Puslapio vaizdai

Proceedings of Institutions.

kindly promised their valuable assistance in promoting the investigation of this curious fibre. Having heard that the plant was cultivated in the Botanic-gardens here, I visited them, and found such was the case. Mr. FerguALTON. The Mechanics' Institution has now been son, the curator, at once pointed it out, and very cour- established 16 years, and during that time it has accumuteously offered to give me specimens to take with me.lated a library of 1,011 volumes. During the last winter I procured a sufficient quantity of the leaves for analysis, fifteen lectures were delivered on various subjects, and two and submitted them to Professor Hodges, of the Queen's exhibitions of dissolving views, and three of microscopic College, Belfast, and chemist to the Chemico-Agricultu- objects, were held. An analysis of the members showed ral Society, for examination and report. The following that there were, of subscribers paying ten shillings per is the result of his analysis, annexed to which is given annum and upwards, professional men, &c., 23; tradesthe composition of the Irish Flax :men, 37; of subscribers paying eighteen pence per quarter, tradesmen, 9; mechanics, 47; and apprentices, &c., 24; making a total of 140.

"Laboratory, Chemico-Agricultural Society, Belfast,
24th November, 1853.

“An analysis of New Zealand Flax, and Irish Flax Straw.
One hundred parts of each contain respectively :-

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of Wandsworth, delivered a very instructive and interest-
BATTERSEA.-On Tuesday evening, Mr. A. Coleman,
ing lecture to the members and friends of the Literary
and Scientific Institution, "On Combustion." The lecture
was illustrated by experiments; and the principle of the
Davy Lamp, Gas-lights, Argand burners, Oil lamps, and
Ventilation were explained in a clear, intelligible manner.
The vicar took the chair, and, at the close of the pro-
ceedings presented the thanks of the meeting to Mr.

on Wednesday, the 23rd of November.
BURY.-The inauguration of the Athenæum took place
It has been
erected by public subscription, in consequence of the in-
sufficient accommodation in the premises occupied by the
Bury Mechanics' Institute. The building consists of a
large, lofty, and spacious Lecture Hall, gallery, and
ante-rooms; the Hall is 85 feet long by 43 broad, and is
25 feet high. There is also a gallery capable of accom-
modating from 150 to 200 people. On the ground-floor
there is a news room, 43 feet by 15 feet; a museum, 43
feet by 30 feet; a library 30 feet by 17 feet 6 inches;
lecturers retiring room; one class room, 30 feet by 17 feet 6
inches; and a committee room. In addition to the above
there are also, in the basement, three good class rooms,
and the requisite offices necessary for such a building.
On this occasion, E. Grundy, Esq., of the Wylde, the
President for the year, after referring to the donations of
the late Earl of Derby, and the patronage of the present
Earl, introduced Lord Stanley, M.P., whom he requested
to preside over the meeting. The following gentlemen

The excess of silica spoken of as the cause of brittle-were also on the platform :-The Bishop of Manchester; ness does not appear in the analysis, but I think the non- the Rev. C. Richson; the Rev. Dr. Vaughan; J. Cheetham, fibrous portion of the “ Phormium terax" is more incor- Esq., M.P.; N. Starkie, Esq., M.P.; J. Smith, Esq., of porated with the fibre than in the "Linum usitatissi- Liverpool; Richard Fort, Esq., of Read Hall; the Rev. mum," and this combination may partly account for the the Rector of Bury, who is one of the Directors, and many brittle nature hitherto generally attributed to the fibre. other influential gentlemen of the town and neighbourIf the silica exists in combination with the alkalies potash hood. The Noble Chairman, after a few introductory or soda, which I presume may be the case, I do not see observations on the value of education, said, that five any reason why such a silicate should not be soluble in years ago, in 1848, it was proposed to erect a new hot water. Acting on this idea, I have tried the effect of Athenæum; in two years the funds were so forward as to boiling the leaves and rolling afterwards: in fact, adopt-justify its promoters in beginning the building; in 1850, ing a system similar to Watt's patent, which, though not yet perfectly applied to Irish flax so as to please the linen manufacturers, may eventually be successful, and indeed appears the most likely way of managing this New Zealand flax. As yet I have no result to lay before you of these experiments, except that I deprecate the use of much alkali to soften the plant, or the use of fire heat in drying it, having found both add greatly to the brittleness of the fibre in the green state. (a) When I have any further information to give worth notice, I shall communicate such at once; in the mean time the facts I have stated and the analysis of the plant, will, without doubt, prove interesting to many readers of your useful journal.

