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fire for the above-named purpose, and they have been so made up to the present time at the same manufactory, in Drury-lane. The late Mr. John Pontifex fixed many furnaces with the sides and backs made of hollow castiron, in lieu of fire-brick lumps, and the air being allowed to enter the bottom on one side and escape at the top of the opposite side, the heated air was used for warming. I have applied many of these to warm drying-rooms, workshops, &c. I think this plan may be adopted with advantage in the supply of heated air to assist in the consumption of smoke in small furnaces; the air could enter on both sides and escape through perforations made in the bridge, and would, to some extent, keep the iron lumps from fusion.

In the year 1813 I manufactured register and Rumford Stoves with the back and sides hollow, for producing hot air, or heating water for circulation, making baths, or other domestic purposes; also kitchen grates, having one side and part of the back applied to heat water in a boiler for steaming and other purposes, while the heat of the other side and remaining part of the back was applied to an oven. This improvement, made by me, rendered flues (which were attended with much trouble) round ovens and boilers, for domestic use, unnecessary. Ovens without flues were introduced to the public before that time. The late Mr. S. Holmes, of Castle-court, Strand, received from the Society of Arts, about the year 1796, I think, the gold medal, for the invention of an oven to heat without a flue; and the only defect I ever found in it was that the lump of iron, called the conductor, projected from the side of the oven into the middle of the fire, which was rather an obstruction when stirring the fire, and in a few years the conductor burnt shorter, and so lost power every year, and ultimately became quite useless for baking, without any possibility of being repaired, as the lump was only efficient when cast with the oven. The improvement I made in 1813, by placing the conductor in a line with the back of the L boiler, which I then constructed, rendered it impossible that the conductor could burn shorter. I have lately seen some of the ovens, that have been in use thirty-five years, as perfect as when first erected.

With regard to the remarks in the discussion upon Dr. Arnott's stove, I think the different speakers lost sight of a very material requisite for making the stove suitable for the million, namely, a proper supply of air. In a work I published in 1852, upon chimneys, the consumption of smoke, &c., I described a house-stove patented by Mr. Cutler in 1813, for the consumption of smoke, and I there stated that as the air necessary for combustion could not be supplied in the usual way through the bottom-it being a plain plate, with coal upon it, the air was made to pass immediately over the top of the fire, to an aperture in the back of the stove, and thence up the chimney, and that, unless a very strong draught was kept up, the fire appeared dull. I frequently saw this in use, and used one in my own bed-room, and found it convenient for keeping a fire all night when required.

In a discussion at the Society's rooms upon the consumption of smoke, on the 30th of November last, I described the stove patented by Mr. Cutler, and the difficulty of producing a cheerful fire without an exceedingly strong draught over the top; I also gave a description of a furnace supplied with coal upon Mr. Cutler's principle, the coal being raised by a lever, with a rack and pinion; I also described the latter principle two months since, to another scientific body, in the presence of Dr. Armott; perhaps the hood added by the doctor may cause the air to act more powerfully upon the front of the fire, but I much fear the hood will render it inconvenient for the million, who occasionally have to place a tea-kettle or saucepan upon the fire. I cannot give a decided opinion upon this point, not having seen the hood in use, having been at Hastings upon the evening of the discussion, but I heard a gentleman, who was present,

remark that some one frequently raised the fire, evidently for the purpose of making up as much as possible for the non-supply of air at the bottom.

With regard to Dr. Arnott's other improvement, of supporting the fire with "a broad flat shovel or spade, of the shape of the bottom of the grate," while fresh coal may be supplied, if any should be required during the day, this principle was exhibited in the Society's rooms in 1852, in a stove, said to be patented, for supplying coals at the bottom, and is described in the appendix to my work above-mentioned. I also find a letter from Dr. Wyld, "Upon the Prevention of Smoke from our ordinary Fires," and published in the Builder of May 27th, 1854. After reciting the disadvantages of anthracite coal, coke, and gas, or gas and platinum, being "so unlike John Bull's Christmas fire," he goes on to state that "Cutler's stove, as improved and amended by Dr. Arnott, appears to me, although economical in its working and possessed of other good points, still amenable likewise to the above objection of being slow and dull, to say nothing of the pecuniary difficulty of converting every old grate in London into an Arnott-Cutler grate, if I may be allowed the expression." I am, Sir, your obedient servant,

16, Lloyd-square, June 5th, 1854.

