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glee club, Messrs. Hirst, Netherwood, Etchells, and Hoyle. Mr. Longley presided at the piano, and Miss Whitham, who is becoming popular as a songtress, gave some solos very effectively. Mr. Curzon, in his address, directed the attention of the audience to the Institution of cheap and good concerts for the working classes; and from the sympathy manifested by all present in the idea which the speaker threw out, it is probable that some practical result will speedily follow.

To Correspondents.

Letters from Mr. H. Reid, on "Mechanics' Institute Classes;" and from Mr.W. Miller, on "Decimalization of Coins and Accounts," are necessarily omitted through want of space. Errata in Mr. Franklin's letter on Decimalization of Coins and Accounts.-Page 471, in third paragraph, first line, for £900.84, &c., read £900.48, &c.; and in last paragraph but one, for the fraction 840

read

840 864469*

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247. China Expedition-Correspondence.
252. Dowie's Patent Boots-Correspondence.
260: Hay Contracts-Abstract of Correspondence.
265. Education (Expenditure of Grants)-Statement.
268. Parliamentary Papers (Post-office Regulations)—Return.
270. Ventilation of the House-2nd Report from the Committee.
271. Naval Prizes-Copy of Despatch of Vice-Admiral Dundas.
245. Savings Banks-Return (Part 1).
264. Revenue Departments-Estimates.
102. Bills-Married Women.

112. Bills-Courts of Common Law (Ireland).

93. Bills-Exchequer Bonds.

113. Bills Stamp Duties.

115. Bills-Custom Duties (Sugar).

Public Records-15th Report of the Deputy-keeper.
Railways-Reports upon Certain Accidents.
New Zealand-Further Papers.

Delivered on 30th May, 1854.
228. Fire Insurances-Account.
232. Greenwich Hospital-Accounts.
253. Criminal Prosecutions-Abstract of Return.
257. Greenwich Hospital, &c.-Return.
263. Agricultural Statistics-Supplementary Report.

PATENT LAW AMENDMENT ACT, 1852.

186449

MON.

MEETINGS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK.
Royal Inst., 2.-General Monthly Meeting.
Chemical, 8.
Entomological, 8.

Inst. Brit. Architects, 8.-Mr. G. R. Burnell, "On the
Effect of some External Agents on Building Materials."
TUES. Royal Inst., 3.-Prof. J. Tyndall, " Vibrations of Heated

Bodies."

Linnæan, 8.

WED. Royal Botanic, 24.-Promenade.

SAT.

Society of Arts, 8.-Dr. T. King Chambers, "Industrial
Pathology, or the Injuries and Diseases Incident to Indus-
trial Occupations."
Geological, 8.-1. Prof. Owen, "On Fossil Mammalia and
Reptilia from the Purbecks of Durdlestone Bay." 2. Mr.
W. Blandford "On a Section Exposed in the Excavation
of the West India Docks." 3. Mr. J. Prestwich, "On
the Paleontological and Physical Distinctions of the
London Clay and the Brecklesham Series." 4. Mr. J.
Prestwich, "On the Relation of the London with the
Lower Tertiaries of France and Belgium."
THURS. Royal Inst., 3.-Mr. M. T. Masters, "On Botany."
FRI. Astronomical, 8.

Philological, 8.

Architectural Assoc., 8.-Class of Design.

Royal Inst., 8.-Prof. Faraday, "Magnetic Hypotheses."
Asiatic, 2.

PARLIAMENTARY REPORTS.

Royal Inst., 3.-Dr. W. B. Hodgson, "On the Importance
of the Study of Economic Science as a Branch of Educa-
tion for all Classes."

Royal Botanic, 34.

SESSIONAL PRINTED PAPERS.
Delivered on 25th May, 1854.

Delivered on 27th and 29th May, 1854.
269. Carrickmaeross National Schools-Return.
254. County Courts-Return.

Par. Numb.

180. Metropolis Drainage--Plans.

237. Sugar, &c.-Return.

248. Foreign Sugar-Account.

236. Small Arms-Report, Minutes of Evidence, &c.

108. Bills-Valuation of Lands (Scotland) as amended in Committee,
and on re-commitment.
109. Bills-Benefices Augmentation.
110. Bills-Church Rates Abolition.
111. Bills-Income Tax (No. 2).

