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Probable limit of invasion + + + +
Capitals of states.

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Longitude West from Greenwich

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C.S.HAMMOND & C

The vulnerable heart of the United States

with America if she thought she could frain from breaking a contract only when take from us by force anything she needed, the penalty attached thereto is greater a thing which she could do as easily as than the gain. This is so generally recogan efficient thug lifts a watch and wallet nized that men invariably attach penalty from a fat millionaire, unworthy heir of clauses to contracts which they make with virile grandsires. Never will Great Brit- one another. The only penalty attached ain, Russia, Germany, or Japan arbitrate to Belgium's contract was the insufficient a vital dispute with America if they have one of British intervention. From Gerpower to dispense with arbitration and to

many's point of view this intervention did smash us to our knees with a sudden blow. not offset the manifold advantages to be Arbitration without preparedness for self- gained by a surprise attack upon France, defense is ridiculous; it is indeed a con- which would result in confining the hortradiction in terms. A sacred agreement rors of war to the enemy's territory. Had resulting from solemn arbitration is cer- Belgium been prepared to defend her bortainly of far greater value than any mere ders, this fact, added to the probability of prospect of such arbitration, for it is in British intervention, would have constifact the realization of the most sanguine tuted a prohibitive penalty; for it should hopes of the arbitrators. Yet within this be remembered that even a small country very year the futility of depending solely may successfully defend herself from inupon such agreements has been proved vasion, as has been amply demonstrated upon the naked bodies of unprepared Bel- by Serbia. This is due to the deadliness gium, Persia, and China. Last year, when of modern weapons which makes it possithe war broke out, brave and thrifty ble to defend a frontier with fewer than Switzerland was fully prepared to defend 2000 men per mile, if these men have been her freedom and her honor, despite the properly trained and organized. It is a fact that both were already supposed to well-known fact, for instance, that Gerbe protected by the most solemn interna

many has for more than eight months held tional treaties that can be produced by the western battle-line of nearly six hunsuccessful and fair-minded arbitrators. dred miles with fewer than 900,000 men, Belgium, preoccupied with business affairs although opposed by the entire armies of and with the making of money, trusted France and Great Britain; and a German almost entirely 1 to sacred treaties, also staff officer boasted to me that on the dethe product of calm arbitration. For fensive they could hold it against the America the fate of Belgium is as a writ- world. A small country may defend hering on the wall which plainly proclaims self against a big assailant, because her that the only valid insurance against un- frontiers are short in proportion to her provoked attack is reasonable military pre- correspondingly small number of men of paredness. Had Belgium been reasonably military age. prepared to resist military aggression, then, Belgium's case and its applicability to and then only, would Germany have re- the United States may be aptly illustrated spected arbitration and its sacred treaties, by the following example: burglars are and have invaded France across the unscrupulous persons who consider that Franco-German border. For treaties be- the prospective gain incidental to robbing tween nations are like contracts between a house is greater than the penalty atpersons: an unscrupulous person will re- tached to the breaking of their implied laging houses left unoccupied during the observance of treaties. I no more think of hot months. My father, concluding from gainsaying this than of denying that this circumstance that the New York po- within the same time the New York police lice did not provide a sufficient penalty, may perhaps constitute a penalty clause prudently decided to be prepared, and so capable of deterring robbers. In the meanevery summer has had the house wired by time both our country and our houses are a protective association. The association's in need of reasonable military preparedsign in the front window furnished a ness. Yet America still persistently rethreat which, taken in conjunction with fuses to read the writing on the wall, the danger of arrest by the regular police which plainly proclaims that the only force, protected the house from attack for valid insurance against unwarranted agseveral summers, during which many gression is reasonable military preparedneighboring unprepared houses were ness. To the countries engaged in the looted. In the summer of 1915 the elec- great European struggle, America seems tricians who wired the house neglected wilfully to have closed her eyes to to place their warning sign in the window, the extent and dangers of the present thus removing the visibility of the threat.

contract with society, the penalty being 1 Despite sentimental exaggerations in the Allied press, the Belgian army was so small and ill prepared that it the danger of arrest and prosecution by succeeded in retarding the main German advance into

the police. My own family residence is France only about four days. Theoretically, the Belgian first line of fewer than 80,000 men could be reinforced situated in a New York City block which by as many more reserves, just as our line is theoretically has of late years been a favorite raidingbacked by many thousand militia. Actually, Belgium's

ground for summer burglars, who have reserves were so inefficiently organized that few of them ever got into action, and those that did were nearly useless. made a practice of breaking into and pil

crisis. A few nights later, a burglar mounted the To-day the United States is the single front stoop, "jimmied" the outer door, peaceful-minded great nation of the earth, and, entering the vestibule, began the de- but she stands unprotected amid a gang struction of the lock of the inner door. of calculating international robbers. AlThe instant, however, that he had at- though no such thing as a police force of tacked the outer door, an alarm had been nations exists, she nevertheless refuses to rung at the central office of the protective arm herself, because, as she naïvely deassociation, and two private detectives had clares, she has no desire to attack any of departed on the run. On their rapid way the burglars. She lives, as it were, in a to the house they found time to summon time of pestilence, when all her neighbors the corner policeman. The three together have already been smitten with disease, outnumbered the thug, whom they over- and yet she fatuously claims that it will powered on the very threshold and fron- be time enough to begin to train physicians tier of the house, which he had not yet when the black death grips her own vitals. succeeded in crossing. As he was led away She stands in the midst of the greatest conto prison he protested vehemently that it flagration of history, which surrounds and was unfair to wire a house without post- already scorches her, and instead of oring it with warning notices.

ganizing fire departments, she idiotically To apply this illustration to Belgium, sings, “I did not raise my boy to be a the British army may be represented by soldier." the corner policeman and the two detec- Her people know little and care less tives may represent the reasonable mili- about the complications of international tary preparedness for lack of which her diplomacy, and remain serenely confident house was broken into. It is inconceivable that the question of war or no war will that Germany could ever have been igno- ever rest in their own hands. Within the rant of the exact state of Belgium's pre- last two decades every important nation paredness; but could such have been the in the world has been involved at least case, Germany, repelled from the Belgian once in a war "to the finish,” and Russia, frontier, would doubtless have been as in- Turkey, Japan, and Great Britain have dignant as the burglar who was being led participated not merely in one such war, to prison.

but in two. Despite this, America's leadIt is probable that within the next thou- ing politicians still stick their pudgy sand years there will be evolved some sys- hands into the breasts of their frock-coats tem of international police capable of fur- and loudly orate that for America war is nishing a sufficient penalty to insure the obsolete. The Government has allowed

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