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INSTITUTE BOOK ORDERS.
Aylesbury, Mechanics' Institution 17 11
East Dereham, Institute
15 13 3
£ s. d.
£ 3. d.
11 17 8
THE PRESERVATION OF GRAIN, AND GRAIN
SIR, The paper of Mr. Leone Levi, on agricultural statistics is valuable for many things, and especially as provoking a discussion on an important subject. It is a very desirable thing to ascertain at all times what is the produce of our crops, but there seems to me to be a still more desirable object, the guarding against the probability of famine, by keeping always in stock such an amount of grain as will carry us over a total failure of harvest for a whole year. If we determined to use the means for rendering the preservation of grain certain, there would be no difficulty in this.
Political economy teaches us that the supply of all necessaries, food included, is most safely left to the operations of individual buying and selling; and that rises in prices are the salutary methods whereby people are unconsciously made to economize their consumption, and thus enable a limited supply to hold out, just as Joseph in the olden time in Egypt kept corn in hand till the year of famine had expired. Joseph did keep corn in hand; and probably the Egyptian dry climate had much to do with its duration: 5 8 8 possibly some of the mummy wheat of our time may have been of the identical grain hoarded by Joseph.
10 5 2
6 18 6
4 15 6
3 8 4
£165 14 5 125 15 11 Showing a total saving of £39 18s. 61d., or an average discount of about 25 per cent.
Our English grain is of three classes; two of which, oats and barley, are kept in the husk. Wheat is shelled out, and consequently is more exposed. The methods used to preserve it do not seem well adapted to our climate, and it is not considered in the light of a permanent substance, if we may judge from the fact, that while money may be borrowed on the mortgage of pipes of brandy in the docks, the like thing does not so easily take place with a stock of wheat in a granary. The one is considered a real property, the other ephemeral. We hear constantly of damaged wheat, The total number of different Institutions that have but not of damaged brandy; and of all fluctuating availed themselves of this plan during the five months it prices those of wheat are the most uncertain. To speculate has been in operation is seventy-six. Of these, two In-in wheat, is commonly supposed to require more shrewdness, stitutions have given orders every month, or five times; one, four times, one, thrice; eighteen, twice; and fifty-four, once.
It is particularly requested that the Secretaries of Institutes will attend to the instructions contained in the Book Circular, dated 13th October, 1853; that they will send the orders in duplicate on the prescribed forms, and despatch them so as to be at the Society's house not later than the 15th of each month.
AMERICAN PATENT OFFICE.
skill, and knowledge, than most other mercantile transactions, and commercial disasters in wheat are more common than in other commodities.
Why should this be? Why should an article in such universal demand be a source of peril to those dealing in it? The chief apparent reason, apart from ignorance as to qualities, is its perishable nature, the uncertainty of its remaining a fixed quantity in the granary that holds it. A thousand quarters may go in, good sound wheat; and after a time, by the operations of rats, mice, weevil, mildew, and men, may come out five hundred, and this amount reduced in value by the double operations of meting and transit thereof.
Most things connected with the storage and transit of wheat appear to be ill arranged. Home-grown wheat is tied up in sheaves and stacked-the stacks being erected on stone stilts to keep out vermin. It is usually thrashed out to send to market. If bought by the miller, it is ground up; if by the speculator it is conveyed to a granary.
During the last thirteen years, commencing January 1, 1841, and ending January 1, 1854, there have been 20,867 applicants for patents, 7,120 caveats, 9,353 patents issued, and 883,584 dollars received for duties, fees, &c. The arrears of unexamined new cases on the 1st of January, 1854, amounted to 800; cases rejected, but not withdrawn, 2,300; estimated number of new applications in 1854, A granary is a building of better or worse construction 4,000; estimated number of cases to be examined in 1854, according to locality and circumstances, and is commonly (new,) 4,800; estimated number of cases to be re-examined situated on the banks of a navigable stream, or in a seain 1854, (old,) 1,200. In 1848, the force employed in the port town. In most cases it is exposed to a very moist examining corps were 4 principal and 4 assistant ex- atmosphere. If of large size, the granary usually conaminers; whole number of new applications, 1,628. In sists of many stories, with wooden floors, barely sufficient 1851, 6 principal and 6 assistant examiners; whole number for a man to stand upright, and with numerous small winof new applications, 2,258. In 1854, 6 principal, 6 dows for the purpose of ventilation. The wheat is laid on assistant, and 6 sub-assistant; whole number of new ap- the floors from eighteen inches to two feet in thickness. plications, (probably,) 4,000; on hand, unexamined, Janu-Previous to storing, it must have undergone the process of ary 1st, 1854, 800; new cases to be examined in 1854, 4,800. Besides this, there will be the re-examination of returned cases, applications for re-issue, and applications for extension.
