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Photographic Society, which was founded within ponding members in the colonies and in foreign these walls, at the conclusion of our late Exhibi-countries throughout the century; but it was tion of Photography, the first of its kind that has not until the session of 1851-2 that our colonial ever been held in this country.
Our first regular exhibition of useful inventions appears to have been held in 1761, when a Mr. Bailey attended for seven weeks, for a payment of 10s. 6d. a day, to explain the models and other articles to all comers.
correspondence was placed on its present very important footing. A special committee was then appointed for the purpose "of making the Society useful in advancing the knowledge of the resources and capabilities of the numerous British colonies in all parts of the world, and in furnishing In 1756 one, and in 1757, eight, standing com- the colonies themselves with such information as mittees were appointed. From that time to 1851, may be required on subjects connected with arts, the number of those committees varied exceed-commerce, and manufactures." The committee ingly; but at the latter date the present estab-took measures to establish a correspondence with lishment of thirty standing committees, founded similar societies in the larger colonies, and with on the classification used at the Great Exhibition committees of correspondence in those colonies of the Industry of all Nations, was happily where no such societies exist. The co-operation adopted. There are now four classes for raw of the Colonial Office was solicited, and promptly materials; six for machinery; ten for textile fa- accorded; and the results have been highly valubrics; nine for metallic, vitreous, and ceramic able. The 44th number of the JOURNAL contains manufactures; and one, with four sub-classes, for a very important communication, received through fine arts. In addition to these standing commit- the Colonial Office, from the New Zealand Sotees, special committees for occasional or tempo-ciety on the subject, particularly of the Phormium rary purposes are frequently appointed by the tenax, or New Zealand flax. This commucouncil. nication is referred to merely as a specimen of the kind of correspondence which the Society now carries on with the colonies. See also the 49th JOURNAL Cn the subject of the Long-haired Angora Goat, and the 40th and 49th numbers
It will be remembered that the last-mentioned substance was introduced into this country by the Society of Arts; and that the first specimen ever received is deposited in our Museum.
It is unnecessary for me to remind you of the distinguished part which was played by the Society in reference to the Great Exhibition. It is sufficient to state that the exertions of this Society prepared the public mind for the idea of the Ex-respecting certain substitutes for Gutta Percha. hibition; that here originated the connexion between our illustrious President and the other founders and conductors of that wonderful enterprise; that it was first announced to the world by his Royal Highness as President of the Society of Arts; and that almost every name which is familiar to our memories as having had a very important share in the glories of that greatest work of these times is to be found on the roll of our members.
It is not only beyond these islands, however, that we have extended our commuuications and our means of usefulness. In the United Kingdom we have entered into an alliance, for mutual benefit, with 309 independent institutions. The resolution to establish the union of institutes was
The Indian portion of the late Exhibition at passed under the happy auspices of Lord LansDublin was collected at the instance of this So-downe's presidency, on the 18th of May, 1852. ciety, and was intended to be exhibited here. It It was established in the summer of that year; was transferred to Dublin at the suggestion of his and has for its object, on the one hand, to raise Royal Highness the President. the institutions, on the basis of perfect local free
It has been already intimated that the opera-dom and self-government, to a position of power tions of the Society of Arts have not been confined to these islands. From the very outset the colonies of Great Britain have received a large share of attention.
On the 18th of August, 1756, the following record was entered :-"A letter from Benjamin Franklin, Esq., dated Philadelphia, November 27, 1755, was read, wherein he mentions he should esteem as a great honour to be admitted a corresponding member of this Society; and though it is not required that corresponding members should bear any part of the expense of the Society, yet he desires he may be permitted to contribute twenty guineas, to be applied in premiums."
Many other eminent persons have been corres
and utility which, isolated and centreless, they could scarcely attain; and, on the other hand, to secure for the Society of Arts the powerful cooperation of numerous and widely-spread bodies of intelligent, locally-influential, and publicspirited men.
Such, very imperfectly presented, is the venerable but vigorous Society of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce.
The bye-laws require that at the commencement of each annual session the chairman of the council shall declare the policy which the council will adopt during his year of office. This duty I shall now endeavour briefly to discharge.