(a) I found the plant dried by fire-heat rather quickly very easily broken; but after re-saturation with water it recovered its tenacity, and was not subsequently improved by slow-drying at a distance from the fire. The amount of alkali used in bleaching linen appeared destructive to this fibre; but I should not like to state this positively, without another trial.

the corner-stone was laid, and now they had to congratulate themselves on its completion. There was one person, whose name was connected with this building, to whom he was not at liberty to refer; but this he would say in his father's name, that there was no man in public life, of whatever political party, who was more deeply and sincerely interested in this great question,-the question of the age,-the question of national instruction; no man more sincerely anxious to further instruction, and to raise all classes, especially the working classes, in the social scale. The Rev. Mr. Thorburn, M.A., read the report of the trustees on the building of the Athenæum, and also a statement of the classes now in operation. The architect, Sydney Smirke, Esq., had estimated the cost of the Athenæum at upwards of 4,000l. Towards this sum was supplementary sources, the sum of 4,4811. The expendiraised by public subscription, rent of Hall, and other ture had been, for contracts for the building and superintendence, 3,4681.; for fitting up furniture and other inatters, 1,0381; and for the bazaar and exhibition, 3681.; making a total of 4,8741.; and leaving a balance now due

to the treasurer of 3931. The Directors' report was then read, from which it appeared that in the first quarter of the Athenæum's operations, there were 454 members; in the second quarter, 587; in the third quarter, 584; and during the fourth, the present quarter, there were 700 members. The receipts up to the present time had been 4027., and the expenditure 3427.; leaving a balance of 521. The Rev. C. Richson then addressed the meeting on the advantages to be derived from Mechanics' Institutions and similar societies. The Bishop of Manchester dwelt on the duties of employers to the employed in assisting to provi1e better education for the operative classes generally. Mr. J. Cheetham spoke to the value of libraries in towns like this, and also of the importance of village libraries. The Rev. Dr. Vaughan spoke of the advantages of education, as the forerunner of a nation's great-lished in every institution. It was not creditable to ness; and alluded to those great but expired cities of bygone ages in illustration of the sentiment. Mr. Smith, of Liverpool, and Mr. Richard Fort, of Read Hall, also addressed the meeting.