G. F. ECKSTEIN.

Proceedings of Institutions.

BURY ST. EDMUNDS.-The members of the Athenæum held their first general annual meeting on Friday, the 19th of May, the Hon. and Rev. Lord Arthur Hervey, President of the Institution, in the chair. In opening the business of the evening, by reviewing the successful course of the Athenæum during the past year, the noble and reverend chairman said, "He hoped the members would agree with him that the balance-sheet shewing the amount of subscriptions received, and the amount of support given to the society, was one of which they might well be proud, and which argued favourably for its future prosperity and usefulness. Though their lecturesession was closed, their library was still in full activity, and he looked upon it as the mainstay of the Institution. It was to the library, and to the diligent study of the books therein, that the members must look for the Institution performing that work which he trusted it would be enabled to perform in the town. A course of reading was absolutely necessary to enable the members to profit by the lectures delivered; and he would express his individual opinion, and he did not doubt having the concurrence of the officers of the Institution therein, that it would gratify them much, if a certain number of their younger members would address themselves to the Committee, for lectures on particular subjects upon which they had been reading, and in reference to which they wished for more information; this would indeed be hailed as a good omen." The secretary then read the report, in which the following gratifying facts were stated: The number of members for the year had been 450; the issues of books and periodicals 8791; the average daily attendance at the library and reading-room 120 visits; each of the 18 lectures and conversazioni had been enjoyed by 400 or 500 persons. The total income for the year was 5227. 14s. ld.; the balance in the hands of the treasurer 17. 14s. 8d. The library comprised 2300 volumes; and last Whit Monday and Tuesday, 1680 persons visited the Museum attached to the Institution. After the reading of the report, the general business of the evening was transacted, and the proceedings closed by John Greene, Esq., one of the managing vice-presidents, proposing a vote of thanks to the noble chairman for his unwearied and efficient exertions in behalf of the Athenæum.

NEWPORT (MONMOUTHSHIRE).-The Report of the Committee of the Athenæum and Mechanics' Institute states

PATENT LAW AMENDMENT ACT, 1852.

APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS AND PROTECTION ALLOWED.

[From Gazette, June 2nd, 1854.]

Dated 29th April, 1854.

969. C. Kingsford, 18, Buckingham street, Strand-Solidifying or
indurating peat, &c.
Dated 1st May, 1854.

972. W. A. Waldington, York.-Sounding boards for pianofortes.
973. W. A. Archbald, 37, Stanhopo street, Gloucester gate-Con-
crete cane-juice and sugar.
Dated 8th May, 1854.

that the surplus on the year's accounts amounts to 13. 9s. 114d., the receipts having been 2517. 14s. 91d., and the expenditure 2387. 4s. 10d. The average number of members of all kinds during the year was 393, against 379 the preceding year, showing an increase of 14. Some steps have been taken to procure an eligible site for the erection of commodious premises, as the present _rooms are insufficient for the objects of the Institute. During the year 112 volumes have been added to the library, which now comprises 1,965 volumes. 8,509 volumes were circulated during the year, being an increase of 825 compared with the previous year. The reading-room continues to be well supplied with papers and periodicals, and it has proved so attractive that it has been thought desirable to make use of the committee-room as a readingroom, in order to prevent inconvenience. The lectures and entertainments have been numerous and attractive; 1055. J. Platt, Oldham-Spindles, rollers, bolts, &c. but the committee is of opinion that, although enter-1056. J. Penton and J. Mackay, Chippenham-Railway wheels and tainments such as concerts almost invariably prove successful and advantageous to the funds of the society, its true welfare will be best regarded by providing an instructive as well as an amusing class of lectures.

To Correspondents.

In the Journal of the 10th March, 1854, it is stated that "Samuel Bentham expended about 30,000 pounds of his own money in promoting progress." I would beg to correct this trifling error, since about that sum was the amount of loss sustained by the two brothers jointly, Jeremy and Samuel Bentham, in the construction of machinery, and in preparations for an industrial prison, on the panopticon principle.M. S. B.

MON.

MEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK.
Royal Botanic, 2.-Exhibition.
Inst. Brit. Architects, 8.

Society of Arts, 8.-Adjourned Discussion on Mr. R. A.
Slaney's Paper, "On Limited and Unlimited Liability in
Partnerships."

