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simple and innumerable disputes of the carried through to the point where illiterindustrial world are removed from the acy will vanish, whether the illiterate be wearisome processes of traditional juris- a native-born child or an adult alien. Not prudence. As long ago as 1806, France the least vital task of the public-school created industrial courts, and the example system is to serve the immigrant durhas been followed by Germany, Switzer- ing his struggle for prosperity and citizenland, Italy, and Belgium. 'A president, ship. who represents the public, and an equal Health is no less important than educanumber of workers and employers sit as tion, and authoritative investigation has a jury rather than as a court. Lawyers
Lawyers shown that adult delinquency and depenare barred; the parties to the dispute take dency are largely due to neglect in conturns relating grievance and defense, and nection with the physical defects and dein consequence of this simplicity, ninety ficiencies of the growing youth. Not alone per cent. of the cases are adjusted with- is it necessary to have medical inspection out formal hearings. In event of threat- and dental clinics for every child that ened strikes or lockouts, the courts have passes through the public schools of the the power to sit as boards of arbitration, United States, but particularly in the case and it is only in rare cases that satisfac- of the immigrant and the poverty-stricken tory agreements are not reached.
native-born there is need of infant disCompare the simplicity of this proced- pensaries, model kitchens, milk stations, ure with the American method of fre- visiting nurses, and a program of prevenquent trials, frequent appeals, reversed de- tive medicine. cisions, remanded cases, court costs, law- While new machinery in large measure yers' fees, and months of delay, a gantlet may be necessary for the doing of all these that no poor man dares to run. The dol- things, the plant for its housing is already lar out of which an alien is cheated may at hand. The school-buildings of the mean to him the difference between a bed United States offer themselves for the or a park bench, and certainly his sense purpose in full perfection of convenience, of injustice will not inspire him with re- economy, and effectiveness. As it is tospect for democratic institutions.
day, the schools, which represent the The processes of education must be quick- largest single investment of the people's ened, and greater emphasis should be put money, are in use a scant seven hours a upon the preparation of human beings for day for an average of one hundred and the business of life. Immigrant adults, as forty-four days a year. well as immigrant youth, should have the The neighborhood is the group unit privilege of instruction in the English lan- next in importance to the family itself, guage, national, state, and municipal gov- and the school-building is the center of ernment, industrial laws, customs, and the neighborhood. What reaches every ways of American life, hygiene, sanitation,
child in the United States can reach every and all other allied subjects that will fit parent, and not only does the wider use them to be intelligent, useful American of the school plant hold out its rich promcitizens.
ise to the alien, but to the native-born as Germany, through a compulsory system well. of continuation schools, has control over In every building serving its neighbora youth until his eighteenth year; and hood group may be placed the official repalthough the system has been in force since resentative of the federal system of immi1891, it is only now that the United States grant distribution, the branch office of the is taking timid, tentative steps in the same federal employment-exchange, the indusdirection.
trial court, the medical inspection-bureau, Federal standards of education must be the dental clinic, the milk station, the visraised, and the established principle of iting nurses, the infant. dispensary, the
, federal aid to the poorer States should be free-legal-aid bureau, the health office,