Puslapio vaizdai

London accompanied by one of his most promising pupils, and for the first time in his life the boy saw a soldier with a bearskin cap, upon which the youth exclaimed, "Here's a man whose hair has grown through his cap." Before he sat down, he desired, on the part of the Council of the Society, to reiterate the statement which had been expressed that evening, namely, constant sympathy and cooperation between the Society of Arts and the Crystal Palace Company; and he was proud in thinking that many gentlemen who were most distinguished in that magnificent design were also members of the Society of Arts, just as the original promoters of the World's Exhibition in 1851 were also distinguished members of this Society. He hoped the same friendly co-operation would always exist, and that they would do all they could to promote each other's success.

trial Pathology; or the Injuries and Diseases incident to Industrial Occupations."

June 14.-General Meeting to receive the Council's Report and Statement of the Funds of the Society.

July 5th.-General Meeting for the Election of Officers.


The following are the questions at the examination for the Ashburton Prizes, for proficiency in the teaching of "Common Things," held for Schoolmasters, at Southampton, by the Rev. W. H. Brookfield, H.M. Inspector, and for Schoolmistresses, at Salisbury, by the Rev. W. P. Warburton, H.M. Inspector, on 21st April, 185 4. Two Questions to be answered out of each Section, and others as Time may permit.


Morning-Three Hours allowed for this Paper.

2. What is the usual consequence of an abundant or deficient harvest upon the price of food? and upon the wages of labour?

Mr. ALEXANDER CAMPBELL remarked that it was matter of great satisfaction to find gentlemen like Mr. Hawkins and others of the same school, desirous of conveying correct ideas through the visual organs in the process of education, which, experience had proved, made a greater and more lasting impression than could be imparted by the auricular organs. He considered great credit was due to Pestalozzi for the introduction of the system into the schools in Switzerland. But, during the reading of the paper and the observations that 1. Define the following words and phrases, and illustrate had been made, it occurred to him that there were other your meaning by their usage in matters of social life :— circumstances, of even still greater magnitude, and more skill-industry-economy and forethought—wealth— lasting importance, in connection with the science of money-value-price-labourers and employers of labour geology, than had been realised that evening, except in a-capital and capitalist. very partial manner. He meant the knowledge which was necessary to be communicated, at the same time, in respect to the state or condition of the earth which had produced these animals. They saw the immense magnitude of those anima's in comparison with anything which existed at the present time; and science compelled them to the conclusion that the earth was at that period in a different condition, with regard to the other celestial orbs forming the planetary system, to what it now is. Upon the subject of the zones, Mr. Campbell remarked that it was known to philosophers that the earth's zones are in a constant state of change, because it had been demonstrated that evening that, at the time those animals existed upon our own sea-girt isle, this portion of the earth must have been in the midst of the torrid zone; and it had been demonstrated beyond all doubt that what was now called the north polar zone was at one time the frigid portion of the other zone; so that the earth was constantly changing its zones, and changing the productions of those zones in proportion to the revolutions they experienced. It appeared to him that the mode of imparting education which had been advocated that evening was one deserving of especial encouragement by the Society of


The CHAIRMAN having moved a vote of thanks to Mr. Waterhouse Hawkins for his able and interesting paper, that gentleman acknowledged the compliment, and stated his readiness to lend his aid in carrying out the sugges tions made for multiplying the models in a form which would render them attainable and useful to society at large, and also his readiness to contribute any models he had to the forthcoming Exhibition.

3. What is meant by division of labour? and show the importance of this in advancing the wealth and the wellbeing of a nation.

4. What are the principal conditions of industrial success among the labouring classes, and what kind of training in early life is most likely to lead to it.

5. What are the necessary qualities of the food of a people, in order that the supply may be permanent? and how do foods for man and beast vary in this respect.

6. What metals are the most useful? Mention the particular properties which make them so; and give the outline of a lesson on iron or lead, and its uses, from the state of ore up to a knife-blade, or sheet-lead. SECTION II.

1. Point out the different ways in which the air in a dwelling-room is rendered impure, and the best way of ventilating the room?

2. What are the best materials for building a cottage; the necessary conditions of health with reference to the building; and which is preferable, a slated or thatched roof, and why?