Geographical, 84.-1. Lieut. R. Burton, "Late Visit to
Mecca." 2. The late Prof. G. Walin, "Journey from
Cairo to Jerusalem." 3. Dr. Livingston, "Further Ex-
plorations in Central Africa. 4. "On the Eastern
Territory of the State of Ecuador, the Canton Quijo,
the River Napo, and North-west Sources of the Maranon
River."

TUES. Royal Inst., 3.-Dr. W. B. Hodgson, "On the Importance
of the Study of Economic Science as a Branch of Educa-
tion for all Classes."

WED.

Syro-Egyptian 7.-1. Dr. Loewe, "On the Alterations
made in the Translation of the ex-Patriarch Constantine's
Letter by Mr. W. H. Blade. 2. Mr. S. Sharpe, "On
Deciphering Hieroglyphics."
Medical Chirurgical, 84.

Zoological, 9.

Literary Fund, 3.

Royal Botanic, 2.-Promenade.

Royal Society of Literature, 4).

Society of Arts, 8.-General Meeting to receive the Coun-
cil's Report and Statement of the Funds of the Society.
Ethnological, 8.

Pharmaceutical, 8.

Archæological Assoc., 8.

THURS. Antiquaries, 8.

FRI.

SAT.

Royal, 81.

Architectural Assoc., 8.-Nomination of Officers."
Royal Botanic, 34.

PARLIAMENTARY REPORTS.

Par. Numb.

'SESSIONAL PRINTED PAPERS. Delivered on 31st May and 1st June, 1854.

241. Lunatics (Middlesex)-Return.

250. Shipping (Ireland)-Return.

261. East India (Territorial Revenues, &c.)-Accounts.

213. Public Works (India)-Return.

72. Bills-Oxford University (a corrected Copy).

114. Bills-Jurors and Juries (Ireland).

116. Bills-Holyhead Harbour (as amended by the Select Committee).

118. Bills-Public Revenue and Consolidated Fund Charges.

1030. G. Thomas, 16, Osnaburg street, Regent's park-Framework
of upright pianofortes.
1032. C. B. Normand, Havre --Sawing wood.
Dated 11th May, 1854.

1051. W. De la Rue, Bunhill row-Distillation.
1047. E. Miles, Stoke Hammond-Coupling joint for tubing.
1053. A. V. Newton, 66, Chancery lane-Carriage wheels. (A com-
munication.)
Dated 12th May, 1854.

tyres.

1057. W. Waite, 7, Gloucester street, Regent's park-Pipes for the
1058. C. N. Nixon, Ramsgate-Rudders.
conveyance of sewage, water, and gas.

1059. D. Campbell and J. Barlow, Accrington-Looms.
1080. J. L. Holt, 4, Warwick square, and W. C. Forster, 84, Hatton
garden-Making paper.

1061. H. Crowley, Manchester-Grinding bones. (A communication.)
1062. M. Poole, Avenue road, Regent's park-Splitting leather. (A
communication.)
1063. C. W. F. Aubusson, Warren street, Fitzroy square-Ferrules.
1064. M. Poole, Avenue road, Regent's park-Engraving, &c., on
glass. (A communication.)
1065. M. Poole, Avenue road, Regent's park-Fire-arms. (A com-
1066. A. E. L. Bellford, 16, Castle street, Holborn-Retarding decây
munication.)

of vegetable substances. (A communication.)
1067. A. E. L. Bellford, 16, Castle street, Holborn-Carriage axles.
(A communication.)

1068. W. K. Westley, Leeds-Farm railway and carriages.
1069. F. S. Hemming, Woodside, Birkenhead-Iron houses.
1070. F. Smith, York street, Lambeth-Furnace for consuming
smoke.

1071. A. V. Newton, 66, Chancery lane-Separating granular sub-
stances. (A communication.)

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Dated 16th May, 1854.

1087. T. W. Miller, Southsea-Railway sleepers.
1088. G. E. Dering, Lockleys-Motive power by electricity.
1089. A. H. A. Durant, Tong Castle, Salop-Sweeping chimneys.
1090. T. W. Miller, Southsea-Railway Sleepers.
1091. G. Manwaring, and W. A. Summers, Southampton-Water
to water-closets, and for flushing drains.