provement in this respect. People were alarmed when they saw what a quantity of "fiction" was read by the members of a Mechanics' Institute; but was no fiction read by those who were not members? In order to raise the standard of reading, the great point was to lead the members to read with a purpose. Endeavour to interest a man in some particular subject, furnish him with a strong inducement to seek information respecting it, and then provide him with books, or with a living teacher to assist him. To the success of classes of continuous study a system of examinations, diplomas, and rewards was essential. It was hoped that such a system would be organized under the auspices of the Society of Arts, but nothing could be done without the co-operation of the institutes. Music and drawing classes should be estabBrighton, with a population of 75,000, that it had no public drawing school, or School of Design. The pupils should be taught to draw at once from the round, and not from the flat. The late Mr. Butler Williams's BRIGHTON.-A special general meeting was held at the method of drawing from graduated models was highly Mechanics' Institution, on Thursday, the 24th of Novem- commended. In learning to draw, the pupils should be ber, for the purpose of receiving a letter from Mr. S. Ro-taught how they saw; and what were the causes of the bertson, presenting a model of the Holy Land, the pro- differences between the real shapes and the appearances perty of the late Rev. F. W. Robertson, M.A., Vice- of things. How few people could give an explanation President of the Institute; and also for hearing a lecture of the reasons why they saw only the lecturer's face and from Mr. Harry Chester, on the subject of " Mechanics' not his back! One of the causes why the French excel Institutes." The Committee had invited the members us in architecture, and in the manufactures into which of three or four other institutions in the town to be design enters, was the general instruction in drawing present, and a numerous audience was collected. After from models in that country. Classes for research were premising that they were to expect, not a display of also recommended. Why should not some of the eloquence, nor a philosophical disquisition on education, members devote themselves to the pursuit of different but a plain business-like talk about institutions, with a branches of natural history? One class would take up view to practical suggestions for their improvement, Mr. the subject of the geology of the neighbourhood, Chester adverted to the presence of the members of the another the entomology, a third the birds, a fourth the other institutions, and pointed out the importance of a botany, a fifth the marine productions, &c., &c. Refriendly co-operation amongst them. It struck him, as a cently evidence of a highly contradictory character had stranger, that in such a place as Brighton it might have been given by scientific men before a Committee of the been better to have established one very large institution, House of Commons, on the subject of the rainfall on instead of dividing their strength among five distinct chalk; some insisting that the rain which penetrates bodies; and he suggested that, if it were not now too the surface of the chalk is retained in large rivers and late to effect a junction, some kind of federation might immense lakes in its substance; whilst others as confistill be established. Each of the five institutions might dently declared, that the rain penetrates the substance of delegate one or two representatives, who should sit at a the chalk, and finds its way into the sea at the feet of Central Committee, to promote the general interest of the cliffs. In the neighbourhood of Brighton it had the institutions, and to provide for such joint action as been said that many such streams, issuing from the chalk, might be found possible. He expressed his regret were to be seen. Why should not such questions be and surprise that the Pavilion, whose numerous and examined and ascertained from actual observation, by spacious rooms were open to the givers of balls and the geological class of this institution? Photography concerts, to "Wizards," and all sorts of shows, was was becoming exceedingly popular. Why should not a not allowed to be used by these institutions. He photographic class be formed? The object should be to pointed out their great value, as affording opportunities furnish various inducements to persons of various tastes for the association of different classes, for innocent and pursuits to join the institution. Facilities should be amusements, the occupation of dangerous leisure, provided for the prosecution of such pursuits. Lists of for occasional and systematic instruction. Such institu- books bearing upon them should from time to time be tions were necessary. Without them schools and exhibited in the library. Mr. Chester strongly pointed churches wanted a necessary supplement. It was use- out how necessary it was not only to extend but to imless to provide schools, if you did not provide the means prove the education of the whole people, high and low, of using and completing what was acquired in them. It rich and poor, young and old, and urged upon the was useless to provide churches and clergy, if you left the members of the institutes that they should connect those people without innocent amusements and beneficial embodies with the educational system of this country, and ployment for their leisure hours. The question was, how bring their influence to bear upon it. He explained the Gocould these institutions be best improved? They should vernment system of pupil-teachers, and showed what great continue to provide newspapers and circulating libraries, advantages it offered to the children of the poor. He sugand amusing lectures, to hold soirees, and to take ex-gested that all the pupil-teachers of the different public cursions; but they should do a great deal more than this. schools in Brighton and its vicinity might be admitted free, The extension of their libraries could now be effected at or at a very low payment, to the institutes. This would a great reduction of the prices of books and maps, in be a great advantage to the children, would connect them in favour of those institutions which were in union with the early life with the institutes, and the institutes with their Society of Arts. The Duke of Wellington's Despatches, schools, and excite a mutual interest. One of the great which ought to be in every library in the kingdom, but evils of the day was the early age at which children were on account of their high price (eight guineas) were in removed from school. Let the institutes endeavour to very few, could be had through the Society of Arts for counteract this tendency. Some employers of labour in four guineas. The statistical returns recently made to different districts had provided prize-funds, for the reward the society showed that the reading of this institution of children being at some public school, and above twelve was above the average, though there was room for im-years of age, who passed the best examination in certain

session. Thanks were voted by acclamation to the lecturer.

