Puslapio vaizdai






Home Correspondence.

Full Price. Red. Price.
$. d.

S. d THE PRESERVATION OF GRAIN, AND GRAIN Aylesbury, Mechanics’Institution 17 11 0 11 17 8

PRODUCERS. Brighton, Mechanics' Institution 13 15 0 10 15 0

SIR,—The paper of Mr. Leone Levi, on agricultural staBromley, Literary Institute 7 13 0 5 13 2 tistics is valuabl for many things, and especially as proBury, Athenæum

19 14 3 15 13 3

voking a discussion on an important subject. It is a very East Dereham, Institute

2 16 0 2 2 0 desirable thing to ascertain at all times what is the produce East Retford, Literary and Scientific Institution

of our crops, but there seems to me to be a still more 7 19 2

6,2 ? desirable object, the guarding against the probability of Gateshead, Mechanics’ Institute 3 8 4

2 13 11 famine, by keeping always in stock such an amount of Hereford, Permanent Library ... 7 8 0 5 16

grain as will carry us over a total failure of harvest for a Leamington, Literary and Scien

whole year. If we determined to use the means for rentific Institution

1 7 111

10?dering the preservation of grain certain, there would be London, Bank of England, Li

no difficulty in this, brary, and Literary Association 12 13 0 9 15 7

Political economy teaches us that the supply of all necesMaidenhead, Mechanies' Literary

saries, food included, is most safely left to the operations and Scientific Institution 1 19 6 1 10 11

of individual buying and selling; and that rises in prices Pershore, Mechanics’ Institution 1 8 6 0 15 Poole, Mechanics’ Institute

are the salutary inethods whereby people are unconsciously

26 18 8 20 19 8 Saffron Walden, Literary and

made to economize their consumption, and thus enable a Scientific Institution ...

limited supply to hold out, just as Joseph in the olden time

13 5 3 10 2 St. Ives, Institution

2 12

in Egypt kept corn in hand till the year of famine had ex

0 1 17 11 Sevenoaks, Literary Institution 0 18

pired. Joseph did keep corn in' hand; and probably the

9 0 15 Wandsworth, Literary and Sci

Egyptian dry climate had much to do with its duration : entific Institution

5 8 8 possibly some of the mummy wheat of our time may bare West Hartlepool, Literary and

been of the identical grain hoarded by Joseph. Mechanics' Institute ...

ö 7 6 4 0 3

Our English grain is of three classes; two of which, oats Yarmouth and Southtown, Insti

and barley, are kept in the husk. Wheat is shelled out, and tute

6 18 6 5 4 0 consequently is more exposed. The methods used to preYork, Institute of Popular Sci

serve it dɔ not seem well adapted to our climate, and it is not ence and Literature ...

4 15 6

3 8 4 considered in the light of a permanent substance, if we may

judge from the fact, that while money may be borrowed on

£165 14 54 125 15 11 the mortgage of pipes of brandy in the docks, the like Showing a total saving of £39 188. 64d., or an average a granary. The one is considered a real property, the

thing does not so easily take place with a stock of wheat in discount of about 25 per cent.

other ephemeral. We hear constantly of damaged wheat, The total number of different Institutions that have but not of damaged brandy; and of all fluctuating availed themselves of this plan during the five months it prices those of wheat are the most uncertain. To speculate has been in operation is seventy-six. Of these, two In- in wheat, is commonly supposed to require more shrewdness, stitutions have given orders every month, or

five skill, and knowledge, than most other mercantile transactimes; one, four times, one, thrice ; eighteen, twice; and tions, and commercial disasters in wheat are more common fifty-four, once.

than in other commodities. It is particularly requested that the Secretaries of Insti. Why should this be? Why should an article in such tutes will attend to the instructions contained in the Book universal demand be a source of peril to those dealing in it? Circular, dated 13th October, 1853; that they will send The chief apparent reason, apart from ignorance as to qualithe orders in duplicate on the prescribed forms, and ties, is its perishable nature, the uncertainty of its remaindespatch them so as to be at the Society's house not later ing a fixed quantity in the granary that holds it. A than the 15th of each month.