weighing or measuring, which has added to its cost. Transit and storing has added to this expence; and when in the granary it is frequently turned over by men with wooden shovels, to prevent mildew or fermentation by damp. This is third source of expense. Loss by vermin,
or by pilfering, is a fourth item. When sold, there is a fifth and sixth item in re-meting and transit.
Wheat is heavy and the granary must be a very strong building. Owing to the necessity of ventilation, the bulk of wheat stored is only equivalent to one-third or one-half the cubic contents of the building; and this again adds considerably to the dead capital employed, and on which interest has to be calculated. Another evil is, that for want of efficient granaries on a small scale in different localities, there is a tendency to be gathered together of large stocks of wheat in particular districts, which is subsequently redistributed, perhaps carried back to the original localities.
external part also if desired. It should be hermetically tight at all the joints; and the only opening should be what is called a man-hole, that is to say a canister-top, where the lid goes on, large enough to admit a man. When filled with grain, the top should be put on, the fitting of the edge forming an air-tight joint. Wheat put dry into such a vessel, and without any vermin, would remain wheat for any number of years. But an additional advantage to such a reservoir would be an air-pump, by the application of which, for the purpose of exhaustion, any casual vermin would be killed. If the grain were moist, the same air-pump might be used to draw or force a current of warm air through it to carry off the moisture. By this process, and subsequently keeping out the air, the grain might be preserved for any length of time. As the reservoir would be perfectly air-tight and watertight, it might be buried in the ground with perfect safety; and thus cellars might be rendered available for granaries, economizing space of comparatively little value. The grain would be easily poured in from the surface, and to discharge it an Archimedean screw should be used. The size of the reservoir should be proportioned to the locality; and it should hold a specified number of quarters, so as to serve as a measure of quantity and prevent the expence of meterage.
Reservoirs of this kind, of large size, should be placed in the ground, with rails running above them, so that waggons might run over them and discharge their contents inside by a hopper below. Thus, the grain of a corn district might be concentrated by railway at one spot, and discharged and reloaded at any time with the minimum of manual labour, without the expence of meterage, supposing the waggons to be constructed on the same principle of a
It would appear, then, that the want of efficient storage to preserve wheat permanently is one of the causes not merely of the fluctuations in price, but of a generally much higher price than would obtain if we could make as sure of it as a cargo of deals or coals. More persons would then embark in the trade, and there would be less tendency to make hurried sales for fear of loss. It would be a safer business for monied capitalists; the difference between harvest-time and winter prices would lessen; lucky speculations would be less numerous, but heavy losses would also lesson and general profits would increase. It would be a far better trade for those desirous of obtaining a lower but sure profit on their capital, and the advantages to the general community of obtaining the staple article of their food with little fluctuation in price would be very great. There does not seem to be any difficulty in the matter, if we can divest ourselves of preconceived ideas; of the notion that a granary or grain receptacle must necessarily be a building with a floor or windows more or less multiplied in altitude. We may reason by analogy as to what is the cheapest and most effective means of securing perish-specific quantity. able commodities from the action of the atmosphere and vermin. In England we put our flour in sacks. Brother Jonathan puts his in barrels; which does not thoroughly answer; for, through the fissures or pores, the atmosphere turns sour or musty a portion from half an inch to an inch in thickness, and sometimes the whole mass, -as witness If constructed above the ground, a stair or ladder must wasted cargoes coming even from Australia, to do duty, communicate with the upper part, and the lower part must mixed with cotton, in our calico-manufactories, and subse- be formed like a hopper for the purpose of discharge. For quently be washed out by our housewives. If Brother many farm localities this arrangement might be best; and Jonathan wishes really to preserve his flour or his "crack-wheat might be thrashed into grain direct from the field, ers" undamaged he makes them thoroughly dry and cool, and stored. and hermetically seals them in tin cans. This also is a common process to prevent goods being damaged at sea. The Chinese, not having much facility for metal manufacture, line wooden chests with thin sheet-lead or tin and pack their teas in them. In England we keep our tea and sugar in cases of tinned sheet-iron. We preserve meat in tinned cases hermetically sealed. We put fruit into sealed bottles. In all these cases, the object is to exclude the air as well as vermin.
