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in the waiting, straw-flecked head. - bend her head. Her chums will know. Deep called unto deep. There's Chloe- She will give each a look at the 'stylish' Tyndaris. This is the Sabine Farm. outlines of her ‘city'conquest. She will
carry it, desirably tucked in pleasant A kiss lays low the walls of Thee and Me.
places, until it's worn to shreds. Take it, and go down. Walk home, Gone a week. You've written twice. with the sunset swallows skimming the And, be sure, when your first letter mist-draped, bending rye.
the county knew it. Her sisters ‘Eho! Eho! Eho!'
will tease. Bravely she will bear it.
She will flash out at them, and stamp Nightfall. Milking and supper done, her foot: ‘Yes. He does lo
like me. the table cleared, and the lamps lighted I'm not a bit ashamed. It's no such in the sitting-room, the family dispose thing! He's not twice my age! What if themselves to chat and knit, but ever he is? I-I even like the city!' with an eye upon the dining-room Then you get a letter — four pages across the hall. Dorothy has made a crushed into a small envelope. It is a 'catch.' That's nothing. She's been a wonder, that letter, and perfect except Alirt since she was twelve, as several for legibility and orthography. (She's rural hearts can mourn.
better at reading.) More brightly shine Nine o'clock: the sitting-room is dark the occasional misspelled words than and silent. Ten: the tethered wild all Alaska's river-gold, than all the diagoose honks and crickets shrill. Still, by monds of the Rand. A thing of joy is the shaded lamp, you read. She is fond that letter, telling the life of every day, of reading, apt of memory, and even the life of the farm: knows Latin, in a way. How beautiful she is! The crimson lamp-light gilds cubs, down on the river shoar. I'm going to
‘Brother dug out two cunning little foxher hair. A straw still clings. You keep one. It has a little white spot in its reach and pluck it and lay it in your cute little nose and its name is Tansy. I was book. No flush, this time, betrays what home, Saturday and Monday. I saw a woodnow she understands. Chin in hand, cock fly across the road in the pasture. Oh, across the table, steadfastly she looks it's so hot! The pewee's nest is finished at you
a look that seals the kiss and building — where, I reckon you know. I hallows Swallow Barn. Translate from send you a straw. The river is beautiful. the pocket-copy of Horace you always Oh, I wish - I wish you were here.
‘BARN ELF. carry:Felices ter, et amplius, quos irrupta
(You called me that.)' tenet copula. 'Happy, yea, thrice happy, they whom the unbroken bond doth
'Eho! Eho! Eho!' bind.'
She loves you. Straws show how the Another week. Here yet. And still wind blows. Dorothy and Swallow fishing. You love her. Everybody Barn are yours, should you go back. knows it. She likes you. Why does she Go back. Heed not the Wise of Earth. return each night from the distant vil- More are under than on it. Go back. lage school? It used to be only on Sat- The old farm, and its rain-torn, briary urdays that she came home. She has a fields, will be forevermore the home of camera. Often, at school, behind her Oread, Dryad, and Faun - an idyl of book hiding a tiny photograph, she will Sabinian days.
VATICAN POLITICS AND POLICIES
BY L. J. S. WOOD
On the 30th of July, 1904, France given to France's St. Joan of Arc, and left the Vatican unceremoniously, just the honors paid to France's civil repa short note from the chargé d'affaires, resentatives last spring, not a Frenchput on paper, but diplomatically called man but would have felt that he was verbal, being all the notice of her de lacking in the noblesse obliging the eldparture. The Ambassador, M. Nisard, est daughter of the church,' if his counhad been called home on leave a month try had not played the game. And before. After an interval of nearly sev
there can be little doubt that the oppoenteen years, on May 28, 1921, she re- sition in the Senate - all that is left of turned, with all the éclat possible and the violent prejudice of seventeen years desirable. It was Cardinal Merry del ago will be overcome, the.confirmaVal who put on record the now cele- tory vote of the French Parliament obbrated phrase that 'France was too tained, M. Briand's provisional step great a lady to come up the backstairs'; officially indorsed. A hundred and fifty and ever since the resumption of dip politicians cannot oppose the clearly lomatic relations has been spoken of, expressed desire of the great majority it has been regarded here as a sine qua of the elected representatives and the non that it must be carried out in the overwhelming majority of the nation. grande manière, if at all. That has been The way of reconciliation and coldone; and indeed all that has led up to laboration is not quite clear. Obstacles it in France, — the Committee report, remain. But diplomacy, backed by evithe Chamber debate, the Senate oppo- dent good-will on both sides, may be sition and delay, the suggestions of trusted to find a way round them if it half-way resumption, with a represen- cannot definitely break them down. tative in Rome but no nuncio in Paris, The status of Catholics in Alsaceand, finally, M. Briand's determination, Lorraine has to be regularized. After after a question had been put cour- the conquest in 1870, Germany pruteously but significantly from Rome, to dently left them the status which, as carry the thing through without wait- French Catholics, they enjoyed under ing for authorization from the Senate, the Concordat of July 15, 1801, between — all this has enhanced the importance France and the Holy See. Since 1906,
, of the event.