thousand quarters may go in, good sound wheat; and after a time, by the operations of rats, mice, weevil, mildew, and men, may come out five hundred, and this amount reduced

in value by the double operations of meting and transit AMERICAN PATENT OFFICE.

thereof. During the last thirteen years, commencing January 1, Most things connected with the storage and transit of 1841, and ending January 1, 1854, there have been wheat appe to be ill arranged. Home-grown wheat is tied 20,867 applicants for patents, 7,120 caveats, 9,353 patents up in sheaves and stacked—the stacks being erected on issued, and 883,581 dollars received for duties, fees, &c. stone stilts to keep out vermin. It is usually thrashed out The arrears of unexamined new cases on the 1st of January, to send to market. If bought by the miller, it is ground 1854, amounted to 800 ; cases rejected, but not withdrawn, up; if by the speculator it is conveyed to a granary. 2,300; estimated number of new applications in 1854, A granary is a building of better or worse construction 4,000; estimated number of cases to be examined in 1854, according to locality and circumstances, and is commonly (new,) 4,800 ; estimated number of cases to be re-examined situated on the banks of a navigable stream, or in a seain 1854, (old,) 1,200. In 1848, the force employed in the port town. In most cases it is exposed to a very moist examining corps were 4. principal and 4 assistant ex- atmosphere. If of large size, the granary usually conaminers; whole number of new applications, 1,628. Insists of many stories, with wooden floors, barely sufficient 1851,6 principal and 6 assistant examiners; whole number for a man to stand upright, and with numerous small winof new applications, 2,258. In 1854, 6 principal, 6dows for the purpose of ventilation. The wheat is laid on assistant, and 6 sub-assistant; whole number of new ap- the floors from eighteen inches to two feet in thickness. plications, (probably,) 4,000 ; on hand, unexamined, Janu- Previous to storing, it must have undergone the process of ary 1st, 1854, 800; new cases to be examined in 1854, weighing or measuring, which has added to its cost. 4,800. Besides this, there will be the re-examination of Transit and storing has added to this expence; and when returned cases, applications for re-issue, and applications in the granary it is frequently turned over hy men with for extension.

wooden shovels, to prevent mildew or fermentation by damp. This is third source of expense. Loss by vermin,



or by pilfering, is a fourth item. When sold, there is a external part also if desired. It should be hermetically fifth and sixth item in re-meting and transit.

tight at all the joints ; and the only opening should be Wheat is heavy and the granary must be a very strong what is called a man-hole, that is to say a canister-top, building. Owing to the necessity of ventilation, the bulk where the lid goes on, large enough to admit a man. of wlicat stored is only equivalent to one-third or one-half When filled with grain, the top should be put on, the the cubic contents of the building; and this again adds fitting of the edge forming an air-tight joint. Wheat considerably to the dead capital employed, and on which put dry into sucn a vessel, and without any vermin, would interest has to be calculated. Another evil is, that for remain wheat for any number of years. But an additional want of efficient granaries on a small scale in different advantage to such a reservoir would be an air-pump, by localities, there is a tendency to be gathered together of the application of which, for the purpose of exhaustion, large stocks of wheat in particular districts, which is sub- any casual vermin would be killed. "If the grain were sequently redistributed, perhaps carried back to the original moist, the same air-pump might be used to draw or localities.