There can be no doubt that if we were to put dry wheat in an hermetically-sealed tinned case, it might be kept as long as the famed "mummy-wheat" of Egypt. This will readily be admitted, but the expense would be queried.
Let us examine into this. A canister is a metallic reservoir; so is a gasometer; so is an iron water-tank in a ship, at a railway-station, or elsewhere; and a cubic foot of water-tank on a very large scale will be found to cost very much less than a cubic foot of canister on a small scale. And if a bushel of wheat be more valuable than a bushel of water, it will clearly pay to put wheat in huge
canisters of iron.
The wheat-canister, in short, should be a wrought or cast metal tank of greater or less size, according to the wants of the owner, whether for the farmer's crop or the grain-merchant's stock. This tank should be constructed of small parts connected together by screw-bolts; and, consequently, easily transported from place to place. The internal parts should be galvanized to prevent rust, and the
without trouble from one locality to another; and if run The communicating railways would thus transfer grain on to the docks and shipping, the same arrangements would serve both for export and import grain.
For public granaries the reservoirs might be made in compartments, and provided with locks, keys, and seals. A merchant might deposit his grain therein, lock it up quite secure against fire, vermin, or robbery, and deposit for any length of time, quite sure that when he might come back he would find it in the same condition, and of the same quantity. Or he might transfer it when away from home, the purchaser receiving it as exact measure, without fresh meterage.
Granaries of this description would occupy less than onethird the cubic space of those of the ordinary description, and their cost would be less than one-fifth.
They might be erected in any part of Europe, without regard to locality or climate.
They might be built as Government Magazines, supposing it were desirable so to invest public money; but the greater security to holders would insure a much larger constant surplus than now usually exists under a sense of insecurity, against decay.
With this security for storing safely, a farmer would have less hesitation in sowing great breadths of land. He would not be driven to market under an average value, and might choose his own time for selling. The fear of loss being dispelled, people would buy with less hesitation, and the great food-stores of the community would by a wholesome competition, insure the great mass of the community against a short supply. But as long as uncertainty shall prevail in the storage of grain, so long will it be a perilous trade to those engaged in it, and so long will the
food of the community be subject to a very irregular fluctuation of prices.
There is nothing difficult in this proposition. It is merely applying existing arrangements to unusual cases. There needs but the practical example to be set by influential people, and the great mass will travel in the same track. To the wealthy agriculturist it will be but the amplification of the principle of the tin-lined corn-bin, that keeps out the rats from the oats of the stable. The experiment might be complete in a month; the experience may spread over all time, or till wheat should cease to be a human food, by the substitution of some vegetable substance better fitted forthe nourishment of man,-a problem not yet
vent unnecessary fluctuations in price, it is also essential to obtain the statistics of the wages of labour, and circulate them amongst the labourers, in order that they, as well as other buyers and sellers, may find out the best markets, and remove from those which are overstocked. But the whole question of food-producing is still in its infancy. The chemists have given us glimpses of what we require. The vegetarians have stumbled on a truth which they have read wrongly, and the teetotallers, with their well-meaning bigotry, have helped the mystification. To the eye of reason all would be clear enough, if man would take the trouble to examine. But this must be the subject of another discussion.