It will probably be thought right that some special demonstrations should celebrate our first
centenary, but it would best be signalized by more than ordinary fruits of utility in our ordinary proceedings; by extending and consolidating our resources and means of action, by large additions to our roll of members; by a marked improvement of our valuable journal; and by the acquisition of premises more suitable to our present condition than these which we have completely outgrown.
The inheritance of our predecessors is accepted by the council of the current year. We shall endeavour to carry on with good vigour what has been commenced with good judgment; and, at our retirement, to leave behind us some things that may be worthy of record. We shall not think it necessary to pursue the very objects that William Shipley pursued. He was particularly anxious to promote the growth of madder; but we think it not at all needful in these days to take extraordinary measures to make the world grow madder. We hope, however, to do some things that Shipley and his coadjutors would have gladly seen done.
and perceived many of their bearings upon the prosperity of those interests which we are chartered to promote. By the merciful arrangements of Providence, our interests, rightly understood, are always in harmony with our duties; and we have much cause to be thankful that this truth, in relation to the health and homes of our brethren, is now peculiarly obvious. The council will not neglect its grave admonitions. The progress of mechanical invention, and the applications of machinery to arts, manufactures, and trades, and to the uses of daily life, are now more important than ever. The forthcoming report of Mr. Whitworth, on the Manufacturing and Mechanical Industries of America, is anxiously expected by the council. The well-known competency of the author, and the vital importance of the subject, will secure the fullest attention to his work. The reports of the other Commissioners on the Exhibition at New York, will, doubtless, be of great value.
The "strikes" which afflict the manufacturing districts are regarded by the council with deep The council will continue to develop the union regret. The Society feels an equal interest in of institutions, and the foreign and colonial cor- the well-being of the masters and men. Exrespondence. The council will carefully consider perience of the past evils of former strikes is the results of the Exhibition at Dublin, with a found insufficient to prevent their recurrence view to their profitable use. The Society of Its sad lessons must be again and again learned; Arts feels a deep interest in the success of but it may be hoped that, when we have a real the intended Exhibition at Paris, and desires education of the people, these lamentable spectathat therein the arts, manufactures, and com- cles may be no more seen; and it is worth conmerce of the United Kingdom and its depen-jecturing whether, when education is improved, dencies may be fully and honourably repre- an amendment of the law of unlimited liability, sented. The council will do what it can to and the introduction of partnerships en commanpromote this object. The council will readily dite, by placing the men in the position of masters assist the promoters of provincial exhibitions in such partnerships, might not have some effect which may be held in connexion with any towards restraining workmen from taking up, as of the associated institutions. The efforts of the Society will be continued to procure an amendment of the Law of Partnership; to prepare the mind of the public for the adoption of a decimal system of weights, measures, coins, and accounts; and to abolish those taxes, e.g. the Duties on Paper, which are specially injurious to arts, commerce, and manufac
such, a position which is inconsistent with the essential conditions of mastership, and has an inevitable tendency to destroy the means of employment. You have seen that in its first century the Society of Arts has been an active promoter of education-I hope that, in this respect, our second century will be no discredit to its elder brother. The council is thoroughly convinced that an improved education for the whole people, The quinquennial Swiney prize, of 1007. ster-rich and poor, adult and child, is the first requisite ling, contained in a goblet of the same value, (designed by Mr. Maclise, R.A.) will be adjudged by the council, in January next, to the author of the best published work on Jurisprudence attention being particularly directed to that branch of Jurisprudence which relates to arts and manufactures.
Those applications of Science and Art by which the well-being of our poorer brethren who labour in our towns, villages, fields, mines, and ships, may be promoted by the improvement of their houses, clothing, food, fuel, instruction, amusement, and health, are deeply interesting to this Society, which has long since recognised their importance,
for the improvement of manufactures, commerce, and arts; that a liberal measure of science must enter into that education; and that it is the duty of this Society to promote vigorously this great object. We shall not involve the Society in any religious or political controversies; but we shall lend a helping hand to make education industrial, scientific, and practical.