3. What vegetables are usually cultivated in a garden? Which do you consider the most nutritious? and why? What rotation of crops would you recommend in a garden of one rood in extent?

soils, and how would you treat them? Explain the prin4. What is the difference between porous and retentive ciple on which soils pulverize after frost, and the advan

tages of this.

The SECRETARY announced that the following 5. Explain what is meant by a proper rotation of crops arrangements had been made for the remainder-by exhausting and non-exhausting plants. How would you ascertain what substances plants draw from the soil? and, having done this, how would you manure the land? SECTION III.

of the present Session:

May 24. Mr. S. W. Leonard, "On the Miroscope, as applied to Art, Science, Manufactures, and Commerce."

May 31.-Mr. R. A. Slaney, (late M.P. for Shrewsbury,) "On Limited and Unlimited Liability in Partnerships."

1. What are the essential properties of matter? Define and explain some of them.

2. Explain what is meant by the attractions of cohesion and gravitation, and exemplify by giving instances of


3. Give Newton's three laws of motion, and illustrato

June 7.-Dr. T. King Chambers. "Indus-the last by experiment.

4. What is meant by centripetal and centrifugal forces? and show how in different latitudes the weight of bodies is affected by the latter.

5. A body let fall from the top of a tower is 3 seconds before it reaches the ground; how far did it fall in each second? and what was the height of the tower? If the action of gravity ceased at this point, how far would it fall in the next 3 seconds.


1. To which of the mechanical powers do the following implements belong :- -a spade and fork in digging-the plough the saw the axe-a pair of scissors-a pump

handle--the screw? Give your reasons in each case. 2. Explain the principle of a pair of scales, and of a common steel-yard.

3. Explain the principle of the wheel and axle, and show how it is applied in raising up water from a well. 4. Show the use of the plumb-line, the square, and the spirit-level to the bricklayer and carpenter.

Afternoon—Three Hours allowed for this Paper.

1. What are the principal bones of the human skeleton? How are they kept together at the joints; and of what substance are they composed?

2. Explain the construction of the spine, or of the hand, and the mechanical contrivances for the different movements which they are intended to perform.

3. How would you judge of the habits and food of animals from their jaws and teeth? Iliustrate your answer by examples.

4. What are muscles and tendons, and their uses in the animal frame? And in the movement of one bone against another in the joints, how is it they are not worn away?

5. What is the cause of a defect in vision in what are called short-sighted and long-sighted persons, and what kind of glasses are required to correct it in each? What are the purposes of eyelids and eyelashes?

6. Point out any differences in the eyes and ears of animals which show adaptation to their respective



1. What is the difference between an artery and a vein, between arterial and venous blood; and why is the cutting or rupture of an artery more dangerous than a vein?

2. Give your reasons for thinking that exercise is necessary, and generally beneficial to all the animal functions.

3. What is meant by respiration? Explain how the chest expands and contracts in this process? And in what does the air breathed out from the lungs differ from common atmospheric air? What experiment would show this?

4. Does the blood undergo any and what change in circulating through the body? And explain the functions of the heart, arteries, and veins in this circu

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Morning-Three hours allowed for this paper.

1. Define the following words :-skill-industry— economy, and forethought-wealth-money-and illustrate your answer by their application in matters of social life.

2. What are the principal conditions of industrial success among the labouring classes, and what kind of training in early life is most likely to lead to it?

3. What are the advantages of paying ready money in your dealings, and the disadvantages of the contrary practice?

4. What are the advantages of clothing-clubs for the labouring classes, and how ought they to be conducted? SECTION II.

1. What are the necessary conditions of a cottage, in order that it may be healthy and comfortable? What is the use of a fire-place in a bed-room?

2. Give some of the various ways with which you are acquainted of preserving meat or vegetables, so as to lay them up in store for future use.

3. Of the modes of cooking animal food-roasting, boiling, stewing-which do you consider the most economical, and why?

4. What are the nutritive properties of milk? Explain the processes of making butter and cheese, and the way in which they must be treated in order to make them keep..

5. What do you consider a proper and economical diettable for a week for a family, consisting of a man, his wife, and 4 children, earnings 12 shillings a-week? SECTION III.