Meanwhile, it is my conviction that any agricultural Were this mode of producing grain to become general, statistics that take in only matter, without considering men as their basis, must be fallacious. The food of a the facility of ascertaining stocks and crops after reaping, would be very great. The granaries being measures of country depending on underpaid labourers must be essenquantity, no hand measuring would be needed, and the of the labourers to get away to some better condition, as tially in a state of fluctuation, by the incessant tendency effects of wet harvest weather might be obviated. their knowledge grows, as has been the case in Ireland. But the mere statistics of quantities, even the stock-Land that could raise wheat at a profit with labour at 10s. per ing of reserves are not the be all and end all. We want week would clearly go out of cultivation with labour at the also the statistics of men, the producers of the grain. wholesome rate of 30s. per week, unless chemical and mechaWe do not want to be served by slaves of the granary, as nical skill could dispense with two-thirds of the numbers. the nations of antiquity were served with bread, by the Our national object should be to raise the rate of wages, and slaves of the mill. Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that especially the wages of food producers, for with low paid treadeth out the corn," and we ought not to muzzle the labourers, no country can be in a healthy political conlabourer who produces it. We do not want to regard dition, and it will invariably be found that those countries him as part of the farm chattels, but as a human creature. to be considered in the general question of national hap- the labourer is best provided for by an abundance of all are the most prosperous nationally, where individually piness. We do not want to be told that he has so many the things constituting bodily and mental health. A shillings per week, but a more fixed minimum, viz :— Government that pays away national funds in statistical So much of corn per week as will be equivalent to his inquiries to benefit, in the first place, the dealers in food, constant maintenance, with his wife and average number cannot in justice neglect the statistics that may help the of children, . e. so much of wholesome food as will per- labourers to better their own condition. It is not within mit the chemical quantities to maintain all bodily waste, the power of any Government to determme the minimum so much clothing or decent raiment, as will preserve of wages, but a Government is competent to point out all warmth while out of doors-in such lodgings as will deteriorating employments, not yielding the return essenafford sufficient and wholesome shelter, and such an tial to physical and mental health; and a nation 80 inamount of fuel as will keep the shelter warm and dry, structed would come at last to the conviction, that the and afford culinary facility, and so much surplus as will growth of deteriorating employments should be checked pay for industrial and pleasurable education. It is not by every countervailing influence. This would open up sufficient that larger stocks of food be gathered for the the question as to the bearing and operation of a sound rest of the nation if the food producer be pinched, and if the nation can only be supplied by partially underfed poor law, confining the tax, or causing it to fall heaviest slaves, it is evident that our system is wrong and wants settlement shall be put on an equitable footing, the pauper on the pauper producing employments. When the law of amending. It is evident that our machinery needs amend-producing districts and employments will be marked out, ing in order to diminish manual drudgery and afford bet- and public opinion be brought to bear upon them, as upon ter wages, and that if we have got to the maximum of any other nuisances. Poverty, save in the case of the improvement in our agricultural machinery without being physically or mentally disabled, is not a necessity of naable to afford good wages, it is a proof that our people are too ture, but a circumstance within the control of human thick upon the ground, and that it is time for them to emiresources. The time will come when the nation will fix grate from English agriculture to some foreign or colonial soil needing less drudgery to produce a crop. A Cambridge farmer complained to his clergyman of the insubordination of his labourers, and asked why he did not put souls into them. "Souls!" exclaimed the preacher, "at 78. a-week wages! you can't keep up the bodies at that rate. Pay them good wages, and I will undertake for their souls; but not otherwise." The first thing agricultural land ought to pay is, good wages, and after that profit, and after that rent: and if it will not do this, it is only fit for grazing. We ought not to grow food at the cost of deteriorating our race. No statistics that leave out the question of the well-being of the producer can be satisfactory. If we increase our numbers it must be in conjunction with the ample increase of our food, grown ot imported food, and not the food of underfed slaves. When it arrives at that, we must diminish our numbers by emigration.
That something is wrong we must judge, when we find it stated in the Times that the inmates of Irish workhouses are imported into Lancashire, at 4s. per head weekly wages, to replace the weavers out on strike.