1092. J. P. Baker, Wolverhampton-Railway bridges.
Dated 17th May, 1854.

1093. W. Smith and W. B. Hayes, Manchester-Looms.
1094. R. and R. W. Harris, Birmingham-Glass.

1095. G. Cheadle, Wolverhampton-Lubricating composition.
1096. H. Cornforth, Birmingham -Shaping and ornamenting metals.
1098. A. V. Newton, 66, Chancery lane-Tenon. (A communication.)
1099. C. Catlow, Clitheroe, and T. Comstive, Burnley-Shuttles.
1100. S. Diggle, Radcliffe-Looms.

1101. L. J. Wetherell, Percival street, Clerkenwell, and A. J. Hoff-
staedt, Albion place-Pump.

Dated 18th May, 1854.

1102. W. Coulson, Fetter lane-Morticing and tenoning.
1103. J. Worthington, Cardiff, and F. Allman, 9, Adam street,
Adelphi-Boring, mining, and blasting.

1104. J. Horsfall, Birmingham-Wire for musical instruments.
1105. J. Beads, Pendleton-Spinning, &c.

1107. W Miller, Mussleburgh, N.B.-Bleaching fibrous substances. 1108. O. Maggs, Bourton, Dorset-Shafts to agricultural implements and carriages.

1109. J. C. March, Barnstaple-Vices.

1110. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's inn fields-Printing telegraphs (A communication.)

Common Lodging-houses Act-2d Report, by Captain W. Hay. 1111. J. Maclean, jun., and T. Finlayson, Glasgow-Ornamental

Delivered on 2nd June, 1854.

57 (4). Trade and Navigation-Accounts.

Greece and Turkey-Correspondence.

fabrics.

1113. J. C. Robertson, Glasgow-Roasting coffee.

1114. J. Hinchliffe, jun., Dam side, Halifax-Steam engine governor.

1115. C. Barlow, 89, Chancery lane-Metallic capsules for covering bottles. (A communication.)

1116. J. Cunningham and W. Ashley, Liverpool-Ventilating ships. 1117. E. A. D. Guichard, Paris-Ornamental fabrics for decorating walls.

Dated 19th May, 1854. 1118. J. A. Haberhauffe, Grossmuhlingen, duchy of Anhault-Fire

arms.

1119. E. J. Feuillatre, Paris-Cleansing carriage wheels. 1120. P. A. le Comte de Fontaine Moreau, 4, South street, Finsbury -Permanent way. (A communication.)

1121. T. M. Gladstone, Salford-Traverser for shifting railway carriages from one line to another.

1122. C. Rands, Shad Thames-Regulating feed of millstones. Dated 22nd May, 1854.

1124. K. Rose, Commercial road, Stepney-Buttons.

1126. A. E. L. Bellford, 16, Castle street, Holborn-Pianofortes. (A communication.)

1128. W. and A. Crighton, Manchester-"Beaters" for cleaning fibrous substances.

1130. J. Crossley, Newton moor, near Hyde, and W. Crossley, Failsworth-Jacquard machines.

1132. R. A. Balbirnie, Great Malvern-Ships' compasses. (A communication.)

1134. W. England, Dudley-Pneumatic and hydraulic wheels and fans.

1136. H. S. Rogers, New Oxford street-Fire-arms (A communi

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Dated 23rd May, 1854.

114. William Blackett Haigh, of Oldham-Improvements in machinery or apparatus for tenoning, mortising, slotting, cutting, or shaping wood or metal.

130. Thomas Webb, of the Platts Glass Works, Stourbridge-Improved apparatus applicable to the annealing of glass and the firing of pottery ware.

139. Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bellford, of 16, Castle street. Holborn-Improvements in cutting out cloth and other fabrics and materials suitable for garments and furniture. 290. Andrew Duncan, of Glen house, Denny, N.B.-Improvements in bleaching. 624. Antoine Edouard Paschal Le Gros, of Paris-Improvements in preserving timber, and generally all kinds of wood. 718. Frédéric Chambon and Alfred Meyniac, of Chaylard (Ardeche), France Improvements in bleaching or scouring silk. 739. Archibald Douglas Brown, of Glasgow-Improvements in beds, couches, and other articles of furniture. 746. John Inshaw and James Parker, both of Birmingham-Improvement or improvements in suppressing the smoke and increasing the draught of the furnaces of locomotive and other steam-engine boilers.

766. James Higgin, of Manchester-Improvements in the mode or method of separating metals from each other when in conjunction, and in obtaining useful products therefrom.

