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Mr. WENTWORTH Dilke, suggested that, as the snb- to extend the principle of assimilation to the laws of all ject was one of great importance, and as there were several countries, judging that, gradually as the relations of gentlemen present who would be disposed to speak upun friendship and commerce enlarged with any country, it it, it would be advisable to adjourn the discussion until would be important to removo the obstructions which Wednescay next. The proposition was agreed to. arose from different and often conflicting systems of PRESENTATION OF THE SWINEY GOBLET.

jurisprudence. The Statistical Chart attached to the

work showed the economical state of all countries; and The Chairman then rose for the purpose of presenting there, also, he found it impossible to compare the relative to Mr. Leone Levi, the goblet which had been awarded progress of nations, owing to the different tiines at which to kim in accordance with the will of the lato Dr. Swiney, the statistics were taken in the several countries. He for his work “On the Commercial Law of the World." was glad to find that the work was productive of_good. Kis Lordship stated, that Dr. George Swiney, by his The importanco of assimilating the Mercantile Law of will gave 5,0001. to the Society of Arts, upon trust, the United Kingdom was acknowledged by the commerevery fifth anniversary of his death, to present to cial world; and, upon Conference having been held of is the author of the best published work on juris- Deputies from all the Chambers of Commerce, a Royal prudence," a silver goblet, value 1001., containing 100 Commission was issued, which was now discussing tho sovereigns. Doctor Swiney died on the 20th June, 1844, various subjects, and soveral Bills were also before Par. and the 20th January last, was the 2nd quinquennial liament for the purpose of assimilating the Mercantile period. The goblet had been exhibited at the New York Laws of England and Scotland. A great Statistical ConExhibition, and had only just been received in this gress had also been held at Brussels, in October last, with country, or it would have been presented before. It was a view to introduce unity into the statistical documents of from a design specially prepared for the Society by Mr. all countries. Mr. Lovi then stated how much he was D. Maclise, R.A. His lordship proceeded to observe that, indebted to Lord Harrowby for his kindness in affording on the former occasion, the prize had been awarded to him at all times counsel and assistance, and he heartily Dr. Paris, and to Mr. Commissioner Fonblanque, and it thanked his lordship for such continued and highly

no small merit for his friend Mr. Levi, to have valued countenance. He was also much indebted to tho achieved an honor which placed him in the same category Liverpool Chamber of Commerce, an institution with the with these distinguished persons. Mr. Levi was a foundation of which he had the honour of being identified, foreigner, and had not been many years in England; and it for the early steps taken by them in procuring informawas therefore very remarkable that he should obtain the tion from other countries for his work, and to Mr. James prize for the best work on jurisprudence. They must Stitt, of that town, for his friendship from the first day have observed the peculiar neatness and felicity with he put foot on British ground, now nearly ten years since. which he had expressed his thoughts in the paper they similar acknowledgments were also due to the Chambers of had just heard read, and when he reminded them Commerce of Leeds, Bradford, Hull, and Edinburgh, for the that the book he had written

history support they had given him; and also to the Sovereigns of of the Commercial Law of the World, and that Austria and Prussia, who had lately honoured him with it contained a digest of the law of a large number of their gold medals. He would gratefully acknowledge foreign states, they would be able to conceive what a the countenance received from his Excellency Chevalier vast amount of industry and intelligence must have been Bunsen, oue so eminent in letters and science, and to devoted to the accomplishment of the task. He rejoiced the public at large, for the kindness he had uniformly rein having this opportunity of paying such a tribute to a ceived. Though a naturalised British subject, he was foreigner, for he could not but hope that they might long an Italian by birth, and the honour now conferred on cherish the feeling which prompted them to place foreigners him by the Society was an honour to Italy, which had upon an equal footing with our own countrymen, in all produced so many bright luminaries in the legal world, matters where merit was to be acknowledged and great and to his native town (Ancona), which had given the achievements to be rewarded. He had long had the first writer on international law, Alberico Gentilis, one pleasure of being acquainted with Mr. Levi, and, in pre- who filled the chair of civil law at Oxford in tho sixsenting this testimonial to him, he could say that he did teenth century. so with the greatest satisfaction, from the experience he The Secretary announced that at the meethad had, not only of his intellectual powers, but of his private worth.

