Puslapio vaizdai
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乘 乘其而以以
之君國利利

不家國 者、 吾吾利 對

萬弒必 身家吾義

以何亦

亦孟

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不 千 萬上士國而王

下庶大包何

焉者之

人夫矣。必

苟千 為取百千弒利何何日利

日日王曰

3. Mencius replied, 'Why must your Majesty use that word 'profit?" What I am provided with, are counsels to benevolence and righteousness, and these are my only topics.

4. If your Majesty say, "What is to be done to profit my kingdom?" the great officers will say, "What is to be done to profit our families?" and the inferior officers and the common people will say, "What is to be done to profit our persons?" Superiors and inferiors will try to snatch this profit the one from the other, and the kingdom will be endangered. In the kingdom of ten thousand chariots, the murderer of his sovereign shall be the chief of a family of a thousand chariots. In a kingdom of a thousand chariots, the murderer of his prince shall be the chief of a family of a hundred chariots. To have a thousand in ten thousand, and a hundred in a thousand, cannot be said not to be a large allotment, but if righteousness be put last, and profit be put first, they will not be satisfied without snatching all.

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tung. The king, in complimentary style, calls | But this is too far-fetched. Wang Yin-chih the distance from Tsau to Liang a thousand i. inclines to consideras for the most part It is difficult to say what was the exact length of the ancient . At present it is a little more than one-third of an English mile. The 'also,' occasions some difficulty.-With reference to what is it spoken? Some compare the

merely a helping particle; especially does he regard it so after in an interrogative clause. Observe the force of, delicately and sugges

...with, Analects, I. i.tively putting the question. 3-marking

Others say that the king refers to the many
scholars who at the time made it their business to the king.

the answer of an inferior, used from respect
is 'to say,' followed directly

to wander from country to country, as advisers by the words

spoken. It is not 'to speak of.'

to the princes - You also, like other scholars,

mark very decidedly Mencius's

&c. Mencius, in par. 3, replies—

亦有仁義 they say that he refers to Yao, purpose to converse only of 仁 and 義

Shun, &c., as his models:-'I, like them,' &c.E-here-, to take. E, mutually

.

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而君者饜後

者也未義

樂孟 此子日於孟 不對賢沼子也未有而 賢曰著上見何王有仁先 者賢亦顧梁必亦義而利 雖者樂鴻惠日 「遺不 有而此應王利仁後其奪 此後乎麋王 王 義其貌不 義

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5. 'There never has been a benevolent man who neglected his parents. There never has been a righteous man who made his sovereign an after consideration.

6. Let your Majesty also say, " Benevolence and righteousness, and let these be your only themes." Why must you use that word——“ profit ?”’

CHAP. II. 1. Mencius, another day, saw king Hui of Liang. The king went and stood with him by a pond, and, looking round at the large geese and deer, said, 'Do wise and good princes also find pleasure in these things ?’

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2. Mencius replied, Being wise and good, they have pleasure in these things. If they are not wise and good, though they have these thinge, they do not find pleasure.

to take ;' i. e. superiors from inferiors, and in- | compare Analects, VI. vii, but for which passage feriors from superiors. in 4th tone, 'a I should translate here-'over a pond, i. e. in some building over the water, such as is still

very common in China. means 'large

carriage or chariot.’The sovereign's domain, 1,000 & square, produced 10,000 war chariots.

A kingdom producing 1,000 chariots was that of a háu, or marquis. He is here called

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geese,' and is the name for a large kind of

deer, but they are joined here, as adjectives, to

之家, instead of 百乘之君, because 鴈 and 鹿 賢者-賢者之君,

the sovereign has just been denominated by that term. and are verbs. See Analects, VL. xx. 5. The and here are supposed to result from the sovereign's example.

worthy princes.' It does not refer to Mencius, as some make it out. The reply makes this |plain. The king's inquiry is prompted by a sudden dissatisfaction with himself, for being | occupied so much with such material gratifica| tions, and 'Amid all their cares of govern

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2. RULERS MUST SHARE THEIR PLEASURES WITH ment do these pleasures find a place with

THE PEOPLE. THEY CAN ONLY BE HAPPY WHEN good princes?' 3. See the Shih-ching, III. i. 王立, Ode VIII. ct. I, a. The ode tells how his people

THEY BULE OVER HAPPY SUBJECTS. I.

For 鶴 the Shih

1

(The king stood;' and the meaning is not that delighted in king Wan.

Mencius found him by the pond. The king

seems to have received him graciously, and to ching reads

is read wû, an interjec

have led him into the park. 於沼上tion. 古之人 referring to king Wan, but

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日人靈之 之以鶴塵

日時日害喪予及女偕亡民

人與民偕樂故能樂也湯

沼樂其有麋鹿魚雕古之

3. ‘It is said

臺為

王房

庶民

有日臺沼

民攻

故麋靈為於鹿子之經

臺沼牣濯來不始

而魚濯 王

民躍白

歡文鳥

in the Book of Poetry,

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之經

樂王鶴囿經之

"He measured out and commenced his marvellous tower;

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The does so sleek and fat :

And the white birds shone glistening.
The king was by his marvellous pond;
How full was it of fishes leaping about!"

He measured it out and planned it.

The people addressed themselves to it,

And in less than a day completed it.