In the pursuit of this purpose, we ought to be powerfully aided by the associated institutes. We rely on them for cordial, energetic, and continuous aid. It is important that they should continue to do what they do at present; but they might do it better and do more. They generally lament that
Again, some of the premiums have reference to such developments of our famous mechanical skill as may be applicable to the further saving of human labour in manufactures, trades, and households, e.g. the sewing machines, the washing machines, &c. We have offered no premium for
they are unable to maintain in efficiency their classes for systematic instruction. The council is of opinion that the mechanic, artisan, or labourer, has at present no sufficiently obvious inducement to pursue continuous studies in his local institute. His previous education has not prepared him for it. There is little or no emula-a shaving machine, but we are quite ready to tion to incite him; there are no examinations to reward one, if it can be used by men with orditest his progress, no certificates or diplomas to nary nerves. The premiums for the meteorologirecord it, no present and tangible rewards for cal instruments were suggested by the report of his success. Wanting such encouragements the the Conference at Brussels. It is desirable that youth who, after his daily work, purely for the the Society should hold an exhibition of meteorolove of knowledge, pursues it in regular attend-logical instruments. ance at his institute, is a hero of no mean order, We hope to have attractive and useful meetand such youths are not abundant in any class of ings on the Wednesdays of this session. society. It is hoped that during the present session the council may be able to establish a system whereby examinations may be held in several districts, and certificates of progress and attainments, and possibly prizes, may be awarded to the class-students of the institutions in union with the Society of Arts. It is hoped also that an exhibition of educational apparatus, foreign as well as British, may be opened when the present very interesting exhibition of "useful inventions" is closed.
following subjects of discussion have been determined on :-"Gold Crushing and Pulverizing," "Consumption of Smoke," "Ventilation of Collieries," "Sewing Machines," "Manufacture of Carpets," "Gas and its applications to domestic uses.' We hope, also, to have a good discussion on "Patents," that the subject may be fully elucidated; and that measures may be taken to procure such amendments of the law as may be deemed requisite.
And now, apologising for having detained you The time will not allow me to particularize so long, I will conclude by reminding you that, any of the articles in the present exhibition, and as the council is only the executive of the mind indeed it would be a work of supererogation to and will of the Society, it is to the members of do so; for, though we have not engaged Mr. the Society that we must look for the mainBailey at 10s. 6d. a day to explain them, we have tenance of its high position. The council will the pleasure of seeing here the major part of do its best; but we hope that you will aid us by the exhibitors themselves; and they, doubtless, increasing the number of subscribers, by taking will give explanations of their own inventions. A part in discussing, both here and in the JOURNAL, full explanatory catalogue is also provided. The those subjects with which experience has renPrize List for the present session has been very dered you familiar in arts, manufactures, and carefully prepared by the Secretary, in commu-commerce; and by aiding us generally in the nication with the standing committees. In this Society's works. To the members of the standing list the wants and capabilities of the colonies, as committees I venture to make a particular apwell as of the United Kingdom, have been atten- peal. It is very much, indeed, to be desired that tively considered. Some of the premiums offered they would furnish us with an annual report on are suggestive that articles now imported from the condition, progress, wants, and capabilities of foreign countries might advantageously be pro- those arts, manufactures, or trades to which the duced in the colonies. Others point to the committees have reference, and also with short ocopening of fresh sources for the supply of ma-casional communications on points of special terials for our manufactures, and for facilitating interest. The JOURNAL would be greatly enprocesses in the arts. Our textile manufactures have made rapid progress of late years from the frequent introduction of new substances-e. g. Alpaca-from which good or useful articles of attire have been produced at low prices. Other premiums again point to the utilization of substances, such as peat, refuse coal, imperfect coal, refuse ores, slag, &c. Why should British India use only the seed of the flax plant (Linum usitatissimum), and let its valuable fibre rot in the soil? Why should Australia export only the wool of the sheep, and boil down the carcasses merely for fat? Is it impossible to preserve the flesh and to export it in a satisfactory condition to this country, where butcher's meat is not overabundant ?
riched by the shorter documents; and the annual
MURCHISON seconded, a vote of thanks to the
The SECRETARY announced that at the meet-
EXHIBITION OF INVENTIONS. THE Fifth Annual Exhibition of articles of utility invented, registered, or patented, during the last twelve months was opened on nesday last. Notices of this Exhibition will appear in the JOURNAL from time to time.