ing of Wednesday next, the 5th of April, the Mr. Levi, in acknowledging the honour bestowed discussion “On Agricultural Statistics would on him, said, that it was scarcely necessary for him to be resumed. state how deeply grateful he felt to the members of the Society of Arts, to the members of the College of Phy

EDUCATIONAL APPARATUS EXHIBITION. sicians, and to his noble friend in the Chair, for such an ulexpected and valued testimonial. In the roveries in Tho following letter and despatch in referenco to this which he occasionally indulged whilst labouring in the Exhibition has been received from the Foreign Office :con pilation of his work, he did not anticipate that public

Foreign Office, March 20th, 1854. approbation would be so liberally granted to him; and he SIR, -With reference to my letter of the 6th ultimo, felt equally grateful on account of the nature of the gift, stating that the Earl of Clarendon would, in compliance the scientific merit, and the eminent character of the with the request of the Council of the Society of Arts, donors themselves. The work was a collection of laws, request the co-operation of foreign Governments with digested and compared. Its object was to simplify the respect to the Educational Exhibition proposed to be held laws which governed commerce in this country, and to in June next, I am directed by his Lordship to transmit render ino the English idiou the principles of jurispru to you a copy of a note which Lord Cowley, her M&dence of o her nations. The learned and eminent Lord jesty's ambassador at Paris, has received from the French Mansfield did not consider it derogatory to British juris- Minister for Foreign Affairs, upon the subject of the proprudence ti borrow whatever was good, either from the posed Exhibition. Civil Law, tie Law of Nations, or the Maritime Law of

Sir, any country vith which he was conversant. Another

Your most obedient humble Servant, leading object of the work was, the assimilation of the Mer

(Signed) H. U. ADDINGTON. cantile Law of the United Kingdom. Countries united by

“ The Secretary to the Society of Arts." indissolublo ties of friendship, commerce, and religion, and forming one integral state, should have one system of M. L'AMBASSADEUR,-V. E. m'a fait l'honneur de me law for the whole territory. And it aimed still further transmettre, le 8 du mois dernier, une lettre addrosée

I am,

measure of sulphuric acid and ten measures of water, together with a rod or plate of amalgamated zinc; take a small Smee's battery, of three or four pairs of plates, connected together intensity fashion, and connect its positive pole by a wire, with the piece of zinc in the porous cell. Having perfectly cleaned the surface of the article to be coated, connect it by a wire with the negative pole of the Je me suis empressé, M. l'Ambassadeur, de communi- battery, and immerse it in the hot clay solution; inmequer cette demande à M. le Ministre de l'Instruction Pub-diately abundance of gas will be evolved from the whole lique et des Cultes, en la recommandant à son attention of the immersed surface of the article, and in a few particulière; et j'aurai soin de mettre ultérieurement à minutes, if the size of the article is adapted to the quanla disposition de V. E. tous les élémens d'information tity of the current of electricity passing through it, a fine que M. Fortoul m'aura fait parvenir sur les points indi- white deposit of aluminium will appear all over its surface. qués dans la lettre de V. E. It may then be taken out, washed quickly in clean water, Agréez, &c., and wiped dry, and polished; but, if a thicker coating is DROUYN DE L'HUYS. required, it must be taken out when the deposit becomes dull in appearance, washed, dried, polished, and re-immersed; and this must be repeated at intervals, as often as it becomes dull, until the required thickness is obtained. With small articles it is not absolutely necessary, either in this or the following process, that a separate battery be NIUM AND SILICIUM, FROM CLAY, STONE, employed, as the article to be coated may be connected

ON THE ELECTRO PLATING OF METALLIC
ARTICLES WITH WHITE METALS, ALUMI-

AND SAND.

by a wire with the piece of zinc in the porous cell, and immersed in the outer liquid, when it will receive a depo-it, but more slowly than when a battery is employed.