1. What is the difference between an artery and a vein-between arterial and venous blood?-and why is the cutting or rupture of an artery more dangerous than a vein?

2. Does the blood undergo any and what change in circulating through the body? and explain the functions of the heart, arteries, and veins in the circulation.

3. What are muscles, tendons, and nerves, and their uses in the animal frame?

4. How would you treat a scald or burn?

5. Give your reason for thinking that exercise is necessary and generally beneficial for health.

-6. What are the advantages of cleaning the teeth daily? and what are the disadvantages of loosing them or of their decaying in early life?

sical and other laws upon which their various industrial occupations depend.

These examinations will give a more practical and useful character to Institutions, they will advance the education of the working classes, and develope the idea which first called these associations into existence. During the past fourteen

Afternoon-Two hours and a half allowed for this Paper. years the character of Institutions has entirely changed, the

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1. What is meant by "hard and soft" water? what is the cause of it? and what are the effects of hard water in cooking and washing?

2. What kind of substances are removed by filte ng and by boiling water? Explain the process in both cases. 3. Why do woollen things shrink when washed? 4. What are the advantages of woollen and cotton things as clothing for the labouring classes over linen? and why is cotton preferred in warm climates?

5. What is the best teapot to use, and why?


word, "lecture," is changed to the more attractive word
"entertainment"; and light literature takes the place of more
solid and useful reading. The educational character of Insti-
tutions is almost lost. The middle classes will not associate
with working men, and in this respect they are much worse
than the aristocracy; I have seen noblemen talk and shake
hands with a labourer, but a respectable tea dealer is above
this sort of familiarity. Hence we often find in small
towns an Athenæum and a Mechanics' Institution. The
former is a kind of middle-class club, the other a place
where knowledge is often pursued under many difficulties.
The first Mechanics' Institution with which I was connected
numbered about 200 members, all working men chiefly
We had a course of lectures
belonging to the same firm.

on chemistry, the steam engine, and mechanics; admission
to these lectures for non-members was twopence. I never
heard of any complaint about these lectures not being well
attended; on the contrary, we were obliged to move twice
in one season, because the lecture-room was not large
enough. It is but right to remark that most of these men
had attended classes where the elements of these subjects
had been previously taught, but they never had an oppor
tunity of obtaining more information at these classes than
what is within the reach (where there is the disposition)
of every boy in our elementary schools. Although I never
had the advantage of a regular and systematic course
of study, the information I obtained at these classes
and lectures has been very useful; I can recollect
the experiments and trite sayings of the lecturer
The next winter
as though they were of yesterday.
I had made up my mind to work in regular order;

The following notice appeared in a recent number of I was not actuated so much by a love of study, as a the Lowdon Gazette:

"Home Office, Whitehall,
May 5th, 1854.

"Whereas many English workmen have lately proceeded to France in search of employment, and having failed in obtaining work of any description, have fallen into great poverty and distress, and have suffered much misery and privation; all such persons, intending to go over to France for the same purpose, are hereby cautioned and warned of the inconvenience to which they will be exposed, unless they shall have entered beforehand into some contract or engagement with some person in France, who is able to employ them; or unless they shall, before leaving their own country, have provided themselves with funds sufficient to preserve them from want while abroad, and to enable them to return, if they cannot find the em ployment they have sought for."


desire to succeed an old gentleman who had a very comfortable situation as a lecturer on these subjects, at a neighbouring college. My hopes were all frustrated. The Mechanics' Institution became a Political Society; lectures on Steam Engines gave way to subjects of a political character, which were often discussed under painful and exciting circumstances; the thoughtful and prudent left the management of the Institution to the young, the en thusiastic, and the ignorant. The useful character of the Institution disappeared, and demagogues took the place of teachers. I look back upon the three years that followed with feelings of the deepest sorrow and regret. period has happily passed away, and I believe all the really faithful are now turning their attention with great sincerity of heart to those social and educational reforms upon which the true elevation of the working classes is based. Local circumstances will in a great measure dethere will termine the particular character of Institutions; be a wide difference between an Institution at Battersea and one in a manufacturing town. A large number of the members of our Institution go to London every day on business. On their return home in the evening they go to the reading room, to look at the papers, and enquire the latest news in the City; but in addition to this class (which we do everything we can to accommodate), we have a considerable number of working men who would gladly avail themselves of any opportunity for improvement; and as Institutions in Union should furnish as much information as soon as such a scheme as that proposed is carried into possible on this subject before the Conference in June next. It would be desirable to know how these proposed examina-operation, it would induce other working men to join the tions would be received by the working classes. Institution. I once belonged to an Institution where a rather difficult to define these classes. I have heard clerks, drawing class was established; after a lingering existence of linendrapers, butlers, and waiters, call themselves work six months it failed; now its failure appeared to me attributable to a mistake in the kind of drawing. The mechanics ing men, and so they are; but by working men I mean in that neighbourhood required a knowledge of mechanical that large producing class whose successful industry now depends upon a more extended knowledge of those phy-drawing suitable for plans, but they were taught curves