Public General Acts-Cap. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14.
Delivered on 26th May, 1854.1

44. Local Acts (No. 56, Drainage of Lands; No. 57, Londonderry
Port)-Reports from the Admiralty.
125. Superannuations (Public Departments)-Accounts.
235. Cholera (Jamaica)-Return.

261. Education (Ireland)-Annual Report of the Commissioners.
Metropolitan Water Companies-Reports.

APPLICATIONS FOR PATENTS AND PROTECTION ALLOWED.

[From Gazette, May 26th, 1854.]

Dated 1st March, 1854. 500. S. Roussell, 67, Rue Caumartin, Paris-Painting glass. Dated 8th March, 1854. 554. L. J. Barnetche, M.D., Bordeaux-Prevention of accidents on railways.

Dated 9th March, 1854.
562. J. Smith, Liverpool-Baking ovens.
Dated 17th March, 1854.
638. T. J. Herapath, Bristol-Manures.
Dated 27th March, 1854.
710. G. Collier, Halifax, Looms.

Dated 8th April, 1854.
827. J. Platt, Oldham-Cotton machinery.
Dated 11th April, 1854.
850. T. S. Whitworth, Salford-Spinning machinery.
Dated 18th April, 1854.
892. J. Rowley, Camberwell-Substitute for leather.
Dated 2nd May, 1854.

986. R. J. Mary'on, 37, York road, Lambeth-Anchors.
Dated 4th May, 1854.

988. C. Mee, Bath-Foundation for ornamental designs.
1000. C. Barlow, 89, Chancery lane-Water meters. (A commu-

nication.)

1002. J. Manley, Chace water-Mine ventilation.

Military Aid to Turkey-Treaty between her Majesty, the Em-
peror of the French, and the Sultan.
Joint Capture-Convention between her Majesty and the Em-
peror of the French.

Dated 5th May, 1854.

1004. W. Exall, Reading-Machines for cutting straw.
1006. E. Haseler, Wolverhampton-Ornamenting metals, papier
maché, &c.

Dated 8th May, 1854.
Glasgow-Templates.

1003. A. M. P. Barbette, Paris-Brass-topped nails.

1010. A. Warner, 11, New Broad street-Metal sheets for sheathing.
Dated 6th May, 1854.
1022. J. H. Johnson, 47, Lincoln's inn fields-Railway carriages.
(A communication.)
1024. J. Bernard, Club chambers, Regent street-Stitching ma-
chinery.

1028. G. F. Logan,

Dated 9th May, 1854.

1034. F. P. Berquez, Richmond road, Dalston-Gas stoves.
1036. C. Liddell, Abingdon street-Permanent way.

1038. E. N. Horsford, Massachusetts, U.S.-Removal of chlorine.
Dated 10th May, 1854.
1040. P. A. Sparre, Salisbury street, Strand-Preventing alteration
of written documents.
1042. R. Reece, Athy-Smelting iron.

1044. J. Anthony and W. T. Chafe, Devonport-Pipes and tubes.
Dated 11th May, 1854.
1048. E. Brown, Sheffield-Scissors.
1050. J. Cundy, Carrington, Nottingham-Reflectors for artificial
light.

1052. H. Doulton, High street, Lambeth-Kilns for baking earthen

ware.

1054. E. W. Abbott, Regent's quadrant-Umbrellas and parasols.
Dated 13th May, 1854.
1072. E. Barsanti and F. Matteuci, Florence-Motive power by ex
plosion of gases.

1074. C. Garforth, Dunkinfield-Permanent way.
1076. P. G. Shaw, Old Broad street-Decanting liquids.
1078. Capt. H. Y. D. Scott, R.E., Woolwich-Cement.

APPLICATION WITH COMPLETE SPECIFICATION FILED. 1153. J. Cox, Birmingham-Percussion caps. May 23rd, 1854.

WEEKLY LIST OF PATENTS SEALED.

Sealed May 25th, 1854.

2748. John Henry Johnson, of 47, Lincoln's inn fields--Improvements in the production of printing surfaces. (A communication.) Sealed May 26th, 1854.

2755. Joseph Wormald, of Vauxhall, and George Pollard, of York road, Lamb. th-Improved pipe wrench.

2762. Louis Cornides, of 4, Trafalgar square, Charing cross-Combining gelatine with certain other substances, and coloring the same, so as to produce various objects capable of resistng atmospheric influences.