785. Stephen Randoll Smith, of 2, Hanover terrace, Cumberland road, Bristol-Improvements in vessels and apparatus used for raising sunken vessels and other bodies in the water, and for lowering materials for structural purposes in water. 823. Thomas Whitehead, of Leeds-Improvements in machinery for preparing, combing, drawing, and spinning wool, flax, cotton, silk, and other fibrous substances,

Sealed June 5th, 1854.

1144. F. Jenks, Handsworth, and T. Brown, Birmingham-Saddle 2824. John Patterson, of Beverley-Improvements in reaping ma

trecs.

1146. W. White, Cheapside-Hats.

chines.

Scaled June 6th, 1854.

1148. E. Radigon, and R. G. de Grimouville, Paris-Lamp shades, 2829. John Coope Haddan, of Chelsea-Improvements in the manuand smoke plates.

1150. R. Reyburn, Greenock-Refining sugar.

1152. J. Lawson, 4, Sidmouth street, Gray's inn road-Cut pile fabrics.

1154. J. Livesey, Bury-Forming slivers of cotton, &c. 1156. J. Smith, Henry place, Bridge street, and F. S. Thomas, South terrace, Walworth-Steering vessels.

Dated 24th May, 1854.

1160. T. Ball, Nottingham-Ornamented looped fabrics.

WEEKLY LIST OF PATENTS SEALED.

Sealed June 2nd, 1854.

2800. James Reilly, of 56, Thomas street, Manchester-Improvements in machinery or apparatus for tenoning, mortising, and sawing wood, metal, or other materials. 2804. Alexander Brown, of Glasgow-Improvements in metallic casks and other vessels.

2858. Jean Baptiste Edouard Ruttre, of Paris-Improvements in machines for producing shoddy from woven fabrics, and for sorting the fibres of fibrous materials.

2862. Andrew Shanks, of 6, Robert street, Adelphi-Improvements in instruments and apparatus for indicating or measuring weights and pressures.

2892. Christian Schiele, of North Moor Foundry, Oldham-Improve ments in preventing undue oscillation in engines, machinery, carriages, and other apparatus.

2915. Benjamin Whitaker, of Brighton-Improvements in the manufacture or production of useful toys.

2937. Joseph Sharp Bailey, of Keighley-Improvements in machinery for operating upon wool, alpaca, mohair, and other fibrous materials, preparatory and prior to being spun. 2986. Jean Daniel Pfeiffer, of Paris-Improvements in machinery or apparatus for cutting paper and similar materials. 3002. John Parkinson, of Bury-Improvements in governors for regulating the pressure of steam, gas, and other fluids or liquids. 3027. Joseph Marlor, of Oldham-Improvements in ascending and descending mines and shafts, and in the apparatus connected therewith, by which said improvements the ventilation of mines is increased.

3028. Walter Mabon, of Ardwick iron works, Manchester-Improvements in machines used for rivetting together metallic plates.

3044. François Aristide Clerville, of Paris-Improvement in the construction of fire.arms.

22. Edward Schischkar, of Halifax, and Frederick Crace Calvert, of Manchester-Improvements in dyeing and printing textile fabrics and yarns.

facture of cartridges, and of wads or wadding for fire-arms. 2831. Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bellford, of 16, Castle street, Holborn-The manufacture of an artificial tartaric acid, and the application of the same to useful purposes. 2845. William Bridges Adams, of 1, Adam street, Adelphi-Improvements in railway wheels, their axles and boxes. 2846. William Thomas Henley, of St. John street road-Improvements in electric telegraphs.

2853. James Beall, of Effingham place, Cheshunt-Improvements in apparatus for applying sand to the rails of railways. 2869. John Henry Johnson, of 47, Lincoln's inn fields-Improvements in portable cases for containing provisions. (A communication.)

3037. Joseph Holbrey, of Bradford-Improved machinery for combing wool and other fibrous materials. 161. Matthew Andrew Muir, of Glasgow-Improvements in weaving. 243. Richard Archibald Brooman, of 166, Fleet street-Improvements in the manufacture of steel.

499. John Baptiste Gottung, of 7, Hawley place, Kentish town -Embroidering on leather for harness and other purposes. 691. Herbert Room and William Morton, both of BirminghamImproved method of ornamenting metallic bedsteads and such other articles of furniture as are or may be made of metal.

694. Samuel Humphreys, of Green street, Leicester square--Improved apparatus for the heating or distilling of fatty, oily, and resinous matters.