force a current of warm air through it to carry off the It would appear, then, that the want of efficient storage moisture. By this process, and subsequently keeping out to preserve wheat permanently is one of the causes not the air, the grain might be preserved for any length of time. merely of the fluctuations in price, but of a generally much As the reservoir would be perfectly air-tight and waterhigher price than would obtain if we could make as sure of tight, it might be buried in the ground with perfect safety ; it as a cargo of deals or coals. More persons would then and thus cellars might be rendered available for granaries, embark in the trade, and there would be less tendency to economizing space of comparatively little value. The grain make hurried sales for fear of loss. It would be a safer would be easily poured in from the surface, and to discharge business for monied capitalists; the difference between it an Archimedean screw should be used. The size of the harvest-time and winter prices wonld lessen ; lucky specu. reservoir should be proportioned to the locality; and it lations would be less numerous, but heavy losses would should hold a specified number of quarters, so as to serve also lesson and general profits would increase. It would as a measure of quantity and prevent the expence of be a far better trade for those desirous of obtaining a lower meterage. but sure profit on their capital, and the advantages to the Reservoirs of this kind, of large size, should be placed in general community of obtaining the staple article of their the ground, with rails running above them, so that waggons food with little fluctuation in price would be very great.

might run over them and discharge their contents inside There does not seem to be any difficulty in the matter, by a hopper below. Thus, the grain of a corn district if we can divest ourselves of preconceived ideas; of the might be concentrated by railway at one spot, and discharged notion that a granary or grain receptacle must necessarily and reloaded at any time with the minimum of manual be a building with a floor or windows more or less multi- labour, without the expence of meterage, supposing the plied in altitude. We may reason by analogy as to what waggons to be constructed on the same principle of a is the cheapest and most effective means of securing perish, specific quantity. able commodities from the action of the atmosphere and vermin. In England we put our flour in sacks. Brother without trouble from one locality to another ; and if run

The communicating railways would thus transfer grain Jonathan puts his in barrels; which does not thoroughly

on to the docks and shipping, the same arrangements answer; for, through the fissures or pores, the atmosphere turns sour or musty a portion from half an inch to an inch would serve both for export and import grain. in thickness, and sometimes the whole mass,-as witness

If constructed above the ground, a stair or ladder must wasted cargoes coming even from Australia, to do duty, communicate with the upper part, and the lower part must mixed with cotton, in our calico-manufactories, and subse- | be formed like a hopper for the purpose of discharge. For quently be washed out by our housewives. 'lf Brother many farm localities this arrangement might be best; and Jonathan wishes really to preserve his flour or his “ crack- wheat might be thrashed into grain direct from the field, ers" undamaged he makes them thoroughly dry and cool, and stored. and hermetically seals them in tin cans. This also is a For public granaries the reservoirs might be made in common process to prevent goods being damaged at sea. compartments, and provided with locks, keys, and seals, The Chinese, not having much facility for metal manufac- A merchant might deposit his grain therein, lock it up ture, line wooden chests with thin sheet-lead or tin and quite secure against fire, vermin, or robbery, and deposit pack their teas in them. In England we keep our tea and for any length of time, quite sure that when he might sugar in cases of tinned sheet-iron. We preserve meat in come back he would find it in the same condition, and of tinned cases hermetically sealed. We put fruit into sealed the same quantity. Or he might transfer it when away bottles. In all these cases, the object is to exclude the air from home, the purchaser receiving it as exact measure, as well as vermin.

without fresh meterage. There can be no doubt that if we were to put dry wheat Granaries of this description would occupy less than onein an hermetically-sealed tinned case, it might be kept as third the cubic space of those of the ordinary description, long as the famed “ mummy-wheat” of Egypt. This and their cost would be less than one-fifth. will readily be admitted, but the expense would be They might be erected in any part of Europe, without queried.

regard to locality or climate. Let us examine into this. A canister is a metallic They might be built as Government Magazines, supporeservoir; so is a gasometer; so is an iron water-tank in sing it were desirable so to invest public money ; but the a ship, at a railway-station, or elsewhere ; and a cubic foot greater security to holders would insure a much larger of water-tank on a very large scale will be found to cost constant surplus than now usually exists under a sense of very much less than a cubic foot of canister on a small insecurity, against decay. scale. And if a bushel of wheat be more valuable than a With this security for storing safely, a farmer would bushel of water, it will clearly pay to put wheat in huge have less hesitation in sowing great breadths of land. He canisters of iron.