2769. Robert Hawkins Nicholls, of Bedford-Improvements in hoeing and otherwise cultivating land.

2772. Alexander Macomie, of No. 6, l'ercy street, Rathbone placeOrnamental piece of furniture shaped like a vase, constructed to contain or form a writing and drawing desk.

2775. Patrick Kelly, of No. 111, West street, Drogheda-Improved apparatus for cultivating, preparing, and treating land, and for sowing seeds.

2778. Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bellford, of 18, Castle street, Holborn-Improvements in fire-arms.

2784. Edward Keating Davis, of No. 1, Howley street, LambethImprovements in machinery for making pipes, sheets, still worms, and other articles from that class of metals called soft metals, as lead, tin, zinc, bismuth, or alloys of soft metals, that are capable of being forced out of metal receivers or chambers through dies, cores, &c.

2793. Thomas Garnett, of Low moor, near Clitheroe, and Daniel Adamson, of Dukinfield-Improvements in generating steam and in consuming smoke.

2799. John Henry Johnson, of 47, Lincoln's inn fields-Certain applications of vulcanized India-rubber. (A communication.) 2820. Squier Cheavin, of Spalding-Double action or belt filterer. 2828. Edward Oldfield, of Salford-Improvements in machinery for spinning and doubling.

2876. Allan Macpherson, of Brussels-Improvements in disinfecting sewers or other drains or depositaries of fetid matters or gases, and in converting the contents thereof to useful purposes.

2879. Hippolyte Laurent Du Bost, of No. 62, Rue Neuve des Petits Champs à Paris-Improvements in the construction of locks and keys.

2885. Edward Orange Wildman Whitehouse, of Brighton-Improvements in effecting telegraphic communications. 2888. William Redgrave, of Croxley green, Rickmansworth-Improved safety travelling cap.

2898. Edward Beanes, of No. 57, Charlotte street, Portland placeImprovements in the manufacture and refining of sugar. 2912. Jean Baptiste Pascal, of Lyons-Improvements in obtaining motive power.

2934. Andrew Lawson Knox, of Glasgow-Improvements in ornamenting certain descriptions of textile fabrics. 2968. Heiman Kohnstamm, of 7, Union court, Old Broad streetImprovements in the manufacture of imitation leather. 2977. Charles Lewis, of Hull-Improved lamp for signalling.

9. Joseph Madeley, of Walsall-Improvement or improvements in the manufacture of certain kinds of tubes, and in nuts for and heads of screws.

$3. Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bellford, of 16, Castle street, Holborn-Improvement in the manufacture or glass.

167. John Westlake, of Totnes-Pulverizing, washing, separating, amalgamating, and otherwise treating ores, gossans, earths, and rocks, so as the better to obtain and extract therefrom the gold and other metals and minerals which may be contained therein.

220. Peter Armand le Comte de Fontaine Moreau, of 4, South street, Finsbury-Arrangements for preventing accidents on railways.

$97. William Henry Barlow, of Derby-Improvements in securing and connecting the rails of railways.

428. Edward Massey, of 3, Tysoe street, Clerkenwell-Improvements in ships' logs, known as " Massey's patent ships' logs." 457. Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bellford, of 16, Castle street, Holborn-Improvements in engines for generating power, by means of the expansive force derived from heated air and gases, or by means of the expansive force of liquid carbonic acid, and other expansible liquids.

702. Thomas John Smith and Joseph Smith, both of Queen street, Cheapside-Improvements in the manufacture or construction of pocket books, portfolios, and similar articles.

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WEEKLY LIst of desiGNS FOR ARTICLES OF UTILITY REGISTERED.

709. James Alexander Manning, of the Inner Temple-Improve ments in the treating of sewerage.

752. John Henry Johnson, of 47, Lincoln's inn fields-Improvements in printing fabrics, and in the machinery or apparatus employed therein.

Scaled May 30th, 1854.

2532. Thomas Sanders Bale, of Cauldron-place, and Daniel Lucas, of Stoke-upon-Trent-Improvements in ornamenting the inaterials of and articles manufactured in pottery, as bricks, tiles, slabs, &c., and also in glass, slate, stone, and other plastic substances.

2652. John Riddle Musgrave, Robert Musgrave, and James Musgrave, of Belfast-Improvements in hot air stoves.

apparatus.