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818.

829.

John Henry Johnson, of 47, Lincoln's inn fields-An alkaline
steam-washing apparatus. (A communication.)
William Worby, of Ipswich-Improvements in machinery or
apparatus for separating grain from straws, broken-off ears,
husks, and other refuse after being thrashed.

830. William Williams, of Park cottage, Ebbw vale, and Thomas Evan Williams, of Abersychan iron works, near Pontypool -Improvements in reverberatory furnaces.

836. William Wood, of Monkhill house, near Pontefract-Improvements in treating animal matters and refuse. 837. William Wood, of Monkhill house, near Pontefract-Improvements in apparatus employed in the manufacture of cut pile fabrics.

851. Uriah Scott, of Camden town-Improvements in the adaptation of elastic materials to boots and shoes, and shoes for horses and other animals.

863. Samuel Brewster Parker, of Deptford-Improved apparatus for consuming smoke.

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No. 82.

Vol. II.]

JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF ARTS.

Journal of the Society of Arts.

FRIDAY, JUNE 16, 1854.

EXTRAORDINARY MEETING.

MONDAY, JUNE, 12, 1854.

An Extraordinary Meeting was held on Monday, the 12th inst., WILLIAM TOOKE, Esq, F.R.S., in the chair, for the purpose of resuming the discussion on Mr. R. A. Slaney's paper, On Limited and Unlimited Liability in Partnerships." Some specimens illustrative of a new process of transferring the natural grain of different woods to paper, cotton, linen, and other materials, were exhibited by Signor Abate. An account of this process will appear in the next number of

the Journal.

ADJOURNED DISCUSSION

ON LIMITED AND UNLIMITED LIABILITY IN PARTNERSHIPS. Previous to the renewal of the discussion, the Chairman called upon the Secretary to read a letter which had been received from

[JUNE 16, 1854

He

would obtain great advantages for the labouring classes, that the middle classes of the Empire would become wealthier, that the prosperity of the rich would be increased, that they would have greater production in their manufactures, greater freedom in their commerce, and, moreover, that the law of commandite would dispense with the necessity of paying their debts. They were told that if the present partnership laws were abrogated, there would be no dificulty in getting capital for gas works, water works, docks, model lodging-houses-a favourite topic with those who talked of the philanthropy of commandite-and every other kind of speculation which people, it was said, were afraid of speculating in under the present any of the arguments of the advocates of the law of comstern and just law of partnership. If he omitted to notice mandite, he should be glad to be informed of it, as the subject was so large, and it had been so overwhelmed by fallacies, that it was almost impossible to bear in mind the heap of error he wished to endeavour to correct. was afraid that if the law of commandite was admitted, it would be soon found like the apples of the Hesperides, beautiful to look at, but nauseous to the taste. He should have little hope of arresting their attention on this subject, did he not feel that where men shared the profits of speculation they ought also to be made liable for all the consequences; that was the unerring law of nature, it was the law of the country, and it was founded upon the principles of honour and justice. Mr. E. HEATH, of Liverpool, in which that gentleman It was laid down by these laws that wealth was only to stated that, "since the discussion of that interesting ques- be obtained by hard industry and hard thrift. Scripture tion (the Law of Partnership) by the Liverpool Chamber of told them that he who maketh haste to be rich shall Commerce, in which I took part, it has occurred to me that, not be innocent. It was a great fallacy of Mr. Slaney's after all, the question has not been presented in its true that, if they allowed the law of limited liability to prevail, bearing. It has hitherto been considered as a principle the working-classes would be enabled by it to improve affecting the law of partnership, the admission of which their condition-that the idea would be removed from would tend to diminish the high character of the mer- their minds that they were treated by the laws with cantile classes of this country, and hence great apprehen- harshness and injustice-and that, if that law of partnersions have arisen; but a close examination of the question, ship were allowed, they would be at once enabled to put in relation, at least, to the form it must assume in part-their savings together to create a large capital, by which nerships en commandite (which is the desideratum mainly they could enter into manufactures, and combine in their own contended for), will show that the real problem to be persons the wages of the workmen and the profits of the solved is this, viz.,-Upon what terms shall a man, taking master. If he could hope that such a result would be ob. no part in a business, be permitted to lend his money? tained, or even very partially so, it would go a great way Shall he, as now, do so at a fixed rate of interest, however to induce him to forego his opinion; but there was nothing high, from year to year, with power suddenly to withdraw in the present system to prevent working men clubbing it, and with the privilege of ranking as a creditor in case their capital together, and entering into partnership. That it be not withdrawn; or shall he lend, it (as proposed) which could be done by two or three men now, might be for a consideration varying according to the profit made done by 200 or 300. The only difficulty was that they by the borrower on the use of the money, but subject to were, like all commercial men, liable for the consequences certain conditions for the safety of the creditors of the resulting from failure; and why should not all men borrower, viz.:-1. That it be lent for a term of years, be liable for the consequences resulting from the acts and the power of the lender to withdraw it be suspended of their gerant or manager. He could not think during that period. 2. In case of failure of the borrower, why the liabilities of a man in humble life should be that the lender shall not claim for dividend until all other limited more than those of other traders. But the real creditors be satisfied. Now, looking at the question in this truth was, that the law of partnership did not apply aspect, I think it ceases to be a matter of Partnership at to working-men at all; for if they put 501. each into all, and, by so ceasing, it becomes happily disembarrassed a partnership, and it was all lost, they would lose all from a number of objections which have hitherto been they had, and the liability of partnership could not affect permitted to perplex our judgments." them, whatever might be the amount of debts incurred. If all a working-man had was gone, it could be no matter to him what was the extent of his liabilities; and, therefore, the partnership laws were altogether inapplicable to his case. Whatever might be said on the subjeet, there was no practical impediment under the present laws in the way of the prudent, industrious man advancing his position--and that, in putting this question in a philanthropic point of view, its advo cates were endeavouring to enlist public opinion in support of a shameful fallacy. But they were told that working-men had no facilities given them for investing their savings-that they could not improve their position; that was not true; for years past it had been the study, and the successful study, of many eminent men to enable them to do so. What would become of the savings banks if it were not for the thrifty habits they encouraged amongst working-men, and