would not be driven to market under an average value, TI wheat-canister, in short, should be a wrought or and might choose his own time for selling. The fear of cast metal tank of greater or less size, according to the loss being dispelled, people would buy with less hesitation, wants of the owner, whether for the farmer's crop or the and the great food-stores of the community would by a grain-merchant's stock. This tank should be constructed wholesome competition, insure the great mass of the comof small parts connected together by screw-bolts ; and, munity against a short supply. But as long as uncertainty consequently, easily transported from place to place. The shall prevail in the storage of grain, so long will it be a internal parts should be galvanized to prevent rust, and the perilous trade to those engaged in it, and so long will the

food of the community be subject to a very irregular fluctuation of prices.

There is nothing difficult in this proposition. It is merely applying existing arrangements to unusual cases. There needs but the practical example to be set by influential people, and the great mass will travel in the same track. To the wealthy agriculturist it will be but the amplification of the principle of the tin-lined corn-bin, that keeps out the rats from the oats of the stable. The experiment might be complete in a month; the experience may spread over all time, or till wheat should cease to be a human food, by the substitution of some vegetable substance better fitted forthe nourishment of man,-a problem not yet


vent unnecessary fluctuations in price, it is also essential to obtain the statistics of the wages of labour, and circulate them amongst the labourers, in order that they, as well as other buyers and sellers, may find out the best markets, and remove from those which are overstocked. But the whole question of food-producing is still in its infancy. The chemists have given us glimpses of what we require. The vegetarians have stumbled on a truth which they have read wrongly, and the teetotallers, with their well-meaning bigotry, have helped the mystification. To the eye of reason all would be clear enough, if man would take the trouble to examine. But this must be the subject of another discussion.

Meanwhile, it is my conviction that any agricultural statistics that take in only matter, without considering

men as their basis, must be fallacious.