therefore, while Catholics in France By the very force of things, it had to have been subject to the dispositions be. Not only was the opinion of the of the Law of Separation of Church and country so manifestly in favor of it, but, State, those in Alsace-Lorraine have after the abundant signs of good-will on retained the status given under the old the part of the Holy See, and more par- Concordat. Although they are exceedticularly after the honors of the altar ingly unwilling to resign their privileged position, common sense demands that gave to the representative of France conditions be homogeneous throughout certain privileges, mainly liturgical the country.
a special place, and special honors, for A second difficulty is found in the instance, at important religious funcLaw of Separation itself. Pius X re- tions. fused to accept it, on the ground that But with the passing of the old Turksome dispositions, particularly regard- ish Empire the Capitulations no longer ing the Associations Cultuelles, went exist. The privileges granted by the counter to the divinely given constitu- Holy See were, as Cardinal Gasparri tion, rights, and duties of the Catholic has authoritatively said, accessory to Church, the charge of safeguarding the principle in relation to the Capitwhich was laid on him as Pope. While, ulations: inevitably they cease to exist, on the one side, Benedict XV of course in consequence. The old order has, in realizes and takes up that charge and fact, gone by the board. In the Protoresponsibility as fully as his predeces- col to the Sèvres Treaty, drawn up at sor, on the other side, the French Gov- the meeting of the Council of the Powernment has pledged its word that the ers at San Remo in May, 1920, it is Separation Law shall not be touched. definitely stated that the old protecAn easy way out of the difficulty lies in torate and privileges have lapsed; and ignoring it—not saying anything about the signature of France is attached to the matter at all. If it cannot be ignored, that Protocol, together with those of the a way around the difficulty is indicated other great powers. by the record of the actual putting into France holds the mandate for Syria, practice of those dispositions of the law Great Britain that for Palestine; but since 1906. It is argued that, inasmuch French feeling is loath to surrender the as the supreme courts before which old privileges in the Holy Land. It cases have been brought have invari- realizes the political advantage that the ably interpreted them in a way so favor- favored position of France there and in able to the Church that their tenor is the Near East generally gave to her; and shown to be innocuous, they do not in everything spoken and written recently fact carry the meaning on which Pius in France on the subject of the resumpX's refusal to accept the law was tion of diplomatic relations with the based.
Holy See has shown how the wish for A third difficulty is found in the reconciliation with Rome is motived realm of world-politics — the Near by the hope of regaining, through the East, the privileged position given to religious agency, the privileged politiFrance there by Turkey, the privileges cal position of the old days. No attempt granted, as accessory to that position, indeed has been made to disguise the by the Holy See, and the changes in the fact that it is political advantage, parsituation brought about by the great ticularly in the Near East, that is sought. war. Summed up, the situation was On its side the Holy See has all goodthat, under the old Capitulations, will, in consideration of what France France held from Turkey the protec- has done for the Catholic religion in the torate over all Catholics in the Near Near East during past centuries; but East, with a few exceptions; and in the fact remains, and has been stated consideration of that, the Holy See in- clearly in Cardinal Gasparri's celestructed Catholics in general, both in- brated letter to M. Denys Cochin, of dividuals and religious communities, June 26, 1917, that, when the old Turkto apply to her for protection. It also ish régime and the Capitulations ceased to exist, the religious privileges granted tive to the Vatican at the end of 1914, to France by virtue of them came to Sir Edward Grey took the prudent step an end as well.