specified subjects. This had an excellent effect. Why should not the five institutes of Brighton combine to collect a special fund, and to institute similar exami HEREFORD.-The first soirée for the season of the Litenations? If the subjects selected for prizes were selected rary and Philosophical Institution was given on Friday with judgment, the standard of instruction in the schools last. The Venerable the Archdeacon of Hereford premight be raised by directing the attention of the teachers sided; and in his inaugural address referred to the proto art and science and industrial training. This would gress which the Institute had made during the past year. have most important results, and excite such an interest Mr. Jelynger Symons then read a paper on "The Nature in education as would prove of the highest value. What and Capabilities of Milford Haven," the peculiar mercanimmense good might be accomplished if these bodies tile and military capacities of which were, he considered, would thoroughly exert themselves in promoting the unequalled by any other harbour in the world. Rio and cause of education, instead of leaving it exclusively to the St. Francisco might rival, but did not surpass it. Cork clergy, and a few benevolent and energetic gentlemen and Naples were no more to be compared to it than the and tradesmen. He did not recommend the institutes to Wye with the Thames as navigable rivers. The pecuestablish day-schools of their own, for that would intro- liar features of Milford were that the entrance was nearly duce all sorts of religious differences and difficulties, from due south. From the mouth of the haven, lying which it was essential that they should keep clear; but between St. Ann's Head on the west to Sheep's Island they might promote education in many ways. They on the east, the width was two miles and a furmight collect the statistics of education; they might long, which narrowed to one mile and three furlongs at show how many people in Brighton could neither read the narrowest point between the east and west blockhouses. nor write; they might promote the efficiency of the Over three-fourths of this entrance (with the exception of schools and raise the ages of the scholars. When this a few rocks, easily blasted or buoyed,) there was water was done, but not till then, there would be candidates in enough to float the largest vessel at the lowest point of abundance for the Institute, and candidates well quali- spring tides-varying in depth from fifteen fathoms at the fied to profit by its advantages. Mr. Chester then turned west to seven fathoms at the east side; and the depth of to the subject of social reforms, which he desired to see the main channel, and of the greater part of the entire promoted by the Institutes. The working classes were width from shore to shore, continued up the whole course too apt to seek through political reforms an improvement of the haven, ranging from sixteen to nine fathoms up to of their social position. He advised them to seek social Weare point, where it shallowed to five fathoms, thus afreforms as the sure forerunners of political improvements. fording an area no less than eight miles in length, and Politics they must carefully avoid, as opposed to their ranging from half a mile to a mile and a half in breadth; fundamental rules, and as fatal to that union of all deep enough and large enough to contain nearly all the classes of opinion, which was one of their greatest trea- fleets in the world, with a good bottom for anchorage sures; but political economy they might and ought to throughout. Nor was this all, for, owing to the turn to entertain. He briefly explained the English Law of the N.E., which the harbour took almost immediately Partnership with unlimited liability, and contrasted it above its mouth, ships, once entered, lie sheltered from with the French and American partnerships en com- every wind that blew. This immense advantage was enmandite; and recommended the members to inquire into hanced by the nature of the shores, which were sufficiently the subject, to diffuse information respecting it, and to co-high on all sides to protect the loftiest ships, and were operate with the Society of Arts in endeavouring to peculiarly free from gullies and eddies which could procure an amendment of the law. The same advice disturb the lake-like calm which reigned perpetually was given with reference to the duties on paper, the on its deep and placid waters. As to the topographical enormous duties on wine, oceanic postage, &c. They position of Milford Haven, it was several days' sail, even were also urged to promote an improvement of the dwell-in ordinary winds, nearer to America and most of our ings of the poor, the establishment of baths and wash-colonies than Liverpool, with which it was impossible to houses, allotments, early closing, &c., &c. They were avoid comparing it. Without exaggerating the difficulties not to undertake these matters themselves, but to collect of the navigation up St. George's Channel, round Anand diffuse information, with a view to excite an interest glesey, and up the Mersey, it will not be denied that they respecting them. The Institutes ought to represent the were formidable, both as regards time, cost, and actual intelligence of their neighbourhood, and to act as pioneers danger. As regarded internal transit, Milford Haven of improvement. They ought to collect and diffuse in- was but about 15 miles further from London than formation on the subject of vaccination, to point out to the Liverpool; and it was for all England, incomparably the poor how much the recent statute for compulsory vacci- best starting point for the entire western hemisphere. nation was calculated to benefit them, and so to smooth The Rev. Dr. BARTLETT then read an elegantly written the way for its satisfactory working. Museums were then paper on the drama of ancient Greece. Having observed briefly touched upon. It could not be expected that that the word dpaua meant "action" and its motives there should be five good museums in Brighton; but the directly, and that in it the course of the story and the five institutions might contribute to one common museum. feelings of the parties concerned were judged of by what How much would education be promoted if, in every was said and done by the actors, rather than from any town where there was an Institute, there was also a description of circumstance or sentiment, he went on to museum, rich in all the natural and artificial products of trace the origin of the drama to the love of imitation, the locality! Exchanges of specimens might now be and to point out its elements in the war dances of the made between the institutions in union with the Society savage tribes, and the representations of religious events of Arts. Every Institute should form a collection of which were common to almost all nations. Europe, howlocal prints and antiquities. They should have exhi-ever, owed her drama to Greece; and that circumstance bitions of useful inventions, for which arrangements might had induced the lecturer to limit his remarks that be made through the Society. The exhibition of evening to the Greek stage. The origin of tragedy, photography, which the Society lent to the institutions into which he should particularly refer throughout, was union, was highly popular. It was first sent to Woburn, where it was exhibited for ten days, at the expiration of which the Institute there had cleared a profit of 1007., and had obtained one hundred new members. Attention was called to the Journal; and the address-of which the above is a very meagre account was concluded by a reference to the laws which injuriously affect institutes, and to the probability of their being amended in the next