The food of a

Were this mode of producing grain to become general, the facility of ascertaining stocks and crops after reaping, would be very great. The granaries being measures of country depending on underpaid labourers must be essenquantity, no hand measuring would be needed, and the tially in a state of fluctuation, by the incessant tendency of the labourers to get away to some better condition, as effects of wet harvest weather might be obviated. their knowledge grows, as has been the case in Ireland. But the mere statistics of quantities, even the stock-Land that could raise wheat at a profit with labour at 10s. per ing of reserves are not the be all and end all. We want week would clearly go out of cultivation with labour at the also the statistics of men, the producers of the grain. wholesome rate of 30s.per week, unless chemical and mechaWe do not want to be served by slaves of the granary, as nical skill could dispense with two-thirds of the numbers. the nations of antiquity were served with bread, by the Our national object should be to raise the rate of wages, and slaves of the mill. Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that especially the wages of food producers, for with low paid treadeth out the corn," and we ought not to muzzle the labourers, no country can be in a healthy political conlabourer who produces it. We do not want to regard dition, and it will invariably be found that those countries him as part of the farm chattels, but as a human creature. are the most prosperous nationally, where individually to be considered in the general question of national hap- the labourer is best provided for by an abundance of all piness. We do not want to be told that he has so many the things constituting bodily and mental health. A shillings per week, but a more fixed minimum, viz:-Government that pays away national funds in statistical So much of corn per week as will be equivalent to his inquiries to benefit, in the first place, the dealers in food, constant maintenance, with his wife and average number cannot in justice neglect the statistics that may help the of children, i. e. so much of wholesome food as will per- labourers to better their own condition. It is not within mit the chemical quantities to maintain all bodily waste, the power of any Government to determme the minimum so much clothing or decent raiment, as will preserve of wages, but a Government is competent to point out all warmth while out of doors-in such lodgings as will deteriorating employments, not yielding the return essenafford sufficient and wholesome shelter, and such an tial to physical and mental health; and a nation 80 inamount of fuel as will keep the shelter warm and dry, structed would come at last to the conviction, that the and afford culinary facility, and so much surplus as will growth of deteriorating employments should be checked pay for industrial and pleasurable education. It is not by every countervailing influence. This would open up sufficient that larger stocks of food be gathered for the the question as to the bearing and operation of a sound rest of the nation if the food producer be pinched, and if poor law, confining the tax, or causing it to fall heaviest the nation can only be supplied by partially underfed on the pauper producing employments. When the law of slaves, it is evident that our system is wrong and wants settlement shall be put on an equitable footing, the pauper amending. It is evident that our machinery needs amend-producing districts and employments will be marked out, ing in order to diminish manual drudgery and afford bet- and public opinion be brought to bear upon them, as upon ter wages, and that if we have got to the maximum of any other nuisances. Poverty, save in the case of the improvement in our agricultural machinery without being physically or mentally disabled, is not a necessity of naable to afford good wages, it is a proof that our people are too ture, but a circumstance within the control of human thick upon the ground, and that it is time for them to emiresources. The time will come when the nation will fix grate from English agriculture to some foreign or colonial a minimum quantity of food as a stimulant for its worksoil needing less drudgery to produce a crop. A Cambridge ing population, as it now does for its soldiers, sailors, and farmer complained to his clergyman of the insubordination of his labourers, and asked why he did not put souls paupers, and prohibit the artificial growth of deteriorated into them. Souls!" exclaimed the preacher, men just as it prohibits the sale of unwholesome food. "at 75. Even now the Life Insurance Offices point out unwholea-week wages! you can't keep up the bodies at that rate. Pay them good wages, and I will undertake for their individuals by increased charges. A sound poor law some lives, and their causes, and practically fine the souls; but not otherwise." The first thing agricultural would operate on pauperising employments in the same land ought to pay is, good wages, and after that profit, mode. In all this there is nothing new. If the agriand after that rent: and if it will not do this, it is only culturist would apply to his farm labourers the rules that fit for grazing. We ought not to grow food at the cost of he applies to his cattle when he wishes to obtain the best deteriorating our race. No statistics that leave out the physical result, he would not be long in obtaining it. If question of the well-being of the producer can be satisfac- the neglect of these rules were followed by the same tory. If we increase our numbers it must be in conjunc- ruinous results to himself individually, as would be the tion with the ample increase of our food, grown ot case if neglecting his cattle, the man would be cared for imported food, and not the food of underfed slaves. in the same manner. While the men can be shuffled When it arrives at that, we must diminish our numbers away on to the general pauper fund, he pushes off his by emigration. difficulty on to the shoulders of the nation. It is only by making such men individually more valuable, putting a


That something is wrong we must judge, when we find it stated in the Times that the inmates of Irish work-five or ten men power into each by skilled processes, and houses are imported into Lancashire, at 48. per head paying him good wages, that the man can be made weekly wages, to replace the weavers out on strike. out of a helot into a citizen, and only thus that The truth is, that while it is desirable to obtain the the employer can be made aware of his value. It will be a statistics of the general quality of food, in order to pre-proud day for England when these principles (well under


stood by many) shall pervade the great mass of the com- museum is for study and improvement, not merely for munity. Every new improvement in production might be general amusement. Not only may the form and colour of accompanied by a corresponding rise in the condition of an article be admired, but its component materials may be the producers, if it were understood that they were not studied, their adaptation for the purpose, and the different permitted to be worse off than soldiers or paupers. That modes of bandling, and fabricating the same materials, and, many are not so well off, is not an imputation on their in many instances, the tools of the workmen. Men who employers; it is a necessary cor.dition of the want of edu- have studied in the museum have been sent into the various cation and low wages, and a result simply of the numbers manufactories of the province, in the hope of importing in being in excess of the food. Every employer (with but them fresh intelligence. The museum is in one of the exfew exceptions) would more willingly pay high than low treme provinces of Prussia, in a town of no great magniwages if his profits would permit him ; but, if from igno- tude, the centre, however, of what was once the most rance of statistics he continues to work at a failing trade, industrious part of the kingdom; it is adapted especially, he must necessarily employ labourers at insufficient although not exclusively, to the wants of the province ; it is wages. Statistics should give the rates of wages paid in ag- accessible for study, and to the public, and was formed at riculture, the quantities of food and necessaries that can the sole expence and is still the property of Herr Von Minube procured with them, the habits, manners. customs, and toli; a memorable instance of the devotion of private dwellings,--and these should be compared with the wages energy and of private generosity in the discharge of the paid in the mechanical arts of the textile, iron, and other public dut of office. trades, and with the habits, manners, customs, and dwell- I quote the following from an address by Dr. Sammter, ings of those working at those trades. It is a certain thing of Liegnitz, delivered in the lecture-room of the museum, that our capital and our power will increase in proportion to explanatory of its contents, and the objects of the founder. the longevity of our population. It is a much more costly thing to teach and train people up to twenty years, to get

