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certainly a fact that nothing is too qui trans mare currunt, would seem to soiled, too torn, or too insignificant, apply to the Ethiopian in the same deto find a collector; which does not, how- gree as to the European. Has not ever, mean, that natives have not a very Booker T. Washington told us how, in keen sense of the value of things. But a negro household in Virginia, which they are very clever in turning even could boast of a single cup only, he what has been discarded as totally found a piano? This happy-go-luckivalueless, to some sort of use. I once ness is, perhaps, a manifestation of the gave a native, a carver in wood and artistic temperament. Everybody has ivory by trade, an old disused sweater, seen reproductions of the celebrated not thinking that he would be able to drawings of the Kalshari bushmen, but turn it to any account. A few days it would be a mistake to imagine that later he appeared in my camp with a this gift is their monopoly. Often, in rakish white cap, culminating in a red ,

countries hundreds of miles apart, I cocarde made out of a strip of flannel. have bought little clay figures of animals, This cap was the torn-off collar of the made by children in play, and have sweater, which had been sewn together always been struck by the astounding on one side, and then decorated with the accuracy with which the creatures'

, cocarde. Shortly afterward the owner main characteristics had been caught, told me that he had found a purchaser however disproportionate the measurefor his novel head-gear.

ments. Among the grown-up people If, as some people pretend, the secret one often finds real artists who repreof making poverty endurable - of re- sent human beings and animals with conciling champagne tastes with a lager equal skill. As an avocation, carving beer income — lies in abstaining from usually runs in families, descending

necessaries and indulging in luxuries from father to son, several brothers beinstead, the negro undoubtedly has ing sometimes employed in the same adopted this method. He buys unneces- trade; and the self-manufactured implesary trifles — old watches past repair, ments which they use are almost as matchboxes of metal, pencil-cases, great a subject of surprise as the rewhistles, motor-goggles -at ridiculous sult produced. prices, while repudiating almost with At one time I saw a great deal of one indignation the suggestion to buy rem- of these carvers in wood and ivory. He edies for his own or his own people's was a Yao, called Beeboo — quite a use, or a plate or a tumbler for his remarkable creature, who might have household. The latter particularity, by posed as a sample of the artistic temthe way, presents the greatest obstacle perament quite as well as any Quartier to giving a native any medicine to take Latin art student pictured in Mürger's home with him. How can one expect a

La Vie de Bohême. His likenesses of animember of a numerous household, in mals were extraordinarily lifelike, if ocwhich the only drinking vessel consists casionally somewhat out of symmetry; of an old condensed milk tin, to take, but he also gave free scope to his active every two or three hours a certain num- imagination by inventing animals with ber of drops of, say, chlorodyne, diluted new and grotesque shapes. When trade in water? — quite apart from the fact was brisk, as was the case during the that every inhabitant of the village war, he lived on the product of his knife would insist on tasting the stuff! In and saw only, and walked about, a this respect, as in some others, the Lat- haughty and independent swell. When in axiom, Cælum, non animum, mutant, times were bad, he used to work for his

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livelihood on some plantation or farm, plants, flowers, ferns, and low shrubs watering flowers or cropping the lawn. with berries. It was during one of these periods of I cannot help thinking that Beeboo, penury, when I had given him a job, if he had been born in Paris, might have that I caught him helping himself to developed into another Rodin, or a my provisions. I dismissed him imme- male Rosa Bonheur. Born in the Middiately; but we remained on cordial dle Ages, in a cathedral town, he would terms all the same, and he often came surely have been a famous gargoyleinto my camp afterward, either to offer sculptor. But he, too, was not free of me pieces of art for sale or to borrow a those aberrations in taste to which I shilling.

have alluded before. One day he shaved I once entered his hut, where he was the lower part of his head all round in a living alone at the time, having just circle, and then let the hair on the upper been deserted by his wife a usual oc

part grow to an enormous length, so currence with him. There was no furni- that he looked as if he wore a huge helture except his stretcher; but every- met of fur, like one of Napoleon's grenwhere on the ground stood old oil tins adiers. He looked fearful, and I told and clay pots filled with decorative him so, to his intense delight.