a prevalence of "burrs" or seeds in the wool, which "burrs" excessive in quantity. It is also imported in the whole are a disparagement, but not very serious, unless they are fleece. On its reaching this country, and before putting Wed-it to the combing machinery, it has to be assorted and classed by our manufacturers, according as their purposes may require. This has to be done with all our homegrown wool, and the process costs but little more in the one case than in the other. In sorting mohair about onesixth part is taken out which is too short in the staple and not applicable for combing purposes; and in the process of combing about one-fifth part is made into what is technically termed 'noils ;' these together are bought by woollen manufacturers, from which they make cloth of different kinds and other materials.
LONG-HAIRED ANGORA GOAT. The following Report has been forwarded to His Royal Highness Prince Albert, in reply to the inquiry received, through the Board of Trade, from the Swellendam Agricultural Society at the Cape of Good Hope. This communication was published in No. 49 of the Journal, page 593. It will be remembered that the object of the inquiry was to ascertain how far the statements which had been brought forward by Captain Conolly, in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, and by Mr. Thomas Southey in his work on Colonial Sheep and Wools, might be relied on; and that in the event of satisfactory replies being received, efforts would be made with a view to the importation of a flock of Angora goats into that colony, and the export of their wool to the mother country:
The Council of the Society of Arts have much pleasure in reporting, for the information of his Royal Highness the President, that on the receipt of the documents from the Swellendam Agricultural Society, they immediately entered into correspondence with the leading brokers and manufacturers importing, or using Angora goats' wool (called tiftik" or "filik" in that country, and "mohair" in Great Britain), and that the following is the substance of the communications with which they have been favoured. It is proposed to deal with the questions seriatim, and then to make such general remarks as have been elicited in the course of this inquiry.
"In reply to the first question, Whether a breed of goats exists in Angora bearing only one description of hairy covering of a silken fineness, which can be annually clipped? the answers have invariably been in the affirmative. It would appear that this wool or hair has a peculiar glossy, soft, slippery feel, is white in colour, and grows in staples or locks, so that it is somewhat curled and wiry. The shearing takes place annually, and the process is perfectly simple, the fleece being of pretty uniform length and quality from the root to the point or apex. The average length of the staple is from five to six inches. It is said that it has sometimes been clipped twice in the year, when the market value has been high, but it is thus rendered much less valuable, length of staple being required.
With respect to the third question, What the value of such fleeces would be per pound? it would seem that the present value is about 2s. 3d. per pound. During the last four years it has varied from 1s. to 28. 3d. per pound, the average over that period being about 1s 8d. per pound. In reference to the fourth question, Whether any large quantity of it would be required by the European manufacturers? it is said that there has been a greater demand for this article for some years past than our imports could supply, and these have amounted on the average of the last four years to about two and a half million pounds. has been sold by the Greek merchants without the buyer As a proof of this it is asserted that for a long period it having a chance of seeing his purchase beforehand, the buyer's only protection being the assurance of the seller that it shall be of good merchantable quality. This fact goes far to show how extremely desirable it would be to increase the production, as it must undoubtedly be limited in its employment by the impossibility of obtaining a sufficient supply, no less than by the difficulties and impediments in the way of getting the present limited one. The spinning of this article has now become an extensive and steady trade. Ten or fifteen years ago it was found that the yarn spun by English machinery was very superior to Turkish hand-spun yarn, so that about that period nearly all spinning in Turkey ceased; and this, no doubt, will account for the falling off in the export of mohair-yarn in 1837 as compared with 1836. We now import the raw material-the wool-and export it again in a partiallymanufactured state, as yarn. On account of the present scarcity of mohair, and its consequent dearness, quantities of goods are made from English wools as an imitation, and passed off to the consumer as genuine. Although the price may be subject to a little fluctuation, as the material is principally used for fancy fabrics, and though the limited quantity produced has kept it up for the time, there seems to be little doubt that the parties engaged in the trade have so established it, that it will not only continue but increase, and especially if the price is kept moderate-say from 18. 6d. to 18. 9d. per pound.