very simple, consisting only of a choral ode, accompanied by music and dancing, at festivals held in honour of Bacchus, and at the close of the vintage. Of these odes, some were grave and lofty in style, and these gave rise to tragedy; some less refined and more licentious, forming the precursors of comedy. The theatres of the Greeks were open to the skies; the performances took place in broad daylight, and no female actors were



London Inst., 7.-Mr. F. Warren,
Antiquaries, 8.
Royal, 8.
Astronomical, 8.
Philological. 8.

"On the Cotton

London Inst., 2.-Mr. M. T. Masters, "On Elementary

Royal Botanic, 34.

Medical, 8.


allowed. The performances were a species of religious | THURS. ceremonial; they commenced with sacrifices, and the professed aim of the author was to render amusement subordinate to moral instruction. Whatever the execution might be, the aim was noble. The requisite scenery of the ancient tragedies was extremely simple-the outside of a temple, a mansion, or a palace, or the interior court of either, sufficed for most of the incidents, The lecturer went on to describe the interior arrangement of the Greek theatre: the tiers of seats for the spectators of various ranks; the orchestra, or position of the chorus, identical with the modern pit; the altar in front of the stage, called the Ovμeλe, a sacrifice to the gods upon which generally commenced the performances; the permanent stage, usually representing the front of a temple or palace; the scene, and the proscenium. He then explained the nature of the chorus, whose office it was to utter moral reflections or comments upon the action or the speeches of the characters, but never to actively interfere, although never permitted to leave the stage. They heard plots, but might not tell of them; witnessed crimes, but were not permitted to stop them.

PORTSEA.-On Wednesday sennight the first lecture of the season was delivered at the Watt Institute, by Mr. J. Spence, "On the Screw Propeller." The lecturer stated that not less than seventy claims had been registered for Among different modifications in the form of the screw. the most prominent was that by Mr. F. P. Smith, who was allowed the use of a steam vessel by the Lords of the Admiralty, for the purpose of making experiments, which were very satisfactory. Mr. Scott's patent, also Mr. J. Maudslay's, and the boomerang propeller of Sir Thomas Mitchell, were then alluded to, and the results of a variety of trials of each were given. The lecture was illustrated by a number of models.

ROYSTON.-On Tuesdays, the 22nd and 29th, November, two lectures were delivered at the Mechanics' Institute, by Mr. George Grossmith, on "The Recent Writings of Charles Dickens," and "English Notions of American Character." On both occasions the audience appeared highly delighted with the humerous and mimetic talents displayed by this popular lecturer.

SHREWSBURY.-On Tuesday evening, the 22nd ult., Mr. Elsmere delivered his second lecture on Botany and Vegetable Physiology, at the Shropshire Mechanics' Institution. The subjects of this lecture were:-The leaves, which were described as the lungs of plants-the circulaThe lecturer next tion of the sap-the flower-the fruit. treated of the age of trees, and then took a glance at vegetation as it is found in the different parts of the globe, and concluded with some interesting observations on the study of nature. The lectures were both well illustrated with a large collection of preserved plants. A vote of thanks was unanimously accorded to Mr. Elsmere for his instructive lecture.

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From Gazette, 25th Nov., 1853.