Joshua Jackson, of Wolverhampton-Improved signalling John Hewitt, of Salford-Improvements in machinery or apparatus for spinning cotton and other fibrous substances. Richard Balderstone, of Black burn-Improvements applicable to spinning machines known as 'mules,' and to machines of similar character, for clearing or cleaning certain parts of such machines.

2790. Lewis Jennings, of Fludver street, Westminster-Improved mode of producing plain and ornamental sewing, and in machinery applicable therecto. 2816. William Dray, of Swan-lane-Improvements in the construction of portable houses and buildings. 2872. John Bourne, of Port Glasgow-Improvements in steam engines.

2781.

2785.

2787.

2873. Joun Bourne, of Port Glasgow-Improvements in machinery for the production of iron ships and other similar structures. 2874. John Bourne, of Port Glasgow-Improvements in the construction of iron ships.

2889. George Kerr Hannay, at Ulverston-Combination and manufacture of composition grinding wheels, hones, and other grinding bodies.

36. Alfred Vincent Newton, 66, Chancery lane-Improvements in the construction of motive power engines, part of which improvements is also applicable to the packing of pistons generally.

Henry Corlett, of Summer-hill, Dublin-Improvements in
springs for railway and other carriages and vehicles.
Robert Galloway, of Lambeth-Improvement in admitting air
to furnaces where tubular boilers are employed.
George Henry Bursill, of Offord-road, Barnsbury-park-Im-
provements in operating upon metalliferous ores and other
iminerals, and upon slags and sweep,' in order to facilitate
the separation and recovery of the metals and other products;
also in machinery or apparatus for effecting such improve
ments, which is in part applicable to other purposes.

219. Teter Armand le Comte de Fontaine Moreau, of 4, South-street, Finsbury-Improved means of preventing accidents on rail

111.

123.

126.

ways.

387. Ellis Rowland and James Rowland, of Wakefield-street, Manchester-Improvements in cleaning the tubular flues of steam boilers.

431. James Boydell, of 65, Gloucester-crescent, Regent's-park-Improvements in applying apparatus to carriages to facilitate the draft.

631. Frederick William Emerson, of Trereiffe Chemical Works, near Penzance-Improvements in machinery for pulverizing, washing, and amalgamating quartz and matters containing gold and silver.

663. James Young, of East Smithfield-Improvements in brewing. 679. William Dinsley Skelton, of Leeds-Improvements for preparing flax for spinning.

680. Robert Owen White, of Swanscombe-Improvements in the manufacture of Portland cement.

689. Stephen Holman, of Colney Hatch-Improvements in machinery for raising and forcing fluids; part of which improvements is also applicable to the guiding of piston rods generally, and other rods.

729. Elmer Townsend, of Massachusetts (U.S.)-Improvement in machinery for sewing cloth or other material. (A communication.)

756.

George Fergusson Wilson, of Belmont, Vauxhall, and William Walls, of Glasgow-Improvement in dyeing Turkey red. 882. Henry Kemp, of Cicekmoor, Poole-Improvement in the pre

paration of wood for planking and sheathing ships and other vessels, also in house, ship, and pier building, railway sleepers, &c., and all other purposes whatsoever where wood is required

870. William Ridgway, of Hanley-Improvements in the construction of ovens and kilns.

Proprietors' Names.

Foster, Porter and Co..
Thomas Trotman..............

Address.

Wood street, Cheapside.
Gloucester place, Camden town.

No. 81. Vol. II.]

)

JOURNAL OF THE SOCIETY OF ARTS.

[JUNE 9, 1854

Journal of the Society of Arts.

the pro

lands of infants and incapacitated persons for the like purposes, and a simple form of grant is provided in the Bill

. Any number of sites may be granted, provided

they are for separate Institutions. When the Institution FRIDAY, JUNE 9, 1854.

is not incorporated, the Bill provides that the site may be conveyed to any corporation as a trustec in its behalf,

or to individual trustees; and in the latter case, EDUCATIONAL EXHIBITION.

visions of 13 and 1+ Vict., c. 28, are made applicable, by The time limited for applications for space having now

which new conveyances on the appointment of new passed, the Committee are at once proceeding to allot trustecs, are rendered unnecessary. Stamp duty on conthe space to the different Exhibitors, notice of which veyance by way of gift to be 5s., and the death of the will be forthwith sent to each.

