "King Wăn is my teacher. How should the duke of Châu deceive me by those words?"

5. ‘Now, T'ăng, taking its length with its breadth, will amount, I suppose, to fifty lt. It is small, but still sufficient to make a good State. It is said in the Book of History, "If medicine do not raise a commotion in the patient, his disease will not be cured by it." CHAP. II. 1. When the duke Ting of Tăng died, the prince said to Yen Ya, Formerly, Mencius spoke with me in Sung, and in my mind I have never forgotten his words. Now, alas! seems here to be used as in the Chung Yung,|cates on that high authority.5 絶長補

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i. 1,-'an accordance with this nature is called
the Path, but viewed here more in the con-
summation of high sageship and distinction to short.
which it leads, which may be reached by tread-

cutting the long to supplement the

Observe the force of 將, as in the trans

ing it, and which can be reached in no other lation. implying-'It is small, but still.' way. We have here for the first time the state

ment of Mensius's doctrine, which he subse-, compare chap. iii :—'a good kingdom' quently dwells so much on, that 'the nature of is such an one as is there described.

man is good.’4. OfCh'ăng Chi'en we only know 云云

what is here raid. 彼丈夫一 refer 石下,一see the Shù-ching, IV. viii. Sect. 1. 8. said.-refer. 瞑 read mien, the 4th tone..

ring to the sages.丈夫,used for (man. 2. How MENCIUS ADVISED THE DUKE OF TANG

or ‘men, with the idea of vigour and capability. To coNDUCT THE MOURNING FOR HIS FATHER. Kung-ming 1 was a disciple first of Tsze-chang,

and then of Tsăng Shăn. 文王我師薨is the proper term to express the death of

would appear to have been a remark originally any of the feudal princes of the kingdom. Yen of Châu-kung, which I appropriates and vindi- Yû had been the prince's Grand tutor (

1.

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