MOUNTAINEERING IN AMERICA

BY VERNON KELLOGG

I

By America I mean the United States turesque costumes, along well-known without Alaska and the overseas appa- paths often staircased and balustranages, and by mountaineering I mean ded, the mountains of California and much besides scaling high peaks. One Colorado seem to have few attractions cannot put all the qualifications into a for Americans who have a fancy for title.

climbing. There is altogether too little told and But actually they demand as strenwritten about the mountains of our uous and careful work, and offer as much country, - the high mountains, higher adventure, as the more favored and than the Alps, - and about the joys familiar European mountains. You can and adventures of climbing them. Be- climb as high, fall as far, and land with cause they are not snow- and ice-clad, as much disaster, in the Sierra Nevada

a few are, — with névés, crevasses, or Rockies as in the Swiss or Tyrolean and ice couloirs to tell about, and be- Alps. And there goes with the climbing cause one does not climb them in a itself in America a lot of fine things that roped-together chain-gang, led and fol- do not go with the Swiss climbing lowed by professional guides in pic- the camping, the pack-train, the trout

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fishing in almost virgin waters, the ly smooth wall-face, to swarm up on the great forests, the aloneness, the real es- last stretch. cape and change from that world which Long's Peak is much beset by wind is too much with us

all these are and sudden sleet-storms, and its really pleasant surplusage in American moun- safe climbing season is unusually short, taineering, added to the actual climb- although it is often climbed before and ing, which latter, by the way, you do - after this safer period. One such atas climbing should really be done, to tempt at a late climb, however, cost an get from it its finest flavor — on your adventurous woman her life; and a headown, unguided and unroped.

board, fixed among the harsh rocks of It seems an odd thing that the high the great Boulder Field just beyond peaks of the Sierra Nevada and the Col- which the real climbing begins, comorado Rockies are all of about the same memorated, as long as it stood, her height. Take the highest twenty in each death on the mountain from fall and of the two mountain-systems, and not exposure in storm. The inscription only will their average be very close to reads, 14,000 feet in the case of each group,

Here CARRIE J. Wbut the range of height in the whole

Lay to rest, and died alone, forty will come within 500 feet above or with the date, which I have forgotten. below the fourteen-thousand-foot av- She died alone because the local erage. The high points of both Sierras mountaineer who, after much protest, and Rockies seem to have been cut off went up with her when she declared that, in their aspiring at fourteen thousand if he would not accompany her, she feet or a few hundred feet above or be- would go anyway by herself, and who low that level - although there is little found her helpless on his hands in a indication on many of these summits of sleet-storm on the summit, had, after any cutting off, the tip-tops of some, in- carrying her down the more dangerous deed, making two men standing close part of the mountain, through hours of together on them seem badly crowded. struggle in blinding snow and cutting But some, on the other hand, have a ice-sleet, until he was almost as exreally truncated top, often surprisingly hausted as she, left her at nightfall in broad and level.

the comparative shelter of the great This is true, for example, of Long's rocks of the Boulder Field, himself to Peak, one of the highest and best of the stumble on down the mountain in the Colorado peaks - meaning by 'best,' dark, for help. most interesting, and possibly adven- He had a difficult decision to make. turous, to climb. One could lay out a Should he stay there with her, and both very decent little farm on its summit, if almost certainly perish before dawn, or the soil were a little further on in course should he take the chance of leaving her of making - so far it is only in its first, and possibly get help up to her during or rock, stage. But in getting up to the night, and thus save both? He took this broad, flat top, you have to work what he believed the only chance of carefully almost completely around the saving her. Alone, he could not posgreat cliffy cap of the mountain, with a sibly get her farther. Staying with her, dizzying narrow ledge on one face, to he could have done nothing but, in all test your head; a long steep trough, probability, die with her. He got down with snow and loose rock in it, at one the mountain to his father's cabin. The corner, to try out your heart, lungs, rescuers started back at once. But it and climbing luck; and a steeper, most- took long hours to get to her. They

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found her dead. She had, in panic or - and always did. He climbed Mount delirium, left her shelter among the King - a very pinnacly peak in the rocks, and, stumbling about, had fallen King-Goddard divide, which juts out near-by, striking her head against the westward from the main Sierran crest merciful granite. It has been always a near Kearsarge Pass — in this way, by haunting question with that man as to one of its seemingly impossible faces. whether he had done what a brave man Although at best it is a difficult mounshould do under such circumstances. tain, it has at least one fairly negotiable Knowing the mountain and the man, I face. He came down that way. believe he decided as a brave and experienced mountaineer should have

II decided.