The truth is, that while it is desirable to obtain the statistics of the general quality of food, in order to pre
a minimum quantity of food as a stimulant for its working population, as it now does for its soldiers, sailors, and men just as it prohibits the sale of unwholesome food. paupers, and prohibit the artificial growth of deteriorated Even now the Life Insurance Offices point out unwholeindividuals by increased charges. A sound poor law some lives, and their causes, and practically fine the would operate on pauperising employments in the same mode. In all this there is nothing new. If the agriculturist would apply to his farm labourers the rules that he applies to his cattle when he wishes to obtain the best physical result, he would not be long in obtaining it. If the neglect of these rules were followed by the same ruinous results to himself individually, as would be the case if neglecting his cattle, the man would be cared for in the same manner. While the men can be shuffled away on to the general pauper fund, he pushes off his difficulty on to the shoulders of the nation. It is only by making such men individually more valuable, putting a five or ten men power into each by skilled processes, and paying him good wages, that the man can be made out of a helot into a citizen, and only thus that the employer can be made aware of his value. It will be a proud day for England when these principles (well under
museum is for study and improvement, not merely for general amusement. Not only may the form and colour of an article be admired, but its component materials may be studied, their adaptation for the purpose, and the different modes of handling, and fabricating the same materials, and, in many instances, the tools of the workmen. Men who have studied in the museum have been sent into the various manufactories of the province, in the hope of importing in them fresh intelligence. The museum is in one of the extreme provinces of Prussia, in a town of no great magnitude, the centre, however, of what was once the most industrious part of the kingdom; it is adapted especially, although not exclusively, to the wants of the province; it is accessible for study, and to the public, and was formed at the sole expence and is still the property of Herr Von Minutoli; a memorable instance of the devotion of private energy and of private generosity in the discharge of the public duties of his office.
I quote the following from an address by Dr. Sammter, of Liegnitz, delivered in the lecture-room of the museum, explanatory of its contents, and the objects of the founder. I am, Sir, your obedient servant, ALEXANDER REDGRAVE.
stood by many) shall pervade the great mass of the community. Every new improvement in production might be accompanied by a corresponding rise in the condition of the producers, if it were understood that they were not permitted to be worse off than soldiers or paupers. That many are not so well off, is not an imputation on their employers; it is a necessary condition of the want of education and low wages, and a result simply of the numbers being in excess of the food. Every employer (with but few exceptions) would more willingly pay high than low wages if his profits would permit him; but, if from ignorance of statistics he continues to work at a failing trade, he must necessarily employ labourers at insufficient wages. Statistics should give the rates of wages paid in agriculture, the quantities of food and necessaries that can be procured with them, the habits, manners. customs, and dwellings,--and these should be compared with the wages paid in the mechanical arts of the textile, iron, and other trades, and with the habits, manners, customs, and dwellings of those working at those trades. It is a certain thing that our capital and our power will increase in proportion to the longevity of our population. It is a much more costly thing to teach and train people up to twenty years, to get ten to fifteen years of inefficient work out of them, than it is to train up people to work twenty-five to thirty-five years of efficient work. If it be a fact that only 5 out of 27 men picked by recruiting sergeants from our northern "The founder of this collection, who, from his official manufacturing population will pass the surgeon's exami- position, had the opportunity of becoming familiar with nation, it is not a condition of things with which we should the nature and wants of the industry of our country, and remain contented. By violating the laws of nature, particularly with the causes which impeded the industry of Ireland became a scene of almost universal distress; by Silesia, considered that the contemplation and study of cholera and famine nature provided a remedy for the examples of high excellenee would tend to excite emulaevil. By examining and pointing out the statistics of the tion and to improve taste. This feeling engaged him to causes leading to distress, England may be preserved from form a collection of examples, not, however, confined to the such an infliction, and may gradually grow up to pre-specialities of the province, but connected with the trade sent to the people of the world a standard example of the highest phase of humanity in physical and moral elevation. To accomplish this, it is needful that the deteiorating employments be cast out from amongst us by the institution of improved processes; and when this shall be accomplished, disputes between the employers and the employed will be ended. Meanwhile the direct poorhouse for the relief of those suffering by accidental poverty would be a far less evil than the indirect processes tending to increase their numbers and render the condition of misery a normal one, as with the seamstresses now passing away.
I am, Sir, yours faithfully,
W. BRIDGES ADAMS.
April 5, 1854. MUSEUM OF INDUSTRIAL ART AT LEIGNITZ. SIR,-I am gratified that you considered my report upon the factory system of Prussia of sufficient interest to be quoted so largely in your journal. In that report I only glanced at a subject which I think it is desirable should be known by all who are promoting art education. I allude to the museum of Herr Von Minutoli, referred to at page 96. This gentleman, who, as Councillor of State (Regierungs Rath) of the regency of Liegnitz, had cognizance of that part of Silesia so celebrated for its linen fabrics, and the seat of other branches of industry, was in a position to be thoroughly acquainted with the precise condition of the province, and actuated by the desire of ministering to the wants of his countrymen, of rescuing them from poverty and unprofitable occupations, and of again raising the fame and character of Silesian manufactures, commenced a collection of works of industrial art. Visiting foreign countries in pursuance of various commissions from his government, he had especial opportunities of selecting examples, and after twelve or fourteen years' pursuit of his object, he brought together the materials for a museum. The government recognized his labours, and promoted his views; they granted a part of the Royal Castle of Liegnitz for their reception and arrangement. It will be seen that the
London, March 29, 1854.