grantce within twelve months shall notiovalidate the grant. The applications have been extremely numerous, and The Bill then provides for the application of the purchase there is no reason to doubt but that a very large and money in different cases, and certain clauses of the " Lands valuable collection will be got together, and that St. Clauses Consolidation Act, 1815," are made applicable. Martin's Hall will be filled to overtlowing. The Society Trustees of Institutions to have power to sell or exis now organising a series of Lectures, to take place, during change lands or buildings, or to let off the same in porthe Exhibition. upon the subject of education generally, tions. Trustees to be indemnified from all charges in as well as upɔn the various articles which will be exhibited! respect of the land, and, if made liable, to have power to Commissioners have been appointed by different govern- mortgage or sell the premises to indemnify themselves, ments on the Continent and in the United States of The Bill then proceeds to provide that in incorporated America, to attend the Exhibition, which will thus take Institutions having no special provision as to personal the character of a Great Educational Congress.

property, and in all other cases where the Institution is The Lords Commissioners of her Majesty's Treasury, | not incorporated, the personal property of the Institution have given directions for the admission, duty free, of shall be yested in the governing body for the time being articles coming from foreign countries and intended for and in all proceedings, civil and criminal, inay be dethis Exhibition, under such regulations as the Commis- scribed as the property of the governing body. Institusioners of Customs may think it advisable to make.

tions may sue and be sued in the name of the corporation, when incorporated, and, when not incorporated, in

the name of the public officer. Institutions to have The Council of the Society of Arts solicits attention to power to make bye-laws and entorce them, with an appeal the intended Educational Exhibition at St. Martin's Hall

, on the part of any member to the Charity Commissioners in Jupe next.

against any bye-law. Members to be liable to be sued To give full development to this undertaking, to pro

as strangers. Members guilty of criminal acts to be cure the co-operation, not only of the great Educational punishable as strangers. Institutions to have power to Societies and Institutions at home, but also in the Colonies extend or abridge their purposes, with an appeal on the and the Continental States, and to illustrate it by Lectures, part of any member to the Charity Commissioners. Prowith practical discussions, a considerable outlay must be vision is made for the dissolution of Institutions and incurred.

winding up their affairs. The Council deems it a duty to secure the funds of the Society from an expenditure which would interfere with its ordinary proceedings, and therefore invites the co- TWENTY-FIFTH ORDINARY operation of the Members of the Society and of other friends of Education.

MEETING. The following subscriptions have been already received :

WEDNESDAY, JUNE 7, 1851.

£. s. d. H.R.H. Prince Albert, President

The Twenty-fifth and last Ordinary Meeting

100 00 Amount of subscriptions already pub

of the One Hundredth Session, was held on Wedlished, including that of H.R.H. 677 18 0 nesday, the 7th instant, HARRY CHESTER, Esl., FIFTH LIST.

Chairman of the Council, in the chair. W. Farr, M.D.

The following candidates were balloted for and George Courtauld

3 3 0 duly elected Ordinary Members :Henry Harvey John Proctor

Castle, Henry James Ramsden, Sir John Wil.

Goddard, Ebenezer W. Roberts

liam, Bart., JI.P. R. A. Slancy

McDouall, Colonel

Ruston, Rev. James, M.A. 5 0

Moody, Rev. Clement, M.A. Tripp, James S. Erratum in Fourth List, for J. Bull, read J. Ball. Robinson, Henry Oliver

Previous to the reading of the Paper, the LEGAL POSITION OF INSTITUTES.

Secretary called attention to a model of Mr. C. Mr. Hutt, one of the Vice-Presidents of the Society, has idea of which was partly derived from Mr. C.

