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of the Queenstown call. Formerly all events by those who are fighting “German the great transatlantic liners called at militarism.” Being held by force by the Queenstown both on the eastern and empire, and plentifully garrisoned both western journeys, to the great benefit of by troops and armed police,- the police mail service not merely from Ireland, but have been refused permission to join the from some parts of Great Britain as well. army, though many of them have volunThe mail-carrying companies, one after teered, because the Government wants another, stopped this call at Queenstown, them to keep Ireland down,-it was not ' with the assent of the English Govern- possible for Ireland to be neutral in the ment, despite unanimous protests from all
Irishmen who had joined the Ireland, north as well as south. A com- army in time of peace, through economic mittee of patriotic Irish people, which in- pressure for the most part, had to fulfil cluded Mrs. J. R. Green, widow of the their duties as reservists; Ireland's heavy eminent historian, and Sir Roger Case- burden of the war taxation could not be ment, was formed for the
of evaded. But, as one of Ireland's bestpressing the Government to reëstablish known literary men put it, Ireland prethe Queenstown call. Failing in that, as served "a moral and intellectual neutrala brilliant counter-stroke, this committee ity"; and the individual sympathies of the induced the Hamburg-American Line to people, while not "pro-German" in any arrange that its liners should call at positive sense, were, and are, distinctly Queenstown. The English Foreign Of- anti-English. fice was thunderstruck. Secret negotia- Mr. Bonar Law said that if Canada or tions were at once entered upon to pre- Australia was disinclined to help the emvent Ireland from being thus restored to pire in this war, no English statesman its proper place on the transatlantic high- would dream of compelling them to do way. The German Government, natu
But Ireland's notorious and marked rally valuing England's friendship more disinclination to help was treated from than that of poor, weak Ireland, inter- the first as a crime, and the sternest meavened. The Hamburg-American liners sures of repression were employed against never called at Queenstown, despite their those who claimed Ireland's right, as a publicly announced intention of doing so. small nation, to settle the question for This, by the way, may be added to the itself. Since the outbreak of the war, the category of German diplomatic blunders. régime in Ireland has been one of coercion Had Germany thus dramatically inter- tempered by dread of publicity. The vened to grant Ireland a trading favor English Government set two aims before that England had refused, the way would itself: to suppress Irish discontent and at have been much clearer before Irishmen the same time to convince the world that when the war broke out. I have little no Irish discontent existed. These aims doubt that the English Foreign Office, al- are not reconcilable, and the pursuit of ready planning war, had this in mind both has led to an extraordinary series of when it exerted itself to prevent Ger- inconsistent and muddle-headed actions. many from showing Ireland this manifes- I cannot detail them all in this article. tation of favor.
The first attack was made on the inWithout any illusions, then, about Ger- dependent press. The daily press was remany, but with a clear vision of the Eng- duced to subserviency, negatively by fear lish Empire as the incubus on Ireland, of having its telegraphic supplies cut off, Irish Nationalists decided from the start positively by the huge sums paid for of the war that it was Ireland's interest recruiting advertisements by the English and duty to remain neutral as far as pos
office. The various Nationalist sible. In these days of small nationalities weeklies had to be dealt with otherwise, Ireland's right to take an independent line as they could neither be bribed nor inon the war cannot be contested, at all timidated. The method adopted was to
strike at the printer—to march soldiers At first the Defense of the Realm Act with fixed bayonets to the printing-offices, altogether abolished trial by jury, substidismantle the plant, seize the type and the tuting trial by court-martial for any ofessential portions of the printing-machines, fense under the Act. Thanks to protests and carry
them off to Dublin Castle with- by English constitutional lawyers, the out offering the smallest compensation to Government was obliged to modify this, the printer. This was done without the and give to "British subjects" tried under smallest process of law, on the mere arbi- the act the option of claiming trial by trary fiat of the military authorities in jury. But a clause was slipped in, saying, Ireland. Seven papers-one daily, one “This shall not apply in the case of ofbi-weekly, four weeklies, and one monthly fenses tried by summary jurisdiction."