and commerce of the whole country. In a few years the materials for a museum were collected, for the reception of which there was no local accomodation. The king and the government, appreciating the intentions of Herr Von Minutoli, appropriated a considerable part of the Royal Castle of Liegnitz for the arrangement of the collection. Herr Von Minutoli thus describes the object of the collection:-The collection is neither a museum of art aor of antiquities. It is rather a collection of works of industry and was originated in the desire of aiding in the improvement of the fabric, by the examination of examples of at tested excellence, adapted, not only to those branches of industry already developed in Silesia, but to others, which from local advantages might be introduced. The subjects therefore, bear upon the artistic products of industry, partly works of classical antiquity, partly of the quatro-cinque, and sci-cento period, when the regeneration of art flourished, and art, in connection with industry, created works which will remain examples for all time. Upon these products, the value of which is analogous to the genius creating them, the principal attention was directed. When these are contrasted with more modern examples, the decline of technical knowledge and art is apparent.
"As the efforts of art and workmanship approach and combine in production, it follows that art must predominate. This must be allowed, as in the works of masters, who were at the same time artists and workmen, and whose products are of corresponding interest as works of art-for instance, the works of Benvenuto Cellini, Lucca della Robbia and his son, John of Bologna, Fischer, Loudin, Oudry, &c.; but also from the works of others, still greater masters, whose genius and works had an immense influence upon the direction of taste as Raphael, Guilio Romano, Michel Angelo, Bernini, Lucca Giordano, and other mea in Nurnburg and the Netherlands, who, although artists of the first rank, did not disdain to exhibit the most lively interest in the improvement of art workmanship.'
Officers were specially directed by the Government to examine and report upon the collection. Valuable and interesting reports were published, setting forth the com
This division is again divided into three compartments, representing the classical, middle-age, and modern pe riods. In the classical sub-division the walls represent the architectural and decorative arrangements of the Egyp tians, Greeks, and Romans, by views of some of their most celebrated temples. Architecture is represented by a series of models of the pyramids of Eygpt, the Temple at Tivoli, the Arch of Severus at Rome, and others. To illustrate the ancient art of building, materials are ar
pleteness and great utility of the undertaking. In one of these reports is the following description of the Museum :"The collection perfectly corresponds with the aim of the founder. The exhibition of each particular class of subject separately, proves that the arrangement and classification is not made after the plan of an antiquary, but upon the principle of a technical collection of industrial art. It is arranged with a rare insight into technicality, a great knowledge of the works themselves and their component materials. Two subjects of the highest importance for the interests of Silesia-pottery and glass-are illus-ranged, as fragments of columns, friezes, and ornaments, trated by objects which might be placed amongst the most distinguished productions of art.
"The works in leather carpets raised with gold and colour are of great interest. The examples of bobbin lace of great value and rarity, have been preserved in good condition nearly 300 years.
some of marble, some of burned clay; bricks, roofing tiles, pavements, and mosaic works; marble and plaster busts, and, lastly, there is a collection of gems showing the perfection of handiwork in the polishing and engraving of precious stones.
Next are arranged specimens of pottery and terra-cotta, "The works of pottery and glass merit great attention; from the Egyptians and Greeks, to the decline of art-speand manifest that degree of perfection which is the result cimens of the glass fabrics; then of metal wares and bronze tcastings, and lastly, in this compartment, manufactures of of the combination of art with technical skill. Amongst animal and vegetable substances are exhibited, as carved the examples, every kind of glass is to be found, of glass-works in wood and ivory, and textile fabrics, even the melting and refining; every composition and mixture of finest productions of Byssus, which have braved a thousand clay-from the earliest Venetian glass to the productions of the last century-from the earthern vessels and porcelain of the Chinese and Japanese to the earthern utensils of the Germans-from the marjolicas of the Italians and the Wedgewood ware of England and the pottery ware
"The collection begins with the works of the simplest form and composition, and leads on to the most artistic productions. Every kind of vessel is represented; turned with the hand on the round plate, moulded by hand, or in models, glazed or natural, enamelled or ornamented in colour, from the most insignificant potsherd, to vessels of the most gorgeous pattern and design. The purpose of technical instruction appears still more in a collection of fragments of antique glass vessels and materials. These fragments are quite proper for mechanical investigation, and, examined with intelligence, will surely unfold many enabled the ancients to attain such high perfection. The things which are mysteries to us, the knowledge of which same may be said of the works in pottery."