To coat articles with Silicium. Take the following proportions: three-quarters of an ounce, by measure, of hydrofluoric acid, a quarter of an ounce of hydrochloric acid, and forty or fifty grains either of precipitated silica or of fine white sand, (the former dissolves most freely), and boil the whole together a few minutes, until no more silica is dissolved. Use this solution exactly in the same manner as the clay solution, and a fine white deposit of metallic silicium will be obtained, provided the size of the article is adapted to the quantity of the electric current; common red and, or indeed any kind of silicious stone, finely powdered, may be used in place of the white sand, and with equal success, if it be previously boiled in hydrochloric acid, to remove the red oxide of iron or other impurities.

Both in depositing aluminium and silicium, it is necessary to well saturate the acids with the solid ingredients by boiling, otherwise very little deposit of metal will be obtained.

par la Société Britannique des Arts à Lord Clarendon, au sujet d'une exposition de tout ce qui se rattache à l'education, qui doit avoir lieu à Londres, au mois de Juin pro chain. V. E. m'a exprimé, en même temps, au nom de votre Gouvernment, le desir de recevoir divers renseigne mens et documens relatifs à l'instruction publique en France.

(Signed) Paris, le 1 Mars, 1854.

By G. GORE, M.D.

It has long been known to chemists that all kinds of clay, stone, and sand, of which the crust of the earth is composed, consist of metals combined with oxygen, carbonic acid, sulphuric acid, and other non-metallic elements, forming therewith oxides, carbonates, sulphates, &c.; thus clay is an oxide of aluminium, sand an oxide of silicium, limestone a carbonate of calcium. But the separation of the metallic bases from the non-metallic elements with which they are combined, has been a matter of so great difficulty, that but few chemists have put themselves to the trouble of accomplishing it, and those who have done so have made use of the most powerful means and reducing agents, such as large voltaic batteries, potassium, &c., and have then obtained them in a state of alloy or combination with mercury. Sir Humphrey Davy, the discoverer of most of these bases, in his experiments on the decomposition of the alkalies and earths, ased a powerful battery, consisting of 500 pairs of plates, and then succeeded in obtaining them combined with mercury, from which they were afterwards sepa rated; Wohler and Berzelius, in their discoveries of the means of separating the metals aluminium and silicium from their respective compounds, clay and sand, used a high temperature and potassium, and then succeeded in obtaining them in the condition of dull metallic powders, nearly invisible.

By a means recently discovered, and described in the March number of the Philosophical Magazine" for this year, I have succeeded in depositing the metals aluminium from clay, and silicium from sand stone, each in a perfect metallic condition, by dissolving pipe-clay, common red sand, pounded stone, &c., in various chemical liquids, and passing currents of electricity from ordinary small voltaic batteries through the solutions.

My attention has since been directed to produce simple processes, whereby any person not possessing a knowledge of chemistry may readily coat articles with those metals, and cause the discovery to be immediately applied to human benefit in the arts and manufactures, and the following are the results of my experiments:

To coat articles of copper, brass, or German silver, with aluminium, take equal measures of sulphuric acid and water, or take one measure each of sulphuric and hydrochloric acids and two measures of water; add to the water a small quantity of pipe-clay, in the proportion of five or ten grains by weight to every ounce by measure of water (or oz. to the pint), rub the clay with the water until the two are perfectly mixed, then add the acid to the clay solution, and boil the mixture in a covered glass vessel one hour. Allow the liquid to settle, take the clear, supernatant solution, while hot, and immerse in it an earthern porous cell, containing a mixture of one

Among the many experiments I have made upon this subject, the following are a few of the most interesting:Experiment 1. Boiled some pipe-clay in caustic potash and water, poured the clear part of the solution into a glass vessel and immersed in it a smali earthen porous cell, containing dilute sulphuric acid and a piece of amalga mated zine; immersed a similar piece of bright sheet copper in the alkaline liquid, and connected it with the negative pole of a small Smee's battery of three pairs of plates, connected the zinc plate with the positive pole, and let the whole stand undisturbed all night; on examining it next morning I found the piece of copper coated with a white silver-like deposit of metallic aluminium.