I am, Sir, your obedient servant,

ALEXANDER REDGRAVE. ten to fifteen years of inefficient work out of them, than it is to train up people to work twenty-five to thirty-five

London, March 29, 1854. years of efficient work. If it be a fact that only 5 out of 27 men picked by recruiting sergeants from our northern “ The founder of this collection, who, from his official manufacturing population will pass the surgeon's exami: position, had the opportunity of becoming familiar with nation, it is not a condition of things with which we should the nature and wants of the industry of our country, and remain contented. By violating the laws of nature, particularly with the causes which impeded the industry of Ireland became a scene of almost universal distress; by Silesia, considered that the contemplation and study of cholera and famine nature provided a remedy for the examples of high excellenee would tend to excite emulaevil. By examining and pointing out the statistics of the tion and to improve taste. This feeling engaged him to causes leading to distress, England may be preserved from form a collection of examples, not, however, confined to the such an infliction, and may gradually grow up to pre- specialities of the province, but connected with the trade sent to the people of the world a standard example of the and commerce of the whole country. In a few years the highest phase of humanity in physical and moral ele- materials for a museum were collected, for the reception of vation. To accomplish this, it is needful that the dete- which there was no local accomodation. The king and the iorating employments be cast out from amongst us by the government, appreciating the intentions of Herr Von institution of improved processes; and when this shall Minutoli, appropriated a considerable part of the Royal be accomplished, disputes between the employers and the Castle of Liegnitz for the arrangement of the collection. employed will be ended. Meanwhile the direct poor- Herr Von Minu:oli thus describes the object of the collechouse for the relief of those suffering by accidental tion: The collection is neither a museum of art aor of poverty would be a far less evil than the indirect processes antiquities. It is rather a collection of works of industry tending to increase their numbers and render the con- and was originated in the desire of aiding in the improvedition of misery a normal one, as with the seamstresses ment of the fabric, by the examination of examples of at now passing away.

tested excellence, adapted, not only to those branches of inI am, Sir, yours faithfully,

dustry already developed in Silesia, but to others, which W. BRIDGES ADAJIS. April 5, 1854.

from local advantages might be introduced. The subjects therefore, bear upon the artistic products of industry, partly

works of classical antiquity, partly of the quatro-cinque, MUSEUM OF INDUSTRIAL ART AT LEIGNITZ. and sci-cento period, when the regeneration of art flou

