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Old-style Chinese troops on the march outside of Peking. They are used by Yüan to offset any hostilities on the part of modern troops, and, though uniformed
in the old style, are armed like the regulars
too great for her forces and that the em- Yat-sen in favor of Yüan, to surround the peror must hand over the Government to latter with such legal restrictions that he the republic which had been established would become only a figurehead, with reat Nanking. But Yüan was careful to publicans in power as a cabinet responsible obtain a mandate for himself in the abdi- to a parliament. The parliament, largely cation edict: the little emperor, who prob- self-selected, came to Peking and began ably never saw the document, was made work upon lines of its own, rebuffing Yüan to say that the will of Heaven was evi- and refusing even assistance from him. dent, that he was incapable of ruling, and Some members sounded Professor Frank that he enjoined Yüan to establish the J. Goodnow, now president of Johns new form of administration.
Hopkins University, and found him skepSome of the republicans distrusted Yüan tical of the success of a popular governfrom the outset, but they planned, while ment; whereupon, regarding him as a conceding the presidency and retiring Sun Yüan man, they proceeded on their work
A modern-drilled artillery-battery which Yüan organized for China without the assistance of this American, fought had he given the command and who had come to China to act as legal continued to pay them, public opinion in adviser in the drafting of a constitution. the first rebellion was everywhere hostile
The republicans, headed by Sun Yat- to the Manchus. sen, were evidently endeavoring to under- Sun Yat-sen, with other opponents of mine the loyalty of the army by preventing Yüan, fled to Japan, where he received a Yüan from obtaining funds to pay the certain measure of hospitality, which has troops. They held the government offices strengthened the position of Yuan, because in most of the provinces, which had ceased the Chinese are suspicious of it. to pay tribute to Peking, and they refused The rebel members of parliament, howconsent to foreign loans. But the foreign ever, remained in Peking and still sought bankers, whose interests were serious in to defeat Yüan. They drafted a constiChina, had confidence in Yüan and none tution making the cabinet responsible to in the self-elected parliament; and despite parliament alone, and in other ways also protests from the latter, the so-called quin- strove to eliminate Yüan's power. Yüan tuple group, composed of British, French, sought to persuade them, but his emissaries German, Russian, and Japanese bankers, were not even admitted into the councils the American group having withdrawn, of the committee employed in drafting the provided Yüan with a loan of twenty-five constitution. He then issued a mandate million pounds for the purposes of paying dissolving the Republican political party, the troops and terminating anarchy as well known as the Kwo Ming Tang, on the as with the object of effecting the reorgan- grounds that it was the party of the rebels. ization of the affairs of the country. This could not be disputed. Yüan's sol
In the summer of 1913, Sun Yat-sen, diers and police hunted out the Kwo Ming whom Yüan had sought to placate with a Tang members, arrested some, dispersed monthly salary of fifteen thousand dollars, others, and induced a number to enter the organized another revolution. By vari- employ of the Government. Some of them ous means, probably more by bribery and have obtained responsible, well-paid posiintrigue than by appeals to patriotism, Sun tions and have become enthusiastic supand his adherents managed to induce cer- porters of Yuan, intrusted within the pritain regiments along the Yang-tse River to vate offices of the palace, where they could revolt. But this second revolution was attack and slay him if they wished to do squelched within a few months by the so and were willing to sacrifice their own same forces that Yüan had failed to use lives. in behalf of the Manchus. It is true, how- When the Kwo Ming Tang was disever, that though the troops would have solved, a quorum could no longer be musA delegation of Mongols going to pay their respects to President Yüan when inaugurated as president tered in parliament, and the members of students who spoke English or Japanese, other parties realized that it was both men who had been educated in other counneedless and unwise to continue the ses- tries and had ideas of progress and parsions further. They obtained from Yüan's liamentary government; but on the whole government ample payments of salary for the people were undoubtedly content to months to come; some obtained positions have a strong administration. They had and some incomes without employment; had three years of lawlessness, with soland few, if any, failed to get ample allow- diers and brigands overrunning the counances for traveling expenses back to their try. Not a city of importance had esown provinces.
caped looting by the soldiers of one army After the dissolution of parliament, or the other, Nanking having undergone Yüan proceeded to reconstruct a govern- that experience, I think I am right in sayment. One by one he obtained control of ing, five different times. Peking was the capital cities of the provinces. Gradu- looted by Yüan's own troops. Chinese solally he shifted troops hither and thither diers follow their calling, like some Amertill officers and men loyal to him were in ican politicians, only for their salaries and control throughout the country. Hostility occasional opportunities for loot, regardremained, of course, wherever there were less of the fact that the prey is their own people. That is why the standing army, The result was a foregone conclusion: though five hundred thousand strong, can- Yüan Shi-kai was chosen by the Chinese not be used against a foreign nation. people, who also voted that the form of
The farmers have no time for politics, government should be again imperial ! raking the barest living out of impover- The republic had fallen even in name. ished ground; the merchants want no Those who have had the opportunity of more troops let loose upon them. These personal contact with him are immediately two elements are more than content; they struck by his magnetic personality. His want Yüan to rule because he keeps order. followers and those who immediately surThe men with notions of republican gov- round him are among his greatest admirernment and resentment at Yüan's usurpa- ers, and have implicit confidence in his tion are comparatively few, though they power to overcome every obstacle. He is are, it is true, of the educated classes. very discerning in the selection of his Yüan's minions are keeping them under tools. Nevertheless, despite his wonderful observation, and whenever one becomes capacity for controlling and understanding dangerous and refuses to accept a salary men, he is not without his limitations. He for loyalty, he is arrested and summarily cannot be called an administrator in the disposed of.
modern sense; but recognizing his own Once Yüan had obtained control, he in- deficiencies in this respect, he is not beyond stituted the semblance of a constitutional listening to counsel and advice; and for government. Advisory bodies were partly this purpose he has collected around him appointed, partly chosen by the governors talents of all schools, both young and old, of the provinces, - who were presidential and it is upon these councilors that the appointees, - to come to Peking and assist hopes of future success of the country dethe Government. In the case of the elec- pend. Whether Yüan will be permitted tions to decide the question of reëstablish- to carry out the great plans he has in view ing the monarchy, no one dared vote will depend largely upon the amount of against the issue; it would at least have support and confidence he is able to combeen unwise. Names of candidates were mand among his people at home under his posted by the governors, and names of new title, and from the various interests citizens qualified for voting were also and ambitions of the foreign powers, nodrawn up in the governors' residences. tably Japan.
“ Man with Pigeons”
Decorations by Earl Schrack
HEARD him with his trilling whistle call
The iridescent-breasted pigeons, fluttering,
Or leisure moments for a glimpse of wings