-were suppressed in Dublin by the actual The effect of this is that whenever the use of this method or by the threat of it. military authorities wish to avoid trial In no case was any prosecution directed by jury, they have only to decide, which against any of the writers or editors of they have absolute power to do, that the the papers. This was a case in which it case shall be tried by “summary jurisdicwas possible to achieve the maximum of tion"; that is to say, by a paid magissuppression with the minimum of pub- trate, always a mere tool of Dublin Caslicity.
tle, without any jury or any right of apI have been asked in America “Does peal to a jury. not the Defense of the Realm Act, which Only one man charged under the Deconfers such absolute power on the mili- fense of the Realm Act has been accorded tary authorities, apply to Great Britain as trial by jury in Ireland. The history of well as to Ireland ?” does; but the his case is instructive. John Hegarty was application is different. This is well il- a post-office official with long service and lustrated by what took place in the case an excellent record. When the war of one of the papers suppressed, the broke out, he was stationed in Cork. He “Irish Worker." After it had been was ordered, without any accusation bestopped by a military raid on the printing- ing made against him, to leave Cork and works, the proprietors got it printed in take up a position in the postal service Glasgow. The military authorities did in England. He refused, pointing out not dare to interfere with the Scottish that his home and friends were in Cork, printers; they simply waited until the and that there was no justification for copies of the paper arrived in Dublin for arbitrarily turning him out. The answer distribution, met the boat, and seized of the postal department was to dismiss every copy.
him from the service without pension or A similar discrimination is shown in compensation. Immediately thereafter he the stoppage of American newspapers
was ordered by the military authorities to from entering Ireland. They are freely leave the city of Cork. He obeyed, and admitted into England, even the "Irish retreated to a remote spot in the Cork World” and the “Gaelic American,' Mountains, in Ballingarry, where he probut are strictly censored in entering Ire- ceeded to support himself by agricultural land, and anything containing either news labor. Within a few weeks the military or opinions likely to "excite” the Irish ordered him to leave the County of Cork, people is not permitted to pass through. still without making any charge against As it was put by Mr. P. H. Pearse, head- him or giving him any chance to defend master of St. Enda's secondary school, himself in court. He went to EnniscorRathfarnham, at a meeting last May: thy, in the County of Wexford, and “Our isolation from the rest of the world stayed with friends there. Last February is now almost complete. Our books and he was arrested in Enniscorthy, dragged papers cannot get out; the books and pa- from his bed in the middle of the night, pers of other nations cannot get in." brought to Dublin, detained in a military barracks for a month, then transferred to and Bolger cases that Sir Matthew Nathe civil authorities and allowed trial by than, under-secretary to the lord-lieutenjury, but not by an Enniscorthy jury, ant (that is, chief civil executive officer which would have been his right under in Ireland), wrote the following letter the ordinary civil law. A long series of to the editor of a Dublin newspaper: charges was brought against him, including the writing of seditious notices and Immediate and Confidential. the possession of arms, ammunition, and
Chief Secretary's Office, Dublin Castle. explosives. He was tried three times be
8th April, 1915.
Dear Sir, tween April and June by three different
I am given to understand that the request juries; in each case the Crown and the
which I made on the telephone on the 30th judge made desperate efforts to secure a
ultimo, with regard to reporting the proconviction. Two of the juries acquitted
ceedings against Messrs. Hegarty and Bolhim on two different charges, the third
ger, was taken only to apply to the applicadisagreed. Then the military authorities
tion for bail made on the 31st ult. sent Major Price to Hegarty in Mount
My intention was that it should apply joy Jail (I was in the same jail at the time, and Hegarty told me the facts in
to the subsequent trial, as it is considered
against the public interest that details of the exercise yard) and offered to release
the evidence or the speeches of counsel in him if he would agree to go to America.
this trial should be given to the public press. Hegarty refused. Then Major Price of
I shall be much obliged if you would arfered to release him if he would agree to
range for the reports to be merely a bare remain in some spot indicated by the mili
outline of the proceedings. tary authorities, and never leave it. Heg
I am writing in similar terms to all the arty replied that he was willing to go to Ballingarry, from which the military had
newspapers in Dublin.