of sounding in advance the Italian Gov. Evidently, then, there are points on ernment, and was assured that no obwhich France and the Holy See have jection would be made, or was felt. to reach an understanding. But the The step was diplomatically cautious restoration of diplomatic relations, the and courteous, but was unnecessary. reconciliation, is a fact. The impor- Numerous powers had representatives tance of the event is self-evident. The at the Vatican; the Italian Law of old policy, which Waldeck-Rousseau Guaranties explicitly recognizes that started, and Combes and Briand car- the Pope may receive accredited repried to lengths far beyond the original resentatives from foreign powers, and intention, was summarized, when com- it gives them all the prerogatives and pleted by the Separation Law, in Vivia- immunities due by international law to ni's famous phrase, ‘We have put out such envoys. If an objection was inthe lights of heaven.' Waldeck-Rous- conceivable when England was making seau dissociated himself from the acts a new departure, breaking a centuriesof his successors; Combes has died at old tradition, it is more inconceivable the very moment the great change is now, when France returns after an inbeing carried out; it is no other than terval of only seventeen years. Briand who is carrying it out, while But, even though any objection is Viviani attends the Funeral Mass of out of the question, the arrival of Cardinal Gibbons. Au fond, it may France at the Vatican has made Italians be nothing more than the inevitable think. In actual fact, during and since victory of common sense over a phase the war, numbers of states have been of political fanaticism; but in itself it establishing or reëstablishing relations is a striking event. And, further, it with the Holy See, without any parcarries beyond the limits just indicated ticular notice being taken here. It reby France and the Holy See. For, quired the striking nature of the return firstly, it has had immediate reper- of France to wake public opinion up to cussion here in Italy; and, secondly, it the fact that Italy is practically the has raised the diplomatic edifice of only great European country unrepreRome, the world-position of the Pa- sented at the Vatican. And in newspacy, to such a height that the world papers and magazines there has been a cannot help noticing it. The Holy See flood of comment on that fact, ever
to change the metaphor seems to since M. Briand decided to send M. be riding on a great wave resulting from Jonnart to the Vatican as Ambassador the storm of world-war; and the world of France. “Everyone sees the diplomay wonder where, how far, and in matic advantage of being represented what direction, it may steer itself or at the Vatican; we are the only great may be carried.
nation out of it; we lose thereby; a II
remedy should be found.' On that
there is practical unanimity, but the On the part of Italy there is, of question then arises, 'How?' course, not the slightest objection to The actual position, as between Italy the restoration of diplomatic relations and the Holy See, is to-day what it was between France and the Holy See. in 1870, after the Italian troops enWhen the British Empire determined to tered Rome, or, to be more accurate, send Sir Henry Howard as representa- in 1871, after the passing of the Law of Guaranties.' Officially, the protest side of the Holy See, there have been of Pius IX has been repeated by each many signs of good-will — tempered successor Leo XIII, Pius X, and the naturally by what one may now call present Pope. Benedict XV has been caution, in place of the strict reserve of as explicit as his predecessors. In his former days. first Encyclical, of November 1, 1914, One such sign appeared just twelve he said: “Too long has the Church been months ago, in the Pope's Encyclical curtailed of its necessary freedom of Letter on Reconciliation among the action, ever since the Head of the Nations and the Restoration of ChrisChurch, the Supreme Pontiff, began to tian Peace, of which one passage ran: lack that defense of his freedom which This concord between civilized nations the providence of God had raised up is maintained and fostered by the modduring the course of centuries. ern custom of visits and meetings, at While We pray for the speedy return which the Heads of States and Princes of peace to the world, We also pray are accustomed to treat of matters of that an end be put to the abnormal special importance. So then, considstate in which the Head of the Church ering the changed circumstances of the is placed a state which in many times and the dangerous trend of events, ways is an impediment to the common and in order to encourage this concord, tranquillity. Our Predecessors have We should not be unwilling to relax in protested — not from self-interest, but some measure the severity of the confrom a sense of sacred duty - against ditions justly laid down by Our Predethis state of things; those protests We cessors, when the civil power of the renew, and for the same reason, to Apostolic See was overthrown, against protect the rights and dignity of the the official visits of the Heads of CathoApostolic See.
lic States to Rome.' Every thinking man recognizes the That is a very remarkable concession. necessity for the Vatican to uphold In its literal form it is conditional, for that official attitude. If it did not do the Holy See must envisage the bare so, it would lose its base
base of ac
possibility of a head of a Catholic state tion, if there is anything doing; base on who may not himself be a Catholic which to continue standing, if not. But or the Parliament of such a state, much water has passed under Tiber making some move, either in ignorance bridges since 1871. There is no need to or by premeditation, not in consonance recapitulate here all that has happened with the spirit of the present times and during the past fifty years. From the of the above concession, but rather in clear-cut cliffs on either side of the the spirit of the times now past. The dividing river, rocks have been falling Holy See must be free to safeguard its into the stream and forming stepping- sovereign dignity in view of untoward stones, while the flow of prejudice and eventualities.
eventualities. But in substance the bitter feeling has slackened. Through veto against the visits to 'the Usurper' pressure of the World War, of late the in Rome of the heads of Catholic states line of stones has become almost con- is lifted. It was on account of this veto tinuous. Has the moment come to that the Austrian sovereign could nevcement them into a bridge? It would er return the Italian sovereign's offiseem that there are many thoughtful cial visit; and, in fact, no Catholic head Italians who think it has; and on the of a state with the accidental excep
See the author's paper on 'The Temporal tion, on one occasion, of the Prince of Power,' in the Atlantic for June, 1919.
Monaco, and, of course, the notorious VOL. 128-NO. 3