When he measured and began it, he said to them-Be not so

earnest :

But the multitudes came as if they had been his children.

The king was in his marvellous park;
The does reposed about,

'King Wan used the strength of the people to make his tower and his pond, and yet the people rejoiced to do the work, calling the tower “ the marvellous tower," calling the pond " the marvellous pond," and rejoicing that he had his large deer, his fishes, and turtles. The ancients caused the people to have pleasure as well as themselves, and therefore they could enjoy it.

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4. 'In the Declaration of Tang it is said, " O sun, when wilt thou put generally. 4. See the Shû-ching, IV. Bk. I. | had pointed to the sun, saying that, as surely i. 3;–Tang's announcement of his reasons for as the sun was in heaven, so firm was he on his proceeding against the tyrant Chieh, The throne. The people took up his words, and words quoted are those of the people. Chieh pointing to the sun, thus expressed their hatred

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多不人然其凶 凶、國

加 之察粟則
少用鄰於移 佳惠

讓心國河

鳥欲

欲與之偕亡雖有臺池

獸與

乏內民焉 日

對之鄰政河於耳寡樂
日民國無東河矣人哉。
王不之如凶東河之
好加民寡亦移内於

expire? We will die together with thee." The people wished for Chieh's death, though they should die with him. Although he had towers, ponds, birds, and animals, how could he have pleasure alone ?” 1. King Hui of Liang said, 'Small as my virtue is, in the government of my kingdom, I do indeed exert my mind to the utmost. If the year be bad on the inside of the river, I remove as many of the people as I can to the east of the river, and convey grain to the country in the inside. When the year is bad on the east of the river, I act on the same plan. On examining the government of the neighbouring kingdoms, I do not find that there is any prince who exerts his mind as I do. And yet the people of the neighbouring kingdoms do not decrease, nor do my people increase. How is this ?’

2. Mencius replied, 'Your Majesty is fond of war ;-let me take of the tyrant, preferring death with him to life, princes in speaking to their people,

under him. 時-是害 is read ho; 喪, in 之人 (I, the man of small virtue.' I shall

4th tone. Chdo Ch'i gives quite another turn hereafter simply render it by ‘I.' Liang was to the quota ion, making the words an address on the south of the river, i.e. the Ho, or Yellow of the people to Tang : This day he (Chieh)

must die. We will go with you to kill him.' river, but portions of the Wei territory lay on Chi Hai's view is to be preferred. I do not the other side, or north of the river. This was think that the last two clauses are to be under- called the inside of the river, because the stood generally-When the people wish to ancient royal capitals had mostly been there,

die with a prince,' &o. They must specially in the province of Ch'i (冀州), compre

refer to Chieh.

3. HALF MEASURES ARE OF LITTLE USE. THE hending the present Shan-hst; and the country GREAT PRINCIPLES OF ROYAL GOVERNMENT MUST BE north of the Ho, looked at from them, was of FAITHFULLY AND IN THEIR SPIRIT CARRIED OUT. course within, or on this side of it.,

I. The combination of partiolee-焉耳矣 now used commonly for millet and maize, but --gives emphanie to the king's profession of here for grain generally. 加少加多: his own devotedness to his kingdom.literally, add few, add many. To explain the was the designation of themselves used by the 加, it is said the expressions -分外少,

6

VOL. II.

K

無是何後百刃戰

亦如止步旣請

入時民走日以而接以

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斤湾穀之也 不
以池不 日
時魚可於王

勝鄰如不

山不食國知

林可也也。此步

材勝數不則耳則 而或兵

曳填

五兵然

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an illustration from war.-The soldiers move forward to the sound of the drums; and after their weapons have been crossed, on one side they throw away their coats of mail, trail their arms behind them, and run. Some run a hundred paces and stop; some run fifty paces and stop. What would you think if those who run fifty paces were to laugh at those who run a hundred paces?' The king said, 'They should not do so. Though they did not run a hundred paces, yet they also ran away.' Since your Majesty knows this,' replied Mencius, 'you need not hope that your people will become more numerous than those of the neighbouring kingdoms.

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3. If the seasons of husbandry be not interfered with, the grain will be more than can be eaten. If close nets are not allowed to enter the pools and ponds, the fishes and turtles will be more than can be consumed. If the axes and 'bills enter the hills and forests only at the proper time, the wood will be more than can be used.

牙外多,‘not fewer, nor larger, than they |not imperative-‘do not. The first olausee should for such States be. 2 填然 is said to spring there was the sowing; in summer, the

of the various sentences are conditional. In

weeding; and in autumn, the harvesting :一

express the sound of the drum. In 鼓之those meie the sessons and works of husbandry, 鼓 is used as a verb, and 之 refers to 戰 from which the people might not be called off. 士, or soldiers. It was the rule of war to, 1st tone. The dictionary explains it by advance at the sound of the drum, and retreat to bear, to be adequate to.’穀不可勝 at the sound of the gong 是亦走也食=‘there is no eating-power adequate to

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literally, this also,' i. e. the fifty paces, was
running away.’3. Here we have an outline eat the grain'

here read trú, close

of the first principles of royal government, in meshed.' The meshes of a net were anciontly contrast with the measures on which the king required to be large, of the size of four inches. plumes himself in the 1st par. Theis People might only eat fish a foot long. U

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