Dated 10th November, 1853.
2601. J. Atkins, Birmingham-Ashpits for grates.
2603. Lieut. W. Rodger, R.N., 9 Stanfield street, King's road,
2604. J. Stevens, Darlington Works, Southwark bridge road-Bear
ings of axles for gas meters.
2605. S. Mead Folsom, Massachusetts-Instrument for ironing clothes,
&c. (A communication.)
2606. P. A. Le C. de Fontainemoreau, 4 South street, Finsbury-

Preventing accidents on railways. (A communication.)
Dated 11th November, 1853.

2607. W. Parker, Birmingham-Bearings for machinery.
2608. S. Sturm, Carpenter's buildings, London-Machinery for optical
2609. A. A. N. S. de Montferier, Paris, and 4 South street, Finsbury
-Rotary steam engine.


2610. E. G. Banner, Cranham Hall, Essex-Saddlery and harness.
guard and driver
2611. H. Walker, Gresham street west-Communication between
2612. J. Willis, Wallingford-Buckles.

&c., in metal.

2613. R. Dryburgh, Leith-Holding staves whilst being cut.
2614. W. Steel, Glasgow-Machinery for washing malt.
2615. J. Pratt, Heldham-Machine for forging, drawing, &c., spindles,
2616. H. Hilshaw, Birch, near Middleton, Lancashire-Spinning
2618. A. Easton, Barnard's Inn-Liquid for producing light.
2619. J. H. Dickson, Evelyn street, Lower road, Deptford-Pre-
paring flax, &c.
2621. J. M. Levien, Davies street, Grosvenor square-Expanding
table. (A communication.)

2623. F.
2624. H.

Dated 12th November, 1853.

A. Délande, Paris, and 4 South street, Finsbury square
-New metallic composition.

Hilshaw, Birch, near Middleton, Lancashire, and R.
Hacking, Bury-Spinning machinery.


2625. J. Gedge, 4 Wellington street, Strand-Consuming smoke.
(A communication.)
2626. J. Gedge, 4 Wellington street, Strand-Metallic compounds.
(A communication.)
2827. W. Austin, 27 Holywell street, Westminster—Manufacture of
2628. T. De la Rue, Bunhill row-Paper manufacture.
2629. W. Austin, Holywell street, Westminster-Sewer trap.
2630. C. Busson, Paris-Finger-keyed musical instruments.
Dated 14th November, 1853.
8632. W. Hadfield, Manchester-Looms.
2634. H. Willis, Manchester street-Organs and free-reed instru-
2636. M. Gray, Glasgow-Weft forks for power looms.
2640. M. Fitzgerald, Sorrel Island, Clare, Ireland-Communicating
between parts of railway train.


Dated 16th November, 1853.

2650. J. Ellerthorpe, Kingston-on-Hull-Stopping railway train.
2652. J. R. and R. and J. Musgrave, Belfast-Hot air stoves.
2654. J. Ronald, Paisley-Fixing colours on yarns, &c.
2656. D. Pratt, Birmingham-Arrangement for raising thimbles.
2658. W. F. Greenfield, Ipswich-Communicating between parts of
railway train.

2660. J. Bristow, Bouverie street, and H. Attwood, Holland street.

Blackfriar's road-Marine boilers.
Dated 17th November, 1853.

2662. J. Clare, jun., 21 Exchange buildings, Liverpool-Manufacture
of bar and sheet metals, and machinery for same, and ap-
plication thereof.

2664. S. and S. V. Abraham, Lisle street-Communicating informa-
tion to persons in charge of railway trains.
2666. J. Banfield, Birmingham-Railway signal.
2670. A. Hoffstaedt, Albion place, Surrey-Artificial ultramarine.

Society of Arts, 8.-Dr. Glover, " On Miners' Safety 1267.

Ethnological, 84.-1. Baron de Bode, " On the different

races occupying the provinces of Asterabad and

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Mazanderan, on the southern shores of the Caspian
Sea. 2. The Hon. Secretary, "On an Anglo Saxon
skull exhumed by J. G. Akerman, Esq., from an
Anglo Saxon cemetery, near Salisbury."


Sealed November 23rd, 1853.

Auguste Edouard Loradoux Bellford, of Castle street, Holborn
-Improved method of treating flax and hemp, whereby they
are brought to such a state that they may be carded, spun,
and woven by machinery, such as is now employed in the
manufacture of cotton and wool into yarn and cloth. (A

John Harcourt Brown, of Arthur's Seat, Aberdeen-Improvements in apparatus for bottling or supplying vessels with fluids.