Experiment 2. Obtained from a railway cutting in the town, a small piece of the sand rock upon vhich Birmingham is built, boiled it in hydrochloric acid, to remove the red oxide of iron, washed it clean with water, and dissolved it by boiling in a mixture of hyd-fluoric acid, nitric acid, and water; immersed in this soution, a porous cell with dilute acid and zinc, as before; connected a piece of brass with the zinc by a wire, and suspended it in the outer liquid, which was kept hot by means of a small spirit lamp beneath; after allowing the action to proceed several hours, I found the piece of brass beautifully coated with white metallic silicium.

Experiment 3. Took one part, by weight, of the same sand stone, after being purified by the hydrochloric acid, and 24 parts of carbonate of potash, fused them together in a crucible until all evolution of gas ceased, and a perfect glass was formed; poured out the melted glass, and when cold dissolved it in water, and used this solution in

the same manner as the former ones, allowing the action to proceed shout twelve hours, when a good white deposit of metallic silicium was obtained.

principles of the established religion, and on Sunday they should attend the nearest parish church. A resident chaplain would be a great blessing, but such an officer could not be obtained without an additional expense of £150 or £200 a year. The governor and schoolmaster and every officer on the establishment, should supply, as far as possible, the deficiency, and if the right sort of men were selected, I should have no doubt as to the success of the school. The cost of such an establishment is insignificant compared with the great moral and social good likely to result from it. Instead of spending millions of public money in punishing criminal children, let us try what can be done towards preventing them from becoming criminals. There is no economy in allowing boys to commit crime, and then making expensive and abortive efforts at their reformation. A magistrate hesitates before he sends a child to prison, because he knows it will probably come out worse than it went in. There are no adequate means to counteract the demoralizing influences of a prison life. Here, at our very doors, lurking about our streets and alleys, to beg or to steal, we have a vagrant juvenile population of thousands, who know nothing of religion, and who are not possessed of the commonest rudiments of education, to remove the gross ignorance which envelopes them like a cloud, cuts them off from all association with their better-taught fellow-creatures, which almost necessitates that they should either beg or steal, or else not live, and which obscures their perceptions till they sink from poverty and crime into the grave, into which they fall without thinking or feeling that its gloomy portals admit them to an everlasting futurity which this life was given them to prepare for. Nothing can be more merci. ful or expedient than some such plan as I have endeavoured to explain. Let vagrant children be treated as children; let them be placed under early control and trained to habits of industry and self-reliance. The increase of juvenile criminals is fraught with great danger

7th. Ditto, in a state of powder.

8th. Ditto, purified by hydrochloric acid.

9th. Specimen of sheet brass coated with silicium from to the institutions of our country, and there is no social this road stone.

Birmingham, 24th March, 1854.

question of the present day upon which the philanthropist can better bestow his attention. The lodging house, the beer shop, the public house, the singing saloon, the penny hop, and the penny gaff, are the schools in which hundreds of children are trained to the commission of crime, and familiarised with all sorts of vice and immorality. In Manchester alone there are forty-three thousand children of the working classes, neither at school nor at work; and in other towns we find equally large numbers in the same neglected condition. Our success as a nation depend chiefly upon the morality and industry of our population; working classes, which threatens to destroy the national but there are elements at work upon the children of the character of our workpeople. I am not anxious to raise the cry of alarm without a cause, but an intimate political connexion with a large number of the working classes for several years has enabled me in some measure to form better mothers, and it is to sanitary measures, and an an opinion on this subject. We want better fathers, and that our hopes must be directed. The great bulk of our enlightened but compulsory system of national education Their labouring population are lamentably ignorant. ignorance renders them the easy dupes of demagogues and knaves, and where any education exists it is of such a kind that it affords them no assistance in the daily Rise, wash, and dress. 1 Both divisions go to avocations of life, nor does it protect them against the Prayers.

MORNING.

o'clock.

work.

Drill.

4 Return home.
Supper and leisure.
8 Prayers.
8 Bed.

5

snares into which they are most liable to fall. For the present I shall conclude these remarks by the following extract from the Irish Quarterly:-" None can doubt that the success or the failure of the important questions of Prison Discipline and of Reformatory Schools, depend entirely upon the people of these kingdoms. All efforts must fail of success unless the nation will learn that to In winter, this routine would require some alteration, teach God's law to a poor child criminal, or a neglected but, as a general rule, I think it might be acted upon with child who may become criminal, is cheaper than to leave success. Prayers should be read every day by the go-him to learn man's law from a judge and the devil's code The boys should be carefully instructed in the from his fellow prisoners."

