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其以之者五生使可不 喪民勝可


庠肉無以之死養食勝 序 失衣宅無生材用 之之百其帛樹憾 喪

教家時之 不穀 之七雞切 桑

以 無勿者狗五始也用

When the grain and fish and turtles are more than can be eaten,

and there is more wood than can be used, this enables the people to nourish their living and mourn for their dead, without any feeling against any. This condition, in which the people nourish their living and bury their dead without any feeling against any, is the first step of royal government.

4. Let mulberry trees be planted about the homesteads with their five máu, and persons of fifty years may be clothed with silk. In keeping fowls, pigs, dogs, and swine, let not their times of breeding be neglected, and persons of seventy years may eat flesh. Let there not be taken away the time that is proper for the cultivation of the farm with its hundred máu, and the family of several mouths that is supported by it shall not suffer from hunger. Let careful attention be paid to education in schools, inculcating in it especially the filial and fraternal duties, and grey-haired men will wooded hills-forests in the plains. The only of 240 square paces, or 1200 square cubits, time to work in the forests was, according to Chú Hat, in the autumn, when the growth of the trees for the year was stopped. But in the Chau-ll, we find various rules about cutting down trees, those on the south of the hill, for instance, in midwinter, those on the north, in summer, &c., which may be alluded to. 憾 I have translated, without any feeling against any,' the ruler being specially intended.

4. The higher principles which complete royal

and anciently it was much smaller, 100 square paces, of six cubits each, making a máu. The ancient theory for allotting the land was to mark it off in squares of 900 mẫu, the middle square being called the AH. or 'government fields.' The other eight were assigned to eight husbandmen and their families, who cultivated the pub lic field in common. But from this twenty mdu

were out off, and, in portions of two-and-a-half máu, assigned to the farmers to build on, who

had also the same amount of ground in their towns or villages, making five mau in all for their

government. We can hardly translate houses. And to have the ground all for growing

by 'an aare,' it consisting, at present at least, grain, they were required to plant mulberry


撕日也知而者黎道 惠天非是發不未民路 我何人知之不義 異死檢有飢


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刺 1日有狗寒





殺 我也而人不食戴

not be seen upon the roads, carrying burdens on their backs or on their heads. It never has been that the ruler of a State, where such results were seen,-persons of seventy wearing silk and eating flesh, and the black-haired people suffering neither from hunger nor cold,did not attain to the royal dignity.

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5. Your dogs and swine eat the food of men, and you do not make any restrictive arrangements. There are people dying from famine on the roads, and you do not issue the stores of your granaries for them. When people die, you say, "It is not owing to me; it is owing to the year. In what does this differ from stabbing a man and killing him, and then saying "It was not I; it was the weapon?" Let your Majesty cease to lay the blame on the year, and instantly from all the nation the people will come to you.' CHAP. IV. 1. King Hdi of Liang said, I wish quietly to receive your instructions.’

trees about their houses, for the nourishment | sovereign." 5. Mencius now boldly applies the

of silkworms. 雞豚 (a young pig) 狗 (the subject, and presses home his faults upon the grain-fed, or edible dog) (the sow) 之 king 食人食-the second 食is read 音:literally, 'as. to the nourishing of the teee, sth tone. 檢制(to regulate. Tho fowl'' && 數口之家-the ground was phrase 不知檢 is not easy;the tranaladistinguished into three kinds;-best, medium, tion given accords with the views of most of and inferior, feeding a varying number of the commentators.

mouths. To this the expression alludes. A CONTINUATION OF THE FORMER CHAPTER,


序 See on Bk. III. Pt. I. iii. 1o. E, 4th or THE CHARACTER OF KING HOT'S OWN GOVERN安‘quietly, i.e. sincerely and

tone, 'to come to reign,' 'to become regnant | MENT.





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食 父也野肥異無人 獸有內乎以以

其日惡行 惡行相餓廢日異梃


2. Mencius replied, 'Is there any difference between killing a man with a stick and with a sword?' The king said, 'There is no difference.'

3. Is there any difference between doing it with a sword and with the style of government ?' 'There is no difference, was the reply.

4. Mencius then said, In your kitchen there is fat meat; in your stables there are fat horses. But your people have the look of hunger, and on the wilds there are those who have died of famine. This is leading on beasts to devour men.

5. ‘Beasts devour one another, and men hate them for doing so. When a prince, being the parent of his people, administers his government so as to be chargeable with leading on beasts to devour men, where is his parental relation to the people?"