Mr. ELLIOTT said, truth, they were told in an Eastern fable, lay at the bottom of a well very deep, and to get at it, they must undergo a considerable amount of arduous and disagreeable labour. Might he not apply that fable as an illustration of the difficulties of those who took his side-the unpopular side, of the question on this subject. He knew that the question of limited liability was one which was very popular with the unthinking portion of society, but he believed he should be enabled to show that the arguments of its supporters were founded upon sophistries, the most shallow and unsubstantial. They talked of doing justice to the people, and allowing them freedom of investment, and thereby endeavoured to lead them from the stern justice of the present system of trading, to the adoption of the dishonest system of trading under commandite, partnerships. They told them that if commandite partnerships could be formed, that they

the opportunities they afforded them of saving up capital safely and honourably; statistics showed that the working classes made immense use of these banks, and that their use was increasing, for he found that the number of depositors on the 30th Novem-possessed. Suppose they wished to back any body of men ber, 1830, were 412,000, and that the deposits amounted to 13,500,000l.; whilst on the 20th November, 1848, the number of depositors amounted to 1,000,000, and the deposits to 28,000,000l. These figures proved that there was nothing in the law to prevent working men from profitably investing their savings, and that there was happily a growing disposition to take advantage of the facilities afforded them. The state of the National Debt offered still more conclusive evidence of the use made by the humbler classes of the opportunities afforded them of safely investing their small savings. In the year 1848, the total number of fundholders was 284,000, and of that number 96,000 were in the receipt of dividends of 51. and under. So it would be seen that about one-third of the creditors of the nation consisted of persons in very humble life, who, having saved a little money, were wise and prudent enough to invest it where every shilling of the wealth of the country, and every acre of land were pledged for its safety. Would they tell him, then, that there were not abundant opportunities for the investment of small savings. As fast as the working man created wealth, he might safely invest it, and it was far better to make a safe investment at a small interest, than a speculative investment at even the largest interest. During the late strike of the engineers at Greenwich and Deptford, it was found that not a few of them who had been earning their 40s. or 50s. a week, had means to fall back upon whilst out of employment; one had invested his £10 or £50 in a grocer's shop, another in a greengrocer's, a third in a haberdasher's shop, and so on. These shops had been conducted, whilst they were in employment, by the wives and families of the men, and afforded them the means of support during the strike. If they went into small country towns, they would find that the carpenter, the saddler, or the shoemaker, was but a poor tradesman, because he was suffering from want of capital, owing to his not having been sufficiently prudent in his younger days. Nearly all these men had worked in London, and received their 25s. or 30s. a week, but they had not saved anything, and when they started in country towns they had to look to the bill broker, or the banker, for the means of conducting their business; they were not the parties whom an alteration in the partnership laws would benefit. The fact was, millions might be profitably invested in retail trades, which traders did not possess, because they did not possess thrift and industry. They ought to teach men that if they earned 30s. a week, they should set aside 10s. or 15s. out of that sum, and the reason why working men did not become rich was, because they did not do so. In Leicester, there was scarcely a weaver who possessed his own loom. The looms generally belonged to small capitalists, who let them out at so much a week. How was the Leicester weaver to become rich, if he was not industrious and thrifty enough to enable him to buy a loom. What advantage would the Leicester weaver gain by an alteration in the law of partnership? He might be told that the case he was adverting to did not apply; but in no case whatever, until they could give working men forethought and thrift, could they become rich. They were told that if the law of partnership were altered, there would be found amiable and philanthropic individuals, who would support the working men with capital, and enable them to raise warehouses vieing in extent with that mercantile palace which, on the other side of the way, was now rearing its head in rivalry with St. Paul's. Did they think that any prudent capitalist would join 100 or 500 men in a commercial speculation, who had arrived at adult age without showing that they had the moral courage and the thought to create some capital for themselves. It appeared to him absurd to suppose that any