We proceed now to describe the collection as it exists at this moment, according to the arrangement of the founder. and in the order in which it should be visited and studied.
This division of the collection relates to the products of industry, and has three compartments, one devoted to articles produced from the mineral, another from the vegetable, and the last from the animal kingdoms. In the first compartment are represented the working in stone, in metal, in glass and clay; the fashioning of stone, and the manipulation of clay; the metal formed with the hammer and by the chisel and graver. Here may be studied the works of the locksmith, armourer, sword. cutler, gunmaker, spurmakers, as well as the artizans in nobler metals. Bricks, building ornaments, hollow vessels of all ages, and every description of the manufacture of glass, hollow glass, coloured glass, imitation of stone, &c. The next compartment represents vegetable stuffs: the application of woods, leaves, fruits, and fibres, from the simplest manufacture to the finest mosaic; the application of bark first as clothing of savages, and then as works of beauty produced by the loom; the adaptation of refuse shreds for the fabrication of paper, and papier maché; and lastly, specimens of wood-cutting and typography.
The last compartment exhibits the products from the animal kingdom. Raw hides and the finest specimens of stamped leather, articles of bone, ivory, mother of pearl, whether for domestic use or as specimens of art workmanship; specimens of woven and embroided hair, of the production and manufacture of silk, and of ornamenting with feathers.
The next sub-division is devoted to the middle age. A considerable space is occupied with this collection. While in the last sub-division the works for satisfying luxury and the pleasures of life are most prominent in number, importance, and from their exhibiting the finest taste and the highest practical science, here is to be observed the decline of taste, then the power of the hierarchy, and at last the long and painful, but victorious struggle of the revival of purer art. First in arrangement are the sacred utensils of Divine service, and instruments of war, carved altars, richly gilt and decorated; examples of brickwork, and fine ornaments of Lombard buildings of the 14th and 15th centuries, amongst them the works of Antonio Filarete, and of Robbia. Groups and trophies of the works of the armourers, locksmiths, spurriers, &c.; panes of glass from the Cathedrals of Milan and Cologne, and the great workshops of North and South Germany, the Netherlands, and Switzerland. Carpets which decorated the floors and walls of churches and palaces.
In niches stand sarcophagi and altars. In the centre of the room rises a column of marble surmounted with the statue of the virgin, a Neapolitan work of gilt clay. Around the room are chairs with splendidly embossed leather fittings, carved confessionals, and varieties of mosaics of the best masters of Italy. Upon tables are arranged products in clay, the Arabic and Spanish Marjolicas, and Italian imitations of them and a collection of Italian state glasses of the most excellent workmanship.
Between this and the next subdivision, are exhibited those subjects which properly belong to a period between the classical middle age and the modern time, examples of the so-called renaissance.
The last subdivision isappropriated to the modern age. The ceilings are after Raphael, from the Vatican. The doors are ornamented with caryatides and friezes of the Venetian masters of the 15th and 16th centuries. The walls are hung with Gobelin tapestries. Carved wooden chests, one by Baccio Bandinelli, enriched with reliefs. Marble reliefs by M. Angelo; clay statues by Lucca della Robbia, and other works by Stucco and Sgraffito, after M. Angelo and Raphael. Upon tables and upon shelves, are arranged master works of Italian pottery of the 15th and 16th centuries, from the workshops of Pesaro, Eubio, Urbino, &c., who followed the design sof Raphael in vases, dishes, plates, and other vessels; enamels and vessels of the highest degree of perfection in glass; gems, and mosaics.
A compartment is next devoted to the period which immediately followed the discovery of America, to the commencement of the thirty years' war. German industry is here illustrated from the workshops of Nurnberg,