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problem, all other difficulties are of minor From Russia to England is a far cry. importance. The ignorant peasant, with- The two countries are antipodes in everyout books or learning, knows through the thing except geographical situation. Engancestral legends of the olden times when land is an earthly paradise to all those the land belonged to him and not to his who can appreciate the greatest refinement masters. He feels the injustice of the of material things; Russia is avoided by slavery to which he was condemned dur- the foreign traveler unless he is of an ading the first years of the seventeenth cen- venturous and courageous nature. Yet tury. He wants neither rights nor privi- this delightful country of smiling fields leges; first and last and all the time he surrounded on all sides by a profitable wants his land. The revolutionary out- ocean, this merry old country of happy break in Russia will be of a rural nature. ballads and recollections of a charming In the large cities, where the undesirable past, will be affected by the war to a elements from the country districts have greater extent than any of the other parbeen gathered into a hopeless proletariate, ticipants of the great struggle. there will be violence such as we know England has always been a country difrom our own strikes and labor struggles. vided into two distinct parts. One of But the main issue in Russia will be these, the ruling caste of the land, was fought out far away from cities, on the delightful. The other one, the class of land. Never was a time so favorable for the servants, created to contribute to the an uprising of all the discontented ele- happiness of their masters, was perfectly ments. It is not going to be a charming hopeless. But during the last years of our affair, and there will be much in the na- era the forgotten masses working at the ture of the horrible peasant uprisings of bottom of coal-mines and sweating in the the late Middle Ages.

bowels of gigantic factories have come to The system which the masters of Rus- a realization of their own importance in sia had forced upon their subjects at the the cosmos of human beings. Under the time when two hundred years of Tatar guidance of strange leaders they set delibdomination had entirely broken the spirit erately to work to accomplish their own of the people will disappear amid much emancipation. They were in a fair way bloodshed and violence. The old order to succeed when the war broke out and of things, which was merely a system of forced a momentary interruption of their organized anarchy" for the benefit of activities. In this war the masses of Engthose who were in power, will be replaced land have had much of which they may by a new anarchy, which will not even righteously complain. They have suffered have the saving grace of a systematized needlessly and uselessly through extremely purpose.

For the first time in their his- bad management on the part of the Govtory the Slavic people will work out their ernment. own salvation, and will live as they want Life had been too easy to those in comto and not as somebody thinks that they mand. They had not grown up to realize ought to want to. For eleven centuries the demands of their own times. Their Russia has obeyed foreign masters and has ideals were those of a bygone age. Sciallowed her own destinies to be shaped by ence, which is to decide the future of

man, outside influences of one sort or another. was a neglected quantity. In many inThe war, which is breaking the iron bonds ,

stances it was a despised attribute of little which have kept the old system together, value except as a means of livelihood in means the emancipation of the Slavic peo- some smelly factory. Thousands upon ple. Hereafter we shall hear less of an thousands of good British lives have been ever-growing Russian Empire. We shall lost because the leaders were ignorant of hear more of the development of the the work before them. When the end of Slavic genius in all fields of human en- the struggle comes there will be a very deavor.

persistent and serious demand for an accounting. The pent-up discontent of family without receiving the wages or years of silent suffering will break forth treatment of a servant. Try to imagine with a violence which has not been seen in what the war means to these unfortunate the British Isles for many a century.

creatures. For the first time in their It is not a question of a more or less dreary lives they have known what it was ineffectual king or a cabinet which was in- to be their own masters. They have tasted capable of doing its full duty. There is of liberty. Their lord and master has more than that. People will have to de- gone and has left them to manage for cide this time about the future of their themselves. In many instances they disown race. Will it develop as it has done cover that they can handle affairs much hitherto as a combination of two separated better than their men, who used to treat classes, or will it give to all men the them as domestic animals, little less valuchance of developing their own powers to

able than a good cow. Visit the central the best of their ability in the most favora- part of Europe, countries like Hungary ble circumstances for all? The men who and East Prussia, and you will find that will come out of the trenches will have a new spirit has descended upon these their answer ready. No one who has seen strong and healthy beings who thus far anything of this war can doubt for a mo- were accounted of no value except as propment what this answer will be. After agators of the race and busy workers in the war the laboring world of England their master's vineyard. Ask the wives will come forward with an ultimatum of of the men who spend their lives in the no indefinite purport. Their demands will drudgery of some

industrial

center be backed up by the violence which has whether they have not had visions of a been taught to those men for the purpose new world now that they have some time of beating their German enemies. No in which to breathe and to be masters of doubt the England of the pretty Christ- their own minds and bodies. Through mas cards will be a little less picturesque this horrible cataclysm they will have and not so comfortable as it was before. gained what centuries of peaceful pleadBut there will be a great house-cleaning. ing could not have given to them. That cellar, that horrible and unspeakable The old order of things is going. As a cellar of which I have already spoken, will matter of fact, it has gone. It went out be filled up with the debris of the war, of existence when the ancient régime of and in this way an evil thing may yet predatory politics made its last great atwork for the good of us all.

tempt at world supremacy. Thus far I have mentioned the influ- The guns that battered the forts at ence of the war upon the men of the race. Liège did not only demolish a certain It will affect the position of women to an quantity of cement and steel. They deeven greater degree. The war is the stroyed the roof of the fine structure of strongest and most effective ally of those which I told you at the beginning of my who strive for an improvement in the fate little

story.