capitalist would do so even if the law of partnership were altered. It did not appear that such an alteration would give to the amiable philanthropists better opportunities of starting the working men in manufactories than they now to the extent of 10,0007. or 100,0007., they could lend them the money at 5 per cent. interest. He would not give much for the philanthropy of that man who would not lend his capital at 5 per cent. interest, but would come forward with the chance of partaking of aerial profits if he could be secured from loss. Those who rode in carriages could not expect to get large profits out of any business in which they did not take an active part. Let capitalists who wanted to benefit men in humble life lend them capital, and become special creditors at 5 per cent. interest. He could not give much credit to those who wanted alarger interest, for any very philanthropic views with regard to benefiting others. But if they did want to do so, there was nothing in the present law to prevent their lending their money at a higher amount, and taking a graduated interest according to the profits-thus, 5 per cent., 74 per cent., 10 per cent. The present law would allow of that, and, therefore, he could see no reason for introducing into this country a foreign and dishonest scheme of partnership. Now, with regard to the middle classes, they were told that the large manufacturing establishments of London or Manchester had in their employ numbers of young men, who having been working therein ten or fifteen years with unblemished characters, the principals would be glad to start in business in different country towns, if the law of partnership would allow them to do so. Could they not do so by lending them 1,0007. or 5,000l., at moderate interest, by selling them goods at a fair price, taking bills for the payment, and renewing the bills as they came due, so as never to cripple the young men for want of capital? The fact was, these parties wished to make more of their capital than any man could safely pay out of his fair profits, and under the guise of benevolence to these young men they wanted to put money into their own pockets by starting a number of country establishments, where they hoped to obtain large profits, without those risks which all experience told them such business must bear. They were told that if there was unlimited liability in partnership, it would afford excellent opportunities to men of 60 or 70 years of age to retire from the cares of business, and to start younger and more active men in their place. He thought that, when men arrived at the age of 60, 65, or 70, and had made good fortunes by business, they ought to be possessed of some other ideas than those of continuing to make large lazy profits on their money. If such men wished to start others in business, would it not be more creditable for them to lend £1,000 or £5,000 on special securities, than to make an advance by way of a partnership. But they would not do so, because they wished still to enjoy the profits of business, whilst they were willing that others should do the work. He maintained that with a limited liability partnership they would not have their capital so well protected as by lending it on special security under the present law. By the law of commandite they could not interfere at all in the business-they had no right to inspect the accounts; whilst as creditors, under the present law with special securities, they might do so, and, to a considerable extent, protect themselves from loss. It appeared to him that a man who was not content with the security afforded him by the present law, made too strong an appeal to their sympathies when he attempted to come before the world as a philanthropist. In secret contrition such a man must sometimes lament with Burns's Holy Willie :

:

"But yet, O Lord, confess I must
At times I feel of gold the lust,
An' sometimes, too, wi' worldly trust,
Vile self gets in,

But Thou rememberest we are dust,
Defiled in sin."

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