Home Correspondence.


Sir, The examination of members of Literary and
Mechanics' Institutions is of great importance, and the

It is

and scrolls. Classes must be formed to prepare men for the proposed examinations; the teachers must possess all the qualifications of a good schoolmaster, and as no man can teach every thing efficiently, separate teachers will be required for some of the subjects. It will be utterly impossible for small Institutions to meet the expences of such a system of instruction. The voluntary principle will not provide the money, and working men cannot afford it. A Parliamentary Grant, administered through the Department of Practical Science, upon a similar principle to the Educational Grant, might overcome this difficulty. After we had provided efficient teaching power, the next thing would be to prescribe some definite course of study for those who intended to present themselves for examination. The subjects for examination should have special reference to those branches of industry in which the candidates were engaged.

Every man who presented himself for examination should first pass a preliminary examination on the following subjects-Reading, Writing from dictation, Arithmetic, and the Elements of Political Economy; a fair knowledge of these subjects should be considered indispensable. Any two or three of the following subjects might be taken for special examination-Geometry and Mensuration, Plan Drawing to Scale, Mechanics and the Elements of Mechanism, the Elements of Chemistry and Natural Philosophy, and Physiology, so far as it related to the laws of health.

There are many gentlemen connected with the Society of Arts who would be able to select a very good list of text books on these subjects. The details of the examination might be easily arranged. As a general principle the method adopted in the examination of schoolmasters would answer very well.

The mere possession of a certificate, which stated that the owner had passed a certain examination in such and such subjects, would not be a sufficient inducement to go through the labour necessary to acquire it. Few schoolmasters would try year after year for a certificate, were it not for the pecuniary advantages belonging to it. There must be some substantial reward. Vacancies in the dockyards and other government establishments should be filled up by the appointment of men who had passed these examinations. Unless some encouragement of this kind is held out, I fear one of the best propositions for the elevation of the working classes will (at least, for the present) be entirely lost. I have thrown these remarks hastily together, with the hope that it may induce other Institutions to give the benefit of their opinion and experience on this important subject.


ation was adopted in the year 1794, and became the basis of the system now employed.

2. Mr. Miller brings forward a scheme for the improvement of our weights. Instead of our present system, which possesses unity of plan in so far as it is all founded upon the weight of the grain, he proposes the adoption of two decimal systems, the one founded upon the pound avoirdupois, and the other upon the ounce troy. In this country the metrical, or French system, founded upon the gramme, is already employed for scientific purposes, and will certainly continue to be used in operations which require delicacy and correctness, or which are intended to be understood by foreign philosophers. Moreover, we now read of kilogrammes in all our daily newspapers, and our intercourse with the countries which weigh by grammes and kilogrammes is so frequent, that a large portion of the English nation must soon become more or less familiar with them. I know an eminent professor of medicine in London, who directs all his students to make themselves accquainted with these weights. The reason is, that, besides being in themselves the best, any patient who went abroad with a prescription drawn up in grains, scruples, and drams, would find it useless as soon as he had crossed the Channel. If, therefore, Mr. Miller's proposal be adopted, three different systems, two of them new, and the other already established, will be employed; and this will produce no small amount of labour and con