Yours faithfully, driven him; he was then released, on the
MATTHEW NATHAN. understanding that he would go there at once, which he did. The military also asked him to sign an undertaking that he One of the facts brought out in the would not go more than ten miles from Hegarty trial, which the press, duly inBallingarry without leave. He refused timidated or bribed, did not report, was to give the undertaking, and it was not that for many months no letter or parcel insisted on, but he was given to under- had reached Hegarty without being stand that if he left Ballingarry he would opened and examined by the secret police be arrested. A youth named Bolger, who while passing through the mails. This was arrested along with Hegarty in Feb- process of "Grangerizing" has been carruary, and who, like him, had been kept ried to a fine art in Ireland; not even in in jail for four months, was released at Russia is there a more complete system of the same time, without ever having been espionage on the correspondence of all brought to trial at all, on the understand- persons even remotely suspected of dising that he was not to leave his home in affection toward the English rule of IreEnniscorthy.
land. It remains to be told, as the sequel to Hegarty's was the first and last case in the Hegarty case, that in July the annual which the military authorities gave the convention of the Gaelic League elected option of trial by jury to any prisoner Hegarty to a place on the executive of charged under the Defense of the Realm that body. This, like the persistent refusal Act. The others were brought before the of the Dublin juries to convict, shows paid magistrates, and automatically conwhat popular feeling in Ireland thinks of victed and sentenced. The sentences the persecution of Hegarty.
ranged from a fortnight (which was It was in connection with the Hegarty given to a Dublin boy for kicking a recruiting-poster!) to twelve months, six tion without trial or accusation. This of them with hard labor, which was my had been adopted, in the form of orders sentence for making a speech “calculated to leave a certain county or district, in to prejudice recruiting." I went on hun- many cases besides Hegarty's, but now a ger strike, and was out in six days, with wider extension was given to the method. a license under the Cat and Mouse Act, In July four organizers of the Irish Volwhich renders me liable at any time for unteers were ordered by the military authe rest of my life to rearrest and im- thorities to leave Ireland within a week. prisonment for the balance of
They refused. The military then had to without further process of trial, a conve- arrest them and try them; but to avoid nient method of getting rid of an opponent. undesirable publicity, they charged them
Trial by jury had failed to get con- only with disobeying a military order, the victions; trial before paid magistrates got grounds for the issue of such an order convictions, but also gave undesirable pub- not being disclosed. The judicial tools of licity. The batch of cases of which mine the castle duly sentenced these four men was one raised a storm not only in Ire- to three and four months' imprisonment. land, but in England. In Dublin meet- Even this has not stopped publicity, for ings of protest were held outside the jail, even the Redmondite party has been stung and placards denouncing the sentences into protest against this latest arbitrary were posted up all over the city. Mr. G. action, and has demanded, through Mr. Bernard Shaw wrote a letter, declaring Joseph Devlin, M.P., that these four that if I deserved six months' hard labor, men get a new and fair trial, and that Lord Northcliffe deserved about sixty the grounds for the deportation order be years. Mr. Conal O'Riordan, the distin- openly stated at that trial. guished Irish dramatist and novelist, Meantime O'Donovan Rossa, the old wrote dissociating himself from my point Fenian, has been buried in Dublin with of view, but condemning my sentence; a great display of military force by the Mr. Robert Lynd, one of the ablest Irish Irish Volunteers. The funeral oration, journalists on the London press (literary pronounced by Mr. Pearse, was a defiant editor of the "Daily News") did the assertion of Ireland's unconquerable resosame; and the indignation was steadily lution to achieve independence. Recruitgrowing, in range and intensity, through- ing for the English army, despite all kinds out the English radical and labor press of pressure and advertising, languishes, up to the moment of my release.
while the recruiting for the Irish VolunOne result of this was that the Dublin teers is so brisk that the headquarters of Castle authorities did not rearrest me un- that body cannot keep pace with it. der the Cat and Mouse Act, although I And when peace comes, Ireland, with had ignored all the conditions of the li- the other small nations, will stand at the cense as to reporting my movements to doors of the Hague conference, and will the police, and did not interfere with my claim her rights from the community of departure for America. They made, how- nations. Shall peace bring freedom to ever, an unsuccessful attempt, through Belgium and Poland, perhaps to Finland Sir Horace Plunkett, to exact from me a and Bohemia, and not to Ireland ? Must pledge that I would not speak or write Irish freedom be gained in blood, or will anything against England in the United the comity of nations, led by the United States. Another result was that even States, shame a weakened England into trials by paid magistrates were found to putting into practice at home the princigive too much publicity; accordingly, the ples which are so loudly trumpeted for next method tried was arbitrary deporta- the benefit of Germany ?