J. Redpath's Smoke-Consuming Furnace, the kindly taken charge of the Bill prepared by the Council respecting the legal position of Institutes, and it was brought W. Williams's Argand Furnace. The air was into the House of Commons and read a first time on introduced through the outer plate of the furnaceFriday last. The title is " A Bill to afford greater faci- door, which was perforated for the purpose, and lities for the establishment of Institutions for the Protno- it then passed upwards into an air-box above the tion of Literature, Science, and the Fine Arts, and to provide for their better regulation."

fire, from which it descended in a heated state The Bill consists of thirty-nine clauses. It has for its into the fire, causing the most perfect combustion object the enabling persons whether entitled in fee sim of the fuel. Opposite the air-box before alluded ple or to limited interests only in land, corporations, and to there was a valve, which could be opened and public bodies, to convey by way of gitt, sale, or otherwise, land not exceeding in quantity an acre, as a site for an shut at pleasure, to admit air

directly to the fire institution. Power is also given for the conveyance of the without passing between the plates of the furnace

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door. When fresh coal was added to the fire, handicraftsmen surrounding themselves with the defences and a large quantity of air was required, this against pain, and death placed in the power of their su.

periors. These causes it is the business of Political valve was opened ; as soon as the charge had Economy, State Hygiene, and the science of Education to become ignited the valve was closed. The cold investigate and teach us how to remedy. But there is air continually impinging on the inner plate of also a class of causes arising out of the nature of various the furnace-door, kept both it and the ash-pit descriptions of bodily exposure and exertion ; pain, sickness, cool, which was a great consideration on board of the work, without doing which the man could not be

and death, accrue from some things necessarily part steam-vessels. It also prevented the rapid dete- industrious at his trade. Here lies the field for Industrial rioration of the door. The furnace-bars were not Pathology. The first class of evils depend mainly on the more than three-quarters of an inch thick by six work not being sufficiently regular or plentiful, or being inches deep; and were placed half an inch apart; the second is aggravated by abundance; the more a man

under-paid, or some such economical mis-management; they were grooved on the top, thus making the has to do the worse he fares, and hence the propriety of set corrugated, offering a broken surface to the the term “ Industrial.” I will illustrate this. There are fuel, and thereby less inclination to clinker. two coal-whippers at a time of a commercial crisis in the This furnace could be applied to any boiler at a of work, and the other is kept on. In six months time

coal trade; fewer hands are wanted; one gets turned out comparatively small cost, and in a short space of the one out of work is starving, because he was so weaktime. The expense of fitting it to a 30 h. p. ened by temporary want of food that he was not fit for boiler, including brickwork, furnace-bars, &c., employment when he could get it. It is the business of would be about £30. It might be seen in ope- The other man has worked as hard as possible in the way

the political economist to remedy commercial crises. ration at Messrs. Wackerbarth's, the sugar re- you know these fellows are engaged, jumping up a foot or finers, and also at the Lea Cut Iron Works. two and throwing their whole weight on to a rope for ten The first Paper read was

or twelve hours a day; it is I believe the most wasteful,

unscientific, and pernicious expenditure of human muscle INDUSTRIAL PATHOLOGY; OR THE ACCIDENTS that ever was devised. The consequence is that his

AND DISEASES INCIDENT TO INDUSTRIAL heart cannot stand it, the fibres are overstrained with OCCUPATIONS.

these continued violent jerks, and the organ becomes

diseased. After a tedious illness, during which he is an By T. K. CHAMBERS, M.D.

incumbrance and expense to society, the industrious, I come to this room to day for the purpose of introduc- well-paid man dies at forty. Here it is that Industrial ing a subject, not indeed wholly new to the Society of Pathology comes into play. It is the duty of that science Arts, but yet probably new to most of the present mem- to find out why such and such labour is injurious in a bers. New, too, is the mode adopted of taking it up, special manner, and to suggest a remedy. For example, namely, the appointment of a special committee, the in the instance quoted above, we may find out that it is undertaking of a special exhibition, and the issue of the sudden jerk which is the cause of the injury to the special circulars and reports upon it. I think, therefore, circulation, and devise some better mechanism than is it cannot be devoid of use, and I hope not of interest at present in use. either, to explain somewhat at length, what Industrial Again, painters are liable to colic and palsy from the Pathology is, that is, what its aims are in the opinion of use of white lead; we may introduce a substance equally those who are taking a part in its promotion; why the convenient, in the shape of white zinc or other substitutes. Society of Arts should concern themselves with it ; and Tailors sit all day in a confined atmosphere, with the what the Council propose to do in the matter.

legs crossed and the spine bowed, so that neither the ribs Industrial Pathology then-(I do not particularly admire nor the digestive organs have room to act,

The conse the name, but I did not make it)—Industrial Pathology quence of course is that the stomach and bowels become is the “science of bodily SUFFERINGS connected with the disordered, the spine twisted, the gait shambling, and the carrying on of handicraft work."