12

vernor.

Experiment 4. Took some stones with which the streets a Birmingham are macadamised, pounded them fine in a mortar, boiled the powder in hydrochloric acid, to purfy it from iron, washed it well in water, and dissolved it by boiling an excess of it in a mixture of oz., by measure, of hydro-fluoric acid, oz. of water, and oz each of nitre and hydro-chloric acids, urtil no more would dissolve; used the clear portion of this solution in the same manner as the former liquids, and readily coated in it a piece of brass with a beautifully white deposit either of aluminium or silicium.

From these and many other experiments which I have tried, it is quite clear that common metal articles may be readily coated with white metals, possessing similar characters to silver, from solutions of the most common and abundant materials, and thus bring within the purchase of the poorer classer articles of taste and cleanliness which are at present only to be obtained by the comparatively wealthy.

The following specimens accompany the communication, and may be seen at the Society's house :

1st. One specimen each of sheet copper and brass, coated with aluminium from "Pipe-clay," according to process described.

2nd. One specimen each of sheet copper and brass, coated with silicium, from silica and sand, according to process described.

3rd. Specimen of Birmingham sand rock. 4th. Specimen of ditto, purified by hydro-chloric acid. 5th. Specimen of sheet metal coated with silicium from Birmingham saad-stone.

6th. Specimen of road stone with which Birmingham streets are macadamized.

ON REFORMATORY AND INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS
FOR VAGRANT CHILDREN.
BY J. C. BUCKMASTER.

[Concluded from p. 325.]

Many objections may be urged against sending a boy to work for three or four hours before sending him to school. The business of the school should always precede the labour of the field; the nervous energy is exhausted by physical exertion, and the boy is unfitted for the instruction of the schoolmaster ;;-a kind of lethargy comes over him, and he feels more disposed for sleep than study. I think the experience of all who have had any thing to do with Industrial Schools will bear out the truth

of this statement. A routine for the general manage ment of such a school as I have proposed, might perhaps be very well arranged as follows:

⚫'clock.

5

6

6

7

7

Breakfast.

Senior division go to

work, junior division to school. Dinner.

AFTERNOON.

INFLUENCE OF OCCUPATION UPON HEALTH.

An interesting report has been prepared by Mr. Finlaison, the actuary of the National Debt-office, upon the subject of sickness and mortality among the male members of friendly societies in England and Wales, as shown by the returns made by them to the Government for the five years 1846-1850. It appears that the proportion on the sick list in the course of a year is one in four, or 24.99 in every 100. The proportion seems large, but some allowance may have to be made for cases of feigned illness, and the persons in question are not those who are most favourably circumstanced in regard to food, clothing, lodging, and the various conditions of health. Mr. Finlaison proceeds to divide the members of these societies into four classes :-1, those who have heavy labour, with exposure to the weather, such as agricultural and other outdoor labourers-a class in which he has 353,103 cases; 2, those who have heavy labour without exposure to the weather-such as smiths, sawyers, coopers, plumbers-a class numbering 94,259; 3, those who have light labour, with exposure to the weather, such as shepherds, drovers, drivers, pedlars, messengers, Custom-house officers-in number, 58,709; 4, those who have light labour, without exposure to the whether, such as clerks, shopmen, barbers, factory operatives, servantsin number, 286,909. He found that persons engaged in heavy labour, with and without exposure to the weather, have respectively 28-04 and 26-54 per cent. of their number sick in the year; persons engaged in light labour, 20 80 and 21.58. In round numbers, taking a census of working men disabled by illness, for every three whose work is light or moderate there are four of the class whose lot is heavy labour. The duration of sickness to each person sick is, however, upon an average, only 38 days and 40-73 in the two classes engaged in heavy labour, and 41 days and 44 25 in the two classes engaged in light labour. The mortality is heaviest among the persons classed as engaged in light labour; and indoor work shows itself less favourable to longevity than outdoor. But the main difference in the distribution of sickness seems to turn upon the expenditure of physical force. "This is no new thing," says Mr. Finlaison," for in all ages the enervation and decrepitude of the bodily frame has been observed to follow a prodigal waste of the mental or corporeal energies; but it has been nowhere previously established upon recorded experience, that the quantum of sickness annually falling to the lot of man is in direct proportion to the demands on his muscular power. So it would seem to be, however. Therefore, whatever scientific invention of machinery to save the expenditure of bodily strength may be devised, its production should be hailed as one of the greatest of blessings to the sons of toil, and not ignorantly contemned by the very class whom in reality it ultimately benefits. A study of the following digest leads to the conclusion, that the inventor of any engine which spares the physical energies diminishes the amount of human sickness in proportion as he, by means of his device, economises the labour of his fellow creatures." The tables show that the liability to sickness runs up to a temporary maximum in the young man, and then declines, and does not attain the same per centage until advanced years. This sick maximum of early manhood-the effect of a premature demand on the bodily vigour-is in the period from 18 to 21, except in the class engaged in outdoor heavy labour, in which it appears to be at 14. The same per centage is reached, ever afterwards to increase. at the age of 48 in the class who have indoor heavy labour, 51 in the case of indoor light labour, 57 with outdoor heavy labour, and 65 with outdoor light labour. These last remarks relate to the proportion of persons sick, not to the duration of the sickness. The duration of sickness does not decline in manhood, but increases with the ag. The severity of railway employment, according to these tables, tells upon the constitution; the men, it is said, get "weather beaten." In the police there is a marked increase in the amount of sickness after 40.