In the earlier part of his paper Mr. Miller favours the idea of considering our own practice independently of the methods of other countries; but here we find him sliding into the principle of accommodation; for he argues in favour of the pound avoirdupois, that "it is the weight of all the German nations, and has been so from time immemorial." With respect to the matter of fact, I regret to say Mr. Miller is in error. One pound (pfund) is used in the north of Germany, another in the south. The Hans Towns have a different pound from the provinces of Prussia. The English pound of 7000 grains, "a weight,” as Mr. Miller observes," entirely new," is probably unknown throughout all Germany. But, supposing the English and German pounds to be any where identical, I would ask, if we are to accommodate ourselves to other nations, why should we not aim at agreeing with our nearest neighbours, the French and the Belgians, rather than with the Germans, with whom we have far less intercourse? I am informed that the Germans themselves are disposed to act upon this principle. Those of them who are contiguous to France, viz., portions of the Kingdom of Bavaria, and of the Grand Duchies of Baden and Hesse Darmstadt, are now devising regulations for the introduction of the French measures and weights. 3. We now come to the principal design of Mr. Miller's system of currency should stand upon its merits in relation to all classes: if this decimal system be not good for all, it is good for nothing." Having stated this important principle, Mr. Miller joins in the advocacy of a schieme which many have condemned, because, though convenient for merchants and bankers in this country, it would be injurious to the poor, and almost impracticable among the great masses of the people. I cannot better illustrate my meaning than by taking Mr. Miller's own example, viz., the sum of £900 9s. 9td., expressed in three modes, the pound (which is his mode), the shilling, and the penny; but to these three modes, which exist only in idea, I will subjoin the franc mode, which I recommend, and which is already in use even to a far greater extent than our present mode of pounds, shillings, pence, and farthings:

ON THE DECIMALIZATION OF COINS AND essay-the alteration of our money. Here, he says, "A


SIR,-I shall esteem it a favour, if you will allow space in your valuable and widely-circulated Journal, for a few remarks on Mr. Wm. Miller's essay, published in your number for Friday, the 5th instant.

1. Being an advocate, as Mr. Miller is, for the introduction of a uniform decimal computation in the measures, weights, and coins of this country, I only regret that, as Mr. Miller quoted a few of the recent English authors who have recommended and illustrated that method, he did not observe, in addition, that the merit of having introduced it into modern Europe is entirely due to the French. This important principle engaged the most serious attention of the Commissioners who were appointed by the French government to consider the subject in the latter part of the last century, and these very eminent and most competent judges, having deliberated with the utmost care and diligence upon the whole question, resolved, that a system of measures, weights, and coins, conformed to the decimal arithmetic established among all nations, was preferable to any other. Their recommend

Present mode
Pound mode
Shilling mode
Penny mode

Franc mode

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9001 9s. 94d. 900.4897. 18009.788. 216,117.25d.


As representations of the original sum of English

The farthing to be set down as
The halfpenny

The penny
The sixpence'
The shilling
The florin ...

The half-crown
The crown

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The half-sovereign
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Since twenty shillings weigh very nearly 4 oz. avoirdupois, the coin of account might be defined as the thousandth part, namely 1 grains, which would be represented by a copper token 40 times its weight, i.e. 70 grains. The current farthing when new weighs 72 11-12ths grains, but after a little wear is no heavier than the proposed token, so that the existing copper money might continue in circulation, and the trifling depreciation of its value as compared with the silver money would scarcely be felt. Indeed by the poorer classes the additional halfpenny in change for a shilling would perhaps be regarded as a bonus on their small purchases. Something has been said by the Parliamentary Committee about a probable loss to the government, but it should be recollected that at the Mint, about 9 pennyworth of copper is coined into 24 pence, leaving a handsome profit of 166 per cent. or thereabouts to the government.