.power of taking the exercise necessary to health obliterMan's Creator ordained that he should eat bread in the 'ated. If an artist wants to represent a starveling, he takes "sweat of his brow," but he did not ordain that he should a tailor as his model; if a plump rosy man were to tell you eat it in suffering, in the rotting of his vitals, the peril- he was a journeyman tailor, you would not allow such an ing of his soul, and the welcoming of premature death. evidently inexperienced workman to mend your coat. Though labour is the lot of our species, it is healthy, in- With a life einbittered by indigestion, what wonder that vigorating labour which is natural to them, and not that a tailor takes to opium, gin, and tobacco, the only things which entails misery and pain.

that make existence endurable. Now cannot these evils The highest and most natural state of man being the bo corrected ? The cross-legged position is assumed greatest perfection of body and soul, any occupation which because in the ordinary sitting posture the heavy cloth tends to shorten his days, to make him a discomfort could not be held near enough to the eye. The problem to himself and his neighbours, is unnatural, and a proof is to invent some sort of table which would be equally of barbarism and defective civilisation. Every country convenient. where such occupations exist is lower than it might be in Shoe-makers and boot makers suffer equally from a the social scale, -has not yet done its utmost to place man constrained position, and also from the pressure of the last in his proper position as king of the world. As long as against the stomach. Heartburn and painful digestion he that toils with the hands has a life shorter and more are so common, that a certain pill in the Pharmcacopeia plıysically painful than he that toils with his brain, the (the Pilula Sagapeni Comp.) is called the coblers' pill, duty of self-improvement is unperformed by a people. A patient of mine, now in St. Mary's Hospital, has a

It is not necessary for me to observe that such is the hollow big enough to put one's fist ia, from the pressure case now in every known nation—that the corporeal inwards of the breast bone by the boot-tree; of course his labourers are both shorter lived and endure more physical lungs and heart are diseased by such distortion. Cannot evils than the mental labourers. Statisticians are explicit some one devise a new sort of boot-tree, which will not enough on that point. Now it will be found on enquiry drive its tap roots into people's lungs ? that there are two distinct classes of evils to account for Looking-glass makers and water-gilders are constantly this. In the first class are included poverty, ignorance, coming into hospitals for mercurial paralysis; and when political weakness, and other circumstances which provent | they go out of the hospital they are not fit for inuch else

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remedies. Parliament does not profess to be an inventive body, nor, except very indirectly, the cause of invention, but we do, and in this lies our peculiar aptitude for the task we are now undertaking in earnest. Let us see, as an example of government interference, how they have lately dealt with one most crying evil,-the excessive number of accidents in factories; and then think how the Society of Arts might perform the same duty. There was a great cry heard last autumn. In the three years ending October 31, 1853, there were 11,716 persons mutilated by machinery, of whom 106 were killed on the spot, and the was more than ten times the number of accidents which While the numrest had only arms, fingers, legs, and so on, cut off. This happened in factories by other causes. Alarmed at this, the ber of machinery mutilations was, as stated above, 11,716, the other accidents were. 1028. factory inspectors thought it was time to carry out more strictly than had been hitherto done certain provisions in the Factory Act (7th Victoria), which required a perfectly secure boxing or fencing of machinery. They had observed that of these 4000 annual accidents of various degrees of severity, at least 40 of the most severe kind occurred from horizontal shafts above seven feet from the ground, and which custom did not require to be guarded stances. Custom did not require it, though the strict like those within reach of a man under ordinary circumletter of the law did. With the hope, then, of reducing somewhat at least these forty annual accidents, (which, be it remembered, were not the slighter ones alluded to, but generally fatal,) the inspectors sent round a circular, announcing their intention of requiring strict compliance with the enactment, and that all machinery, whatever its height from the floor, should be boxed. They had the opinions of the best engineers that there was no difficulty at all in this being done. Instantly up comes a deputation I trust that by these few familiar illustrations, I have of Members of Parliament, magistrates, and all sorts of made clear what Industrial Pathology is, and how it respectable persons interested in the profits of manuWhat was Her differs from Hygiene. It does not profess to enquire into factories; they beseige the Home-office, and show the the health of the industrious classes generally, but only "impossibility," that is to say the great outlay of capital into their health so far as it is affected by their special involved in compliance with the law. occupations. It is desirable that this division of labour Majesty's Minister to do? Of course decide on the eviA second circular was among scientific observers and teachers should be fully dence before him, countermand the peremptory circular of understood, in order that the facts collected should be the inspectors, and take upon himself the responsibility of properly arranged, and handed directly to those who will rendering the law still dormant. use them aright. Into the respective utility and conse-issued, making various suggestions for the greater security quent dignity of the two sciences I have not enquired: I of the machinery, such as putting up looks to catch &c., and the test of the effectiveness of these provisions is only wish to point out which it is that the Council feel lapping straps, employing only adults in dangerous places, themselves called upon to take up. to be the number of accidents which occur during the current year. But in the mean time not the slightest attempt is made to alter the machinery employed. Suggestions are brought forward to guard the workmen in some degree from its dangerous proximity, but the making the monster itself less fearful is never thought of. This is the object that the Society of Arts would aim at; we would en courage the invention of less injurious machines and mode of manufacture; we would make them public, and enable the executive to say, " No, gentlemen, our orders are no incapable of execution; the way to carry them out i shown at the Society of Arts." It is our business to lea it is the business of government to drive-to drive those who, longer than human patience can bear it, refus to be led. But the leading must go first, else the drivin Whether it will eve will be tryanny. We must serve out the straw befor we require the tale of the bricks. be wise of parliament to forbid many of the noxious mod of handicraft work which I have mentioned, I do n know-but I am sure it would not be wise till the poss bility of less injurious modes of attaining the same obje can be shown.