IMPROVED JACQURD MACHINE. At the Institution of Civil Engineers on Tuesday week a Paper was read, Descriptive of " Martin's Improved Jacquard Machine," by Mr. Edward Laforest.

After stating the very general application of Jacquard Machines to all ornamental weaving, the Paper described the old machine, and the manner in which the patterns were produced, by means of bands of punched cards, acting on needles, with loops, or eyes, which regulated the figure. It showed, also, the great wear and tear to which these cards were subjected; indeed, so much, that for the carpet trade they were often required to be made of sheet iron.

In Martin's new Jacquard Machine the object has been to substitute for the heavy cards a sheet of prepared paper, punched with given apertures, like the cards of the old machines, but instead of being a series of pieces 2 inches wide, laced together, the punched paper formed a continuous band, only of an inch wide, thus so diminishing the bulk that the weight of the new band, as compared with that of the old cards, was in the proportion of 1 to 11.

The method by which this desirable result had been attained was explained to be chiefly by an arrangement, which permitted the four hundred spiral springs on the needles, used in the old machine, to be dispensed with, when, as a consequence, the force and wear and tear due to their resistance would be done away with, and fine and light wires could be made to do the work of strong and heavy ones.

In order to render this clear, one of Martin's machines with a part of an old machine, and bands of equal numbers of cards, under each system, were exhibited.

The next point demonstrated was, that, like the bulk and weight, the cost of the cards, under the new system, would be greatly reduced.

It was shewn, that by an improved system of punching machinery, the bands could be cut from a design, previously perforated, at the rate of 3000 cards per hour, and any number of duplicate could be produced with equal celerity; it was also stated, that by these means, when a pattern became fashionable, any number of looms might be set to work on it, in about as many days as it had previously required weeks, under the old system. The price of the old cards was 6s. 9d. to 8s. 6d., and upwards, per 100, for new sets, and 5s. 6d. for recuts; whereas the new paper bands would cost 1s. per 100, and 6d. per 100 for recuts. The comparison of cost of 3,000 cards (an average band) would, therefore stand thus:Cost Weight. Length. 3,000 cards at 6s. 9d. per 100. 10 2 6..90lbs... 600ft. £ s. d. 3,000 new bands at 1s per 100. 1 10 0...8 lbs. .63ft.9in.

been in constant work for two years, although used on a In reference to durability it was stated, that a band had heavy waiscoat piece.

VILLAGE LIBRARIES.

An important meeting in connection with the Yorkshire Union Village Library Scheme was held on Friday, March 17th, under the management of the Committee of the Topcliffe Literary Institute. Mr. James Hole, secretary of the Yorkshire Union of Mechanics' Institutes