1271. Henry Turner, of Wilson street, Limehouse-New mode of applying hydraulic power to windlasses, for weighing anchors, and lifting heavy weights.

1276. William Babb, of Gray's inn road-Improvements in the manufacture of hats, caps, and bonnets.

1288. Alexander Porecky, of Bishopsgate street Within-Improvements in the manufacture of umbrellas and parasols. 1311. Illingworth Butterfield, of Bradford, Yorkshire-Improvements in and applicable to looms for weaving.

1313. Ebenezer Nash, of Duke street, Lambeth, and Joseph Nash, of Thames parade, Pimlico-Improvements in the manufacture of wicks.

1330. William Green, of Islington-Improvements in treating or preparing yarns or threads.

1332. Richard Archibald Brooman, of Fleet street-Improvements in firearms. (A communication.)

1375. John Chisholm, of Holloway-Improvements in the production or manufacture of artificial manures.

1382. Thomas Russ Nash, of Leigh street-Improvements in filters. 1536. Noble Carr Richardson, of South Shields-Improved capstan. 1576. William Rice, of Boston, Lincolnshire-Improvements in harness for horses and other animals. 1618. Henry Bate, of New Hampstead road, Kentish Town-A new fire-escape, which he denominates the "Ignevador." 1688. Charles Goodyear, of St. John's wood-Improvements in spreading and applying India rubber, or compositions of India rubber, on fabrics.

1690. Charles Goodyear, of St. John's wood-Improvements in the manufacture of brushes and substitutes for bristles. 1731. Thomas Gray, and John Reid, both of Newcastle-Improved mode of manufacturing files and rasps.

1772. Benjamin Collins Brodie, Jun., of Albert road, Regent's park -Improvements in treating or preparing black lead. 2026. John Mackintosh, of Pall Mall-Improvements in breakwaters. 2079. Isaac Southian Bell, of the Washington Chemical Works, Newcastle upon Tyne-Improvements in the manufacture of sulphuric acid.

2094. Edmund Leyland, of St. Helens, Lancashire-Improvements in apparatus for the manufacture of sulphuric acid. 2208. James Smith, of Law Hill, Perthshire-Improvements in scythes.

2229. John Phillips, of Birmingham-Improvements in shaping metals.

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Sealed November 25th, 1853. 1275. William Babb, of Gray's inn road-Improvements in the manufacture of hair trimmings.

1278. George Irlam Higginson, of Meeting house lane, Dublin-Improvements in machinery or apparatus for evaporating or concentrating liquids. 1279. Frederick Russell, of Regent's park-Improvements in raising windows, shutters, blinds, and similar appendages. 1282. Louis Auguste Deverte, and Charles Eck, of Argenteuil, near Paris-Improved machinery for combing wool.

1325. Joseph Brown, of Leadenhall street - Improvements of elastic spring beds, mattrasses, cushions, and all kind of spring stuffing for upholstery work generally; making them lighter and more portable.

1381. Benjamin Biram, of Wentworth, Yorkshire-Improvements in working and ventilating mines.

1513. Pacifique Grimaud, of Paris-A new ærogaseous drink, which he calls "Grimaudine."

1525. Charles Topham, of Hoxton-Improvements in apparatus for measuring liquids, gases, and other elastic fluids, and for regulating the flow thereof; which apparatus may also be applied to the obtaining of motive power.

1585. John Getty, of Liverpool-Certain improvements in shipbuilding.

2170. Edward Thomas, of Belfast-Improvement in the construction of looms for weaving.

2340. Nicolas Callin, of the Roman Catholic College of MaynoothMeans of protecting iron of every kind against the action of the weather, of rain, river, spring, and sea water, so that iron thus protected may be used for roofing, for cisterns, pipes, gutters, window-frames, telegraphic wires, for marine and various other purposes.

Sealed November 28th, 1853. 1312. William Smith, of Salisbury street, Adelphi-Certain improvements in the machinery for, and method of, making and laying down submarine and other telegraphic cables; which machinery is also applicable and is claimed for the making of ropes and cables generally.