Sir, -I am gratified that you considered my report upon rished, and art, in connection with industry, created works the factory system of Prussia of sufficient interest to be which will remain examples for all time. Upon these proquoted so largely in your journal. In that report I only ducts, the value of which is analogous to the genius creatglanced at a subject which I think it is desirable should be ing them, the principal attention was directed. When these known by all who are promoting art education. I allude are contrasted with more modern examples, the decline of to the museum of Herr Von Minutoli, referred to at page 96. technical knowledge and art is apparent. This gentleman, who, as Councillor of State (Regierungs “ « As the efforts of art and workmanship approach and Rath) of the regency of Liegnitz, had cognizance of that combine in production, it follows that art must predomipart of Silesia so celebrated for its linen fabrics, and the nate. This must be allowed, as in the works of masseat of other branches of industry, was in a position to be ters, who were at the same time artists and workmen, and thoroughly acquainted with the precise condition of the whose products are of corresponding interest as works of province, and actuated by the desire of ministering to the art-for instance, the works of Benvenuto Cellini, Lucca wants of his countrymen, of rescuing them from poverty della Robbia and his son, John of Bologna, Fischer, Loudin, and unprofitable occupations, and of again raising the fame Oudry, &c. ; but also from the works of others, still greater and character of Silesian manufactures, commenced a masters, whose genius and works had an immense influence collection of works of industrial art. Visiting foreign upon the direction of taste as Raphael, Guilio Romano, countries in pursuance of various commissions from his Michel Angelo, Bernini, Lucca Giordano, and other me. government, he had especial opportunities of selecting exam in Nurnburg and the Netherlands, who, although artists of ples, and after twelve or fourteen years' pursuit of his object, the first rank, did not disdain to exhibit the most lively he brought together the materials for a museum. The interest in the improvement of art workmanship.' government recognized his labours, and promoted his views ; Officers were specially directed by the Government to they granted a part of the Royal Castle of Liegnitz for examine and report upon the collection. Valuable and intheir reception and arrangement. It will be seen that the teresting reports were published, setting forth the com


[ocr errors]

pleteness and great utility of the undertaking. In one of these reports is the following description of the Museum :- This division is again divided into three compartments, the founder. The exhibition of each particular class of riods. The collection perfectly corresponds with the aim of representing the classical, middle-age, and modern po.

In the classical sub-division the walls represent the subject separately, proves that the arrangement and classification is not made after the plan of an antiquary,

but architectural and decorative arrangements of the Egypupon the principle of a technical collection of industrial tians, Greeks, and Romans, by views of some of their art. It is arranged with a rare insight into technicality, a

most celebrated temples. Architecture is represented by a series of models

of the pyramids of Eygpt, the Temgreat knowledge of the works themselves and their com- ple at Tivoli, the Arch of Severus at Rome, and others. ponent materials. Two subjects of the highest importance To illustrate the ancient art of building, materials are arfor the interests of Silesia-pottery and glass-are illus: ranged, as fragments of columns, friezes, and ornaments, trated by objects which might be placed amongst the most

some of marble, some of burned clay ; bricks, roofing tiles, distinguished productions of art.

pavements, and mosaic works; marble and plaster busts, and, "The works in leather carpets raised with gold and lastly, there is a collection of gems showing the perfection colour are of great interest. The examples of bobbin lace of handiwork in the polishing and engraving of precious of great value and rarity, have been preserved in good stones. condition nearly 300 years.

Next are arranged specimens of pottery and terra-cotta, “The works of pottery and glass merit great attention: from the Egyptians and Greeks, to the decline of art-speof the combination of art with technical skill. Amongst animal and vegetable substances are exhibited, as carved and manifest that degree of perfection which is the result cimens of the glass fabrics; then of metal wares and bronze

castings, and lastly, in this compartment, manufactures of the examples, every kind of glass is to be found, of glass-works in wood and ivory, and textile fabrics, even the melting and refining ; every composition and mixture of finest productions of Byssus, which have braved a thousand clay-from the earliest Venetian glass to the productions

years. of the last century-from the earthern vessels and porce- The next sub-division is devoted to the middle age. lain of the Chinese and Japanese to the earthern utensils A considerable space is occupied with this collection. of the Germans—from the marjolicas of the Italians and While in the last sub-division the works for satisfying the Wedgewood ware of England and the pottery ware luxury and the pleasures of life are most prominent in of Silesia.