The shell went clear through of women.

When I speak of women, the building. It blew a hole into the celplease do not think of those happy crea- lar that let in the daylight and fresh air tures who can spend thirty-five cents to and gave my cave-dwellers a chance to read this magazine. Think of the millions escape. You may dislike the author of who are obliged to feed and wash and these pages for prophesying a state of afclothe a family on this same amount. fairs which will mean the destruction of Think of the women in the greater part that charming world with which we and of Europe who pull their husband's plow our ancestors have grown up; but this is together with his ox, who carry his bun- the way in which we see the future of dles and bear his children and wash and events on this morning of the fourth of cook and clothe and wait upon his entire November of the year of disaster 1915.

[graphic]

Church in Nieuport ruined by shells. The German trenches are just

beyond the canal, over a low hillock

[graphic][merged small][merged small][merged small]

By ARTHUR GLEASON Author of “Les Travailleurs de la Guerre,” “Young Hilda at the Wars,” etc.

Illustrations by Robert Toms

T times in my five months at the front

of so much young life; and most I have wondered about the Belgians. I had seen their first army wiped out; there came a time when I no longer met the faces I had learned to know at Termonde and Antwerp and Alost. A new army of boys has dug itself in at the Yser, and the same wastage by gun-fire and disease is at work on them. One wonders with the Belgians if the price they pay for honor is not too high. There is a sadness in the eyes of Belgian boy soldiers that is not easy to face. Are we quite worthy of their sacrifice? Why should the son of Ysaye die for me? Are you, comfortable reader, altogether sure that Pierre Depage and

André Simont are called on to spill their blood for your good name?

Then one turns with relief to the Fusiliers Marins—the sailors with a rifle. Here are young men at play. They know they are the incomparable soldiers. The guns have been on them for fifteen months, but they remain unbroken. Twice in the year, if they had yielded, this would have been a short war. But that is only saying that if Brittany had a different breed of men the world and its future would contain less hope. They carry the fine liquor of France, and something of their own added for bouquet. They are happy soldiers-happy in their brief life, with its flash of daring, and happy in their death. It is still sweet to die for one's coun

[graphic]

Red Cross rescue-station for the Fusiliers Marins try, and that at no far-flung outpost over They helped to cover the retreat of the the seas and sands, but just at the home Belgians and save that army from anniborder. As we carried our wounded sail- hilation by banging away at the German ors down from Nieuport to the great hos- mass at Melle. Man after man developed pital of Zuydcoote on the Dunkirk high- a fatalism of war, and expressed it to us. way, there is a sign-board, a bridge, and "Nothing can hit you till your time,” a custom-house that mark the point where was often their way of saying it; “it 's no we pass from Belgium into France. We use dodging or being afraid. You won't drove our ambulance with the rear cur- be hit till your shell comes.” And another tain raised, so that the wounded men, ly- favorite belief of theirs that brought them ing on the stretchers, could be cheered by cheer was this: "The shell that will kill the flow of scenery. Sometimes, as we you you won't hear coming. So you'll

. crossed that border-line, one of the men

never know." would pick it up with his eye, and would These sailor lads thrive on lost causes, say to his comrade: "France! Now we and it was at Ghent they won from the are in France, the beautiful country." Germans their nickname of "Les demoi

“What do you mean?” I asked one lad, selles au pompon rouge.” who had brightened visibly.

French of that has a touch beyond any “The other countries,” he said, "are flat English rendering of "the girls with the and dirty. The people are of mixed races. red pompon.” “Les demoiselles au pomFrance is not so.”

pon rouge" paints their picture at one It has been my fortune to watch the stroke, for they thrust out the face of a sailors at work from the start of the war. youngster from under a rakish blue sailor I was in Ghent when they came there, hat, crowned with a fluffy red button, like late, to a hopeless situation.

Here were

a blue flower with a red bloom at its youngsters scooped up from the decks, un- heart. I rarely saw

an aging marin. trained in trenches, and rushed to the There are no seasoned troops so boyish. front; but the sea-daring was on them, I came to know their youthful throats. and they knew obedience and the hazards. They wear open dickies, which expose the

The saucy

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