money, all these four modes are incorrect except the penny mode, which is supported by the recommendation of Mr. Headlam and Dr. J. E. Gray. According to Mr. Miller's table of present values, the pound mode ought to be 900.48848167. He has made it more than half a mil above its true value. I consider it as one recommendation of the franc mode, that, in as far as a centime is smaller in value than a mil, it enables us, as in the present instance, to represent almost every amount with greater exactness. But my chief objection to the pound mode, as compared with the three others, is, that although it does not descend low enough in the expression of the smaller values, it requires three places of decimals, even for the work which it undertakes to do. I believe that such a method would be found intolerable in practice. The experience of all civilised countries shows that persons, even the poorest and rudest, have no difficulty in eounting by tens. Among ourselves we speak, even by preference, of 13 pence, 14 pence, 15 pence, &c.; and the French and Belgians continually reckon their small pay ments by introducing any number of centimes, such as half a frane, 50c.; a quarter of a franc, = 25c.; or the smaller amounts of 20, 15, 10c. &c. But I think it evident that the pound mode, as proposed by Mr. Miller, in which the pounds might be followed by any number of mils up to 999, would be perplexing even to good arithmeticians, and quite unmanageable by all besides. I here speak not of sums written down, but calculated by In exchange transactions foreign money would be easily memory, or in the head; and my objection is the same reduced to "English coins," which from the great comwhich Mr. Miller himself has advanced (p. 418,) in re-mercial importance of this country would probably become ference to weight, that "the same quantities would the universal standard of value; a franc, for instance, require three places of decimals to express them." If I might be reckoned 39 coins, a rupee 98, a dollar 219, a am right in this objection, it follows, as Mr. Miller does ducat 418, a thaler 148, and so on, according to the rate not propose more than two denominations, viz., pounds of exchange for the time being. The rule of "Exand mils, that his method must be abandoned. Although change" in arithmetic would then be reduced to an it would have, in a majority of cases, the advantage, as operation of simple multiplication. shown in his statement, of requiring one figure less than the other modes, I think that the monied interest ought to sabinit to this trifling inconvenience for the sake of the immense benefits which would ensue to all classes from the adoption of the franc mode.

I cannot conclude these observations without expressing my admiration of the diligence evinced by Mr. Miller in his historical statements, and of his ingenuity in his proposed management of our copper coinage, and my wish that a gentleman of so great acuteness and intellectual activity would pursue the subject in a still more comprehensive and philosophical spirit, and especially that he would bestow upon the whole systeme métrique the attention to which I think it most justly entitled.* I am, sir, yours most respectfully,

Highgate, May 13th, 1854.


DECIMAL NOTATION OF MONEY. SIB,-In the "Journal" of the 28th April, there is a notice of a paper on the Coinage, read by me at the Pembroke Dock Mechanics' Institute, but as there is no account of my proposal for a decimal notation, I beg to be allowed space for a brief outline.

To accomplish the desired reformation without disturbing the existing notions of value, or altering the names of the various pieces of money at present in circulation, nothing more would be necessary than for the government to enact that henceforward all accounts should be rendered in terms of one denomination only, according to the following table:

* Recent and authorised accounts of the system are contained in the following works :

Poids et Mesures, Monnaie, Calcul Decimal, et Verification. Par M. Tarbé. Paris, 1845. 12mo. (Price 3f., a Volume of the Encyclopedie-Roret.)

Manuel Populaire et Classique des Poids et Mesures. Par L. Daléchamps, Paris. 12mo. (Price, 3f.)

As the term "pound," when speaking of money, would be a synonymous with 1000 coins," it might be legally retained in business transactions, a thousand pounds being certainly a more convenient expression than a million coins. Silver 10-coin and 20.coin pieces might be issued with advantage, and the threepenny and fourpenny pieces called in I remain, sir,

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Your obedient Servant,



SIR,-As a manufacturer of drawing instruments, I beg to make the following remarks with reference to some cases of instruments examined by me at your office this day, the price of which is certainly very low, but such instruments would be dear at any price. The object of the Society of Arts" is very praiseworthy in encouraging the supply of the poorer class of students in the various departments of science and art, with drawing materials at a low cost, but it is an established fact that, the less the ability of the student, the better drawing materials he requires. The various government and other large establishments have tried the experiment of introducing cheap instruments without success, and the general conclusion is that a bad instrument is dear at any price, and does much to retard the progress of the student. The competition and the demand for all drawing materials is so large that the public secures a cheap and good supply; and I regret to add that the encouragement of the manufacture of cheap instruments, &c., has already deteriorated the value of English manufactures in our colonies and America, and the French and Germans are rapidly advancing to our former position in the supply of instruments, cutlery, and many other articles, which already is felt by the working-classes in our business as well as others. With respect to the instruments examined, the following are the

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