1323. Alfred Whaley Sanderson, of Cable street, Lancaster-Improvements in preparing effervescing powders,

1350, Joseph Whitworth, of Manchester-Improvements in machinery for perforating or punching paper, card, and other materials

1352. William Thorold, of Norwich-Improvements in the construction of portable houses, and in machinery fer raising, moving, and lowering the same.

1378. Edward Blackett Beaumont, of Wood Hall, Barnsley, Yorkshire-Certain improvements in bricks and tiles.

1406. Henry Bernoulli Barlow, of Manchester-Improvements in machinery for spinning, doubling, and twisting cotton and other fibrous substances. (A communication.)

1493. James Worrall, Jun., of Salford-Certain improvements in machinery or apparatus for washing, bleaching, and dyeing fustians, beaverteens, cantoons, satteens, twills, and other textile fabrics.


George Robinson, of Manchester-Certain improvements in apparatus for roasting and dessicating coffee, cocoa, and chicory.

1629. Jacob Brett, of Hanover square-Improvements in photography.

1874. George Deards, of Harlow, Essex-Improvements in lamps. 1962. Thomas Herbert, and Edward Whittaker, both of Nottingham -Improvements in warp machinery employed in the manufacture of purled and other fabrics.

2087. Robert Drew, of Bath, and John Bayliss, of Birmingham-Improvements in stay and other like fastenings. 2095. Thomas William Gilbert, of Limehouse-Improvements in sewing sails and other articles. 2117. Adolphus Singleton, of Manchester-Certain improvements in machinery or apparatus for grinding and setting doctors, used in calico and other similar printing machinery. (A communication.)

2179. Aristide Michel Servan, of Philpot lane-Improvements in dis tilling fatty and oily matters. 2218. Robert Brisco, of Low Mill House, St. Bees, Cumberland, and Peter Swires Horsman, of Saint John's, Beckermet, in the same county-Certain improvements in the preparation of flax and other vegetable fibrous substances. 2219. Moses Poole, of Avenue road-Improvement in the manufacture of pulp for papermakers. (A communication.) Sealed November 30th, 1853.

1337. Hesketh Hughes, and William Thomas Denham, both of Cottage place, City road-Improvements in pianofortes. 1356. Hesketh Hughes, and William Thomas Denham, both of Cottage place, City road-Improvements in machinery for weaving.

1439. Joseph H. Penny, and Thomas B. Rogers, of New York-Improvement in the manner of constructing machinery for propelling vessels, and other machinery, which they term a crank propeller. Arthur Parsy, of Crescent place, Burton crescent-Invention of a revolving engine, to be worked by steam, air, gases, or



1534. Joshua Horton, Jun., of Staffordshire-Improvement or improvements in steam boilers. 1569. John Imray, of Lambeth-Improvements in obtaining motive power.

1634. James Parkes, and Samuel Hickling Parkes, both of Birmingham-Improvements in the manufacture of certain drawing or mathematical instruments; also in packing or fitting same in their cases; which said improvements in packing or fitting are also applicable to the packing or fitting of other articles. James Naylor, of Hulme-Improvements in lamps. 2110. Alfred Vincent Newton, of Chancery lane-Improved machinery for crushing and grinding mineral and other substances. (A communication.)


2188. Alfred Vincent Newton, of Chancery lane-Improved mode of constructing steam boilers; applicable also in part to the construction of condensers. (A communication.) 2239. Robert Brisco, of Low Mill House, St. Bees, Cumberland, and Peter Swires Horsman, of St. John's, Beckermet, Cumberland-Certain improvements in machinery for hackling flax, hemp, China grass, and other fibrous substances. 2249. Isaac Ambler, of Maningham, near Bradford-Improvements in preparing or combing wool and other fibrous substances.

2287. Henry Goddard, of Castle gate, Nottingham-Improvements in stoves and kitchen ranges.

2289. John Rubery, of Birmingham-Improvements in the manufacture of umbrella and parasol furniture. (A communication.)

2295. John Henry Johnson, of Lincoln's inn fields-Improvements in apparatus for compressing or rarefying air or other elastic fluids. (A communication.)

1340. Edward Wilkins, of Queen's road, Walworth-Improvements in pots and vessels for the growth and cultivation of plants. 1341. Alfred Hardwick, of Liverpool-Improvements in propelling 2311. Charles May, and James Samuel, both of Great George street vessels. -Improvements in joining the ends of the rails of railways

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