number, importance, and from their exhibiting the finest “The collection begins with the works of the simplest taste and the highest practical science, here is to be obform and composition, and leads on to the most artistic served the decline of taste, then the power of the hierarchy, productions. Every kind of vessel is represented ; turned" and at last the long and painful, but victorious struggle of with the hand on the round plate, moulded by hand, the revival of purer art. First in arrangement are the sacred or in models, glazed or natural, enamelled or ornamented utensils of Divine service, and instruments of war, carved in colour, from the most insignificant potsherd, to vessels altars,richly gilt and decorated; examples of brickwork, and of the most gorgeous pattern and design. The purpose of fine ornaments of Lombard buildings of the 14th and 15th technical instruction appears still more in a collection of centuries, amongst them the works of Antonio Filarete, fragments of antique glass vessels and materials. These and of Robbia. Groups and trophies of the works of the arfragments are quite proper for mechanical investigation, mourers, locksmiths, spurriers, &c.; panes of glass from and, examined with intelligence, will surely unfold many the Cathedrals of Milan and Cologne, and the great workenabled the ancients to attain such high perfection. The shops of North and South Germany, the Netherlands, and things which are mysteries to us, the knowledge of which Switzerland. Carpets which decorated the floors and same may be said of the works in pottery."

walls of churches and palaces. We proceed now to describe the collection as it exists at

In niches stand sarcophagi and altars. In the centre of this moment, according to the arrangement of the founder. the room rises a column of marble surmounted with the and in the order in which it should be visited and studied. statue of the virgin, a Neapolitan work of gilt clay.

Around the room are chairs with splendidly embossed

leather fittings, carved confessionals, and varieties of This division of the collection relates to the products of mosaics of the best masters of Italy. Upon tables are arranindustry, and has three compartments, one devoted to ged products in clav, the Arabic and Spanish Marjolicas, articles produced from the mineral, another from the and İtalian imitations of them and a collection of Italian vegetable, and the last from the animal kingdoms. In state glasses of the most excellent workmanship. the first compartment are represented the working in Between this and the next subdivision, are exhibited stone, in metal, in glass and clay ; the fashioning of stone, those subjects which properly belong to a period between and the manipulation of clay; the metal formed with the the classical middle age and the modern time, examples hammer and by the chisel and graver. Here may be of the so-called renaissance. studied the works of the locksınith, armourer, sword. The last subdivision isappropriated to the modern age. cutler, gunmaker, spurmakers, as well as the artizans in the ceilings are after Raphael, from the Vatican. The nobler metals. Bricks, building ornaments, hollow vessels doors are ornamented with caryatides and friezes of the of all ages, and every description of the manufacture of Venetian masters of the 15th and 16th centuries. The glass, hollow glass, coloured glass, imitation of stone, &c. walls are hung with Gobelin tapestries. Carved wooden The next compartment represents vegetable stuffs: the chests, one by Baccio Bandinelli, enriched with reliefs. application of woods, leaves, fruits, and fibres, from the Marble reliefs by M. Angelo; clay statues by Lucca della simplest manufacture to the finest mosaic; the application Robbia, and other works by Stucco and Sgraffito, after M.. of bark first as clothing of savages, and then as works of Angelo and Raphael. Upon tables and upon shelves, are beauty produced by the loom; the adaptation of refuse arranged master works of Italian pottery of the 15th and shreds for the fabrication of paper, and papier maché; and 16th centuries, from the workshops of Pesaro, Eubio, lastly, specimens of wood-cutting and typography. Urbino, &c., who followed the design sof Raphael in vases,

The last compartment exhibits the products from the dishes, plates, and other vessels ; enamels and vessels of animal kingdom. Raw hides and the finest specimens of the highest degree of perfection in glass ; gems, and stamped leather, articles of bone, ivory, mother of pearl, mosaics. whether for domestic use or as specimens of art workman. A compartment is next devoted to the period which ship; specimens of woven and embroided hair, of the pro- immediately followed the discovery of America, to the duction and manufacture of silk, and of ornamenting commencement of the thirty years' war.

German indus with feathers.

try is here illustrated from the workshops of Nurnberg.

[ocr errors]


« AnkstesnisTęsti »