"For a time mohair was chiefly used for the list ends of woollen cloths, and commanded little attention; but for some years past it has been greatly gaining in favour for the fancy trade. Formerly it was used for thick heavy fabrics, as coatings, shawls, &c.; but recently it has been "As to the second question, Whether such fleece is almost exclusively wrought up in plain and fancy worsted purchased in Europe as it comes from the goat's back, and stuffs, and other lighter articles for female attire. The without requiring the expensive picking process which yarn is generally spun at Bradford and Norwich, and the Cashmere or Thibet, or other shawl-wools containing an great bulk of it is used for the manufacture of Utrecht underdown must undergo? it is said that Angora goats' velvet, a material which is now largely employed for Wool is perfectly free from underdown '-unlike the decorative purposes, and for the linings of private and Thibet or Cashmere, which has a downy covering on the railway carriages. Utrecht velvet is now manufactured pelt, with long coarse hairs or kemps at the top, the sepa-on a limited scale at Banbury and Coventry, but the chiet ration of which is both tedious and expensive. It is packed in bags and shipped as it comes from the animal's back; occasionally (but which is in all cases recommended) a few of the coarse locks at the skirting are taken off at the time of shearing and packed separately. Locks, or pieces of grey, which are trifling in amount, and are easily separated, | should be taken out where they occur. On the other hand it is asserted that washing is necessary, as there is
seat of the manufacture is in France and Germany, especially the former, to which countries the yarn spun in England is exported. Plush and lace are also made from it, and recently it has been introduced into the manufacture of a cheap imitation of black silk lace, now so generally worn, for which, from its glossy silky appearance, it is well calculated. Yarn composed of mohair and natural coloured alpaca mixed together, in various shades,
is also largely used in the Bradford trade, in the manufacture (with cotton twist warps) of an immense variety of materials for ladies' dresses, gentlemen's summer coats, &c. It is also extensively used both alone and in combination with silk, for making a description of goods called lustres, ta binets, and fringes.
"There are several distinct breeds of goats in Angora and the surrounding districts, as well as the one which produces the mohair wool, which is larger than the ordinary goat. The wool of one is called " cambello," and is of a brown colour, short and downy underneath, with long coarser hairs at the surface of the fleece. The import of this wool from Turkey is irregular, perhaps 5,000 pounds one year, and none the next. The value has varied during the last four years from 7d. to 18. 5d. per pound, and it is now worth from 1s. to 1s. 2d. per pound. The value is uncertain and the demand depends entirely on fashion. There is another description of wool which is obtained from the ordinary goat. Its colour is mostly grey, brown, and black, but seldom white. It partakes somewhat of the nature of Thibet, only it is much coarser. It is close and fine, full at the bottom of the staple, with long coarse hairs mixed and growing through it. Its present value is 64d. per pound. It is only suitable for very low-priced carpetings, &c. "Up to this point the information furnished by our different correspondents has been almost identical; but here we have to record a great diversity of opinion, on a branch of the inquiry on which after all the whole question depends-the probability of naturalising or acclimatizing the Angora goat in the Cape Colony, or indeed in any other country but its own.