6. Chung-ni said, 'Was he not without posterity who first made wooden images to bury with the dead? So he said, because without constraint. It is said 安對勉强惡4th tone, the verb. 惡 在惡 看見其出于誠意 233 有以 st tone, = 何. (Being the parent of the 異乎-有所以異乎,一literally, (Ie people,' i. e. this is his designation, and what there whereby they are different? 4. he ought to be. 6. -in ancient times, outside a town were the (chido), suburbs, but bundles of straw were made, to represent men

without buildings; outside the chido were the 牧 (mh), pasture-grounds; and outside the ma

were the (6), wilds.

imperfectly, called, and carried to the

grave, and buried with the dead, as attendants

|upon them. In middle antiquity, i.e. after the

5. has the force rise of the Châu dynasty, for those bundles of

of 'and yet, i.e. though they are beasts. So straw, wooden figures of men were used, having

that a ‘how much more ' is carried on, in effect, springs in them, by which they could move.

to the rest of the paragraph. 人慈之一 Hence they were called 俑 a砈if俑-踊



者 於齊及莫梁

日如之 地之願









that man made the semblances of men, and used them for that purpose:-what shall be thought of him who causes his people to die of hunger ?’

CHAP. V. 1. King Hai of Liang said, 'There was not in the nation a stronger State than Tsin, as you, venerable Sir, know. But since it descended to me, on the east we have been defeated Ch'i, and then my eldest son perished; on the west we have lost seven hundred of territory to Ch'in; and on the south we have sustained disgrace at the hands of Ch'a. I have brought shame on my departed predecessors, and wish on their account to wipe it away, once for all. What course is to be pursued to accomplish this?'

2. Mencius replied, With a territory which is only a hundred it square, it is possible to attain to the royal dignity.

By and by, came the practice of burying living under his two predecessors in the State of Wei. persons with the dead, which Confucius thought It was in the thirtieth year of his reign, and was an effect of this invention, and therefore B.C. 340, that the defeat was received from Ch'i, he branded the inventor as in the text. wards died. That from Ch'in was in the year when his eldest son was taken captive, and after

taken, and afterwards peace had to be secured

無後乎, the 乎 is partly interrogative, B.o. 36r, when the old capital of the State was and partly an exclamation = nonne. 3rd by various surrenders of territory. The disgrace tone, = becaue.如之何 is by some taken from Ch'd was also attended with the low of territory;-some say seven, some say eight, as 'what would he (viz. Confucius) have towns or districts. The nominative to the verbs thought,' &c.? I prefer taking it as in the,, and does not appear to be translation. The designation of Confucius by Chung-ni is to be observed. See Doctrine of the so much w 晉寡人恥之 may be

Mean, ii. 1.



translated-'I am ashamed of these things,' but

most commentators make 之 refer to先人

BENEVOLENT GOVERNMENT WILL RAISE HIM HIGH Hûi's predecessors when Tain was strong; as in
ABOVE HIS ENEMIES. 1. After the partition of the translation. The same reference they also

the State of Tsin by the three families of Wei give to 死者, as not said generally of (the

Chûo, and Han (note, chap.i), they were known |

as the three Tsin, but king Hai would here seem dead,'-those who had died in the various wars. to appropriate to his own principality the name This view is on the whole preferable to the of the whole State. He does not, however, refer other, and it gives a better antecedent for the to the strength of Tsin before its partition, but 之in酒之 - =by one blow, one great

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3. If your Majesty will indeed dispense a benevolent government to the people, being sparing in the use of punishments and fines, and making the taxes and levies light, so causing that the

fields shall be ploughed deep, and the weeding of them be carefully attended to, and that the strong-bodied, during their days of leisure, shall cultivate their filial piety, fraternal respectfulness, sincerity, and truthfulness, serving thereby, at home, their fathers and elder brothers, and, abroad, their elders and superiors,-you will then have a people who can be employed, with sticks which they have prepared, to oppose the strong mail and sharp weapons of the troops of Ch'in and Ch'â.

4. The rulers of those States rob their people of their time, so that they cannot plough and weed their fields, in order to support

movement. 洒-洗比, the 4th tone, = / to be the proportion of the land-produce paid to the government, and 斂 all other contribu

‘for’a. See Part II. ii. 工; but it seems tions. By some this explanation is just reversed. necessary to take the in this and similar A third party makes to be the tax of procases as in the translation. There is a pause at :-' with territory, which is,' &c. This is duce, and the graduated collection thereof. the reply to the king's wish for counsel to wipe This last view suits the connexion here. away his disgraces. He may not only avenge read i, the 3rd tone, -##-at go,

himself on Ch'i, Ch'in, and Ch'a, but he may

make himself chief of the whole nation. How, a man is said to be . Translators have

ing is the strong-bodied, those who could be

is shown in the next paragraph 3 省刑 rendered it here by 'the young,' but the mean罰,薄斂 are the two great elements employed to take the field against the enemy. of benevolent government, out of which grow does not appear to be-you can make the other things specified 刑罰 can hardly or employ,' but to be passive with special referbe separated. The dictionary says that is ence to the above., read shăng. the general name of 罰. If we make a die- 攤 to strike,' 'to sinite'-here-'to oppose.' tinction, it must be as in the translation; 罰 4 彼, (they' or 'those,' i. e. the rulers of Ch'im is the redemption-fine for certain crimes. So and Ch'a., the 4th tone. It is so toned in together represent all taxes. Great the case of children supporting their parents, differences of opinion obtain as to the signifi- and inferiors their superiors. See in Analects,

cance of the individual terms. Some make II. vii. 5.夫, the and tone, hero則

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