I now come to the reason why our Society should particularly give time and attention to the subject. It may be said that the investigation and cure of disease is not their province, nor universal philanthropy their aim. True, the raising man in the scale of creation, by advancing his arts and manufactures, is our vocation, and a great and glorious one it is; but as he that treats his friends to a banquet is responsible that no poisonous matters are in the dishes, so are we responsible for the boon we are conferring on England in increasing her material powers, to see that there is no evil contained in it, no death in the pot of sweet dainties. It would be a scurvy gift to our country to adorn her with more luxurious raiment, while the threads that compose it are the fibres, and the dye that makes it glow, is the blood of her children.

But is there nobody to take this matter off our hands? Is there no man, or set of men, who, while we are pushing on industry, will see that we do no harm? Really, there is not; it is nobody's business but ours, and nobody has the power of doing it so well and so effectually. I do not deny that government may, if rightly directed, afford most useful help in this truly great work of perfecting our country, in the same way as they aided us by the countenance given to the Great Exhibition of 1851. But their province and ours are quite distinct, and they could not take our place any more than we could take theirs without injuring the cause. It is for our rulers to require that certain evils be put a stop to; it is for us to suggest

than the workhouse. There are two ways of remedying this one is to give them some protection against the poisonous fumes: and the other is to improve and cheapen rival modes of gilding and silvering, in which mercury is

not used.

Washerwomen constantly suffer from varicose veins and other mechanical disorders arising from the standing posture. It is the business of Industrial Pathology to devise a chair in which they could work as at present, or else to discover some mode of doing the same thing by the agency of mechanics, which is now done immediately by the unaided body-to wear out mechanism instead of muscle, iron instead of energy.

I show you here a rotten jaw-bone, which Mr. Simon was obliged to cut out of a man's head because it was corroded by the noxious fumes evolved in the manufacture of lucifer matches. It is to be hoped that there is some mode of making them without rotting men's jaws, and this mode it is the business of Industrial Pathology to

find out.

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Few persons who walk much in the streets can avoid often meeting a bleeding groaning mass carried by on a stretcher, having just fallen from some ill-made scaffolding. It is the business of Industrial Pathology to enquire, whether it is an essential part of the nature of our countrymen to fall from scaffolding, or whether the construction of it might be so altered as to prevent the accidents. For the encouragement of those who are possessed with the latter idea, it may be cursorily mentioned that in China they have for several thousand years used a light bamboo scaffolding, covering the entire building like a network, and certainly preventing the falls which so often happen in Europe. Our ideas seem to have travelled wholly in the direction of making it stronger, heavier, and more unmanageable.

T

I come now to the third question which may asked concerning Industrial Pathology, viz., how d the Council propose to be of use in this matter? has been in a great measure answered by a circular whi has lately been issued, and which was printed in t Journal a few weeks ago. They propose in the first pla

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