I know of another fatal accident on American mountain-climbing, at all Long's Peak. There may have been still events as I am limiting it, is rock-climbothers. This one came about through ing. There can be a good deal of snow a man's inexperience and foolishness. on the symmetrical cones of the old He carried a loaded revolver in his hip volcanoes, like Rainier, Baker, Hood, pocket on his climb. He fell in a bad and the others that are the high mounplace, and the cartridge under the ham- tains of Oregon and Washington; and mer was exploded, the bullet shattering there are elsewhere occasional snowhis hip. His one companion did what patches and a few scattered, insignifihe could to drag him along the narrow cant, persisting remnants of the once ledge on which he lay; but little progress mighty local glaciers that did so much was possible, and, after hours of suffer- in the old days to give the Sierras and ing, the wounded man died. The com- Rockies their present configuration. panion was a prematurely old man when But these are rarely in the way of the he finally got down the mountain and climber; in fact, the ice-remnants have found helpers to go up for the body. to be sought out to be seen, and are

I have always maintained that there among the special goals of the mounshould be three men together on moun- taineers. Two or three in the Front tain climbs, one to get hurt, one to stand Range of the Rockies, near Estes Park, by, and one to go for help. But most now included in the Rocky Mountain men hunt mountain-tops in pairs; some National Park, are among the most like to go alone. I knew one such, accessible. besides John Muir, who, with his bit of Climbing the American mountains, bread and pinch of tea, almost always then, demands no special knowledge of went alone, — who did much climbing the characteristics and habits and danin the Sierra Nevada and took many gers of deeply crevassed glaciers, with chances. He used to carry a rope and, their thin snow-bridges, or of the bein difficult places, where he could not havior of snow when it inclines, under reach high enough for hand-grips, he proper weather conditions, to cornicewould tie a big knot in one end of his breaking and avalanche-making. But rope and throw it up until it caught it does require, for safety's sake, a confirmly above him. Then he would drag siderable knowledge of the character and himself up, without regard to the fact habits of various kinds of rock in varithat he probably could not get down ous states of firmness and brittleness, more than the uppermost one of these as met variously on cliff-faces or in narplaces by using his rope. He trusted to row chimneys. It also requires some finding a different and easier way down judgment as to the critical angle at

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which loose rock may lie for the time could make camp in a last little group quietly, yet may not be stepped on with of tamarack pines practically at timbercareless confidence. It does not require line (about 10,500 feet here), and diropes and ice-axes, but it requires hands rectly under a high northwest spur of as well as feet, and a steady head. Nar- this unclimbed mountain, which conrow ledges, hand-hold crevices on steep nected with its main peak by a long, faces, knife-edges, both firm and badly rough knife-edge. From careful study weathered, and long steep troughs of of the mountain from various points, it mixed snow, loose stones, and easily had been decided that the most likely excited granite-dust make earnest call approach to the peak-summit seemed to on the American mountaineer's nerve be this northwest spur and knife-edge. and confidence and expert judgment In our previous movements we had of the possibilities.

nearly encircled the great group of It is not always the highest moun- which the unclimbed peak was one, tain, of course, that is the hardest, even and members of the party had climbed in its demand on endurance, to say another mountain, not far away, mainnothing of skill. Our highest point ly for the sake of an orienting examinasouth of the Canadian border is Mount tion of the upper reaches of the resistant Whitney, yet it is but a tiresome steep peak. walk to its summit, after one has made The actual vertical height of the peak the long, beautiful, and inspiring forest- above our timber-line camp was only a and cañon-trail trip to its western foot. little more than three thousand feet, as Its eastern foot stands in a desert. A the Geological Survey maps attribute few miles north of Whitney is the slight- an altitude of 13,752 feet to it. But ly lower peak of Williamson, one of three thousand feet can be much more three closely grouped splendid Sierran difficult than five or six thousand. Hownotabilities (Williamson, Tyndall, Bar- ever, if the summit could be reached at nard). But Williamson offers every- all, it could probably be done in a day thing to the climber which Whitney, from our high camp. So the climbers – except for its height and position, does properly three — made a five-o'clock not.

start, aiming directly for the summit I had the privilege of spending a few of the spur. The going, though steep, weeks again last summer in the Sierras, was fairly good and entirely safe, and after an absence of years. Our small the top of the spur was reached in a party was composed of members of the few hours. But the knife-edge, bad Sierra Club, that organization which enough where it was continuous, revealhas done so much to make the Califor- ed itself so deeply notched at several nia mountains known and accessible to points, that it proved wholly impassmountain-lovers; and of our group able. It was necessary to try a difwas intent on attempting to get up a ferent way. The north face of the certain peak which has long resisted the knife-edged spur was as impossible as attacks of climbers — not that it has the knife-edge itself. But the south been so often tried, but that the few face is gashed by a number of narrow tries have been made by climbers well steep troughs leading almost up to the known for their success with difficult main peak, any one of which might mountains.

prove itself, on trial, to be possible, but We, therefore, pushed our pack-ani- any one, or all, of which might be unmals up a great side cañon tributary to feasible because of interrupting cliffs the greater cañon of the Kern, until we not visible from the climbers' point of

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