"Mr. Geo. Shaw Pollock (Liverpool) thinks the Angora goat might be located with success and great advantage at the Cape of Good Hope." Messrs. R. M. Scholefield and Co. (Liverpool) suppose that the Cape colonists could not do better than naturalize the animal there.' Mr. Titus Salt (Bradford) highly approves of the plan proposed by the Swellendam Agricultural Society. He considers that the propagation of the Angora goat should be promoted as much as possible. He has long thought that we had colonies suitable for its propagation, and if it should be found that they can be acclimatized at the Cape, he is persuaded the scheme proposed would be a very profitable investment. In February 1852, Mr. Salt ordered from Angora one male and two female goats; they arrived in Bradford last December. They have had young ones and are doing well. The hair is of a beautiful quality. The old ones have been clipped this year, and the second coat has not in the least degenerated. Mr. Salt has therefore sent to Angora for a further supply.' On the other hand Messrs. W. Greame and Co. (Liverpool) say 'that as regards Angora goats' wool, or mohair, we may at once inform you from the best information, gathered from parties from that quarter, that, from an extraordinary peculiarity of the animals in that locality, there is no probability of their being transported to other regions with any chance of success, for, when removed even 50 or 100 miles only from their immediate locality, the wool degenerates and loses the soft silky character which constitutes its chief value. Under these circumstances we can hold out no hopes of succeeding in the views suggested by the Agricultural Society at the Cape of Good Hope. It would appear from the same authority also that this peculiarity is not confined to the goats, but that even the cats are subject to the same change when removed from that locality, and they account for it as being some atmospheric action only peculiar to that district.' Messrs. Hughes and Ronald (Liverpool) say that some attempts have from time to time been made to introduce the breed into other parts of Asia Minor, but the quality and character of the wool has been found soon to retrograde. The want of success may, we think be chiefly attributed to the little care, attention, and encouragement, ever bestowed in that country on any measure of useful progress or improvement, and the total absence of all energy
or enterprise; besides, in many parts of Asia Minor a weed or "burr" is found to exist very generally, which is very detrimental to the wool. From all the information we are possessed of, we have great confidence that the fine Angora goat might be successfully introduced, and would thrive well on the table-land at the Cape of Good Hope. It is a hardy animal. We would, however, suggest as desirable, to send out at first with the animals a few shepherds who are accustomed to their habits.'
Mr. Titus Salt considers that not only the Angora goat, but the Alpaca is an animal particularly worthy the attention of the government with a view to its propagation in our colonies. Mr. Salt has a flock of Alpacas (about a dozen); they have been bred in the neighbourhood of Bradford, and no difference is perceptible between the foreign and the English clip. The animals only require to be kept from wet; cold does not injure them. They require housing in this climate, and no doubt would thrive well in a dry elevated temperature. There might, however, be some difficulty in obtaining them, as those imported are smuggled over, the government of Peru having passed a law prohibiting their exportation, in consequence of some person who had a correct notion of their value having some years ago shipped off 300 to England, of which, however, only six survived the voyage. Alpaca wool is now 28. 9d. per lb." Messrs. John Foster and Son (Bradford) also say that "if this animal (the Alpaca) could be introduced into the Cape or Australia, it would be of great benefit to the grower, as well as to the manufacturer.' Mr. George Shaw Pollock (Liverpool) likewise confirms this opinion, and says that, the Alpaca is a hardy, graceful animal, and would, he presumes, thrive on the bleakest mountain lands, either at the Cape or in Great Britain.' Messrs. R. M. Scholefield and Co. (Liverpool) say that, there is also an animal called the Vicuna, in South America, which the Cape climate would suit, and the wool from which is worth 6s. to 7s. per pound.'
The Council of the Society of Arts are anxious to avail themselves of this opportunity of expressing their readiness to undertake the collection of evidence and information on all matters affecting the material progress of this country and her dependencies. They believe that in the British possessions in various parts of the world, there are many substances as yet unknown to commerce, which might be beneficially employed in the arts and manufactures, and they conceive that it is in the highest degree important that wherever the supply of any particular raw material falls short of the demand, the greatest publicity should be given to the fact, so that colonists and others may thereby be led to inquire whether it be possible to find or rear any substitutes for the same in their own immediate localities. It is extremely desirable that no occasion should be lost in studying and making known the rude and primitive methods of the natives themselves, as it is by the publication of such statements that the attention of individuals in other countries, where the arts have attained to a greater pefection, are led to apply their knowledge and experience to the improvement of the mechanism and processes adopted in less civilized states.
The Council have to thank the following gentlemen for the ready manner in which they responded to their communication:-Messrs. Armstrong and Berey; Mr. Edward Barstow; Messrs. Buchanan, Browne, and Co.; Mr. Edmund Buckley; Messrs. Abram Gartside and Co.; Messrs. Greame and Co.; Mr. James Haley; Messrs. Hughes and Ronald; Messrs. Law and Wylie; Mr. George Shaw Pollock; and Messrs. R. M. Scholefield and Co.; all of Liverpool. Messrs. John Foster and Son, and Mr. Titus Salt, of Bradford; and Messrs. E. and R. W. Blake, and Mr. George Jay, of Norwich. "(By order)
"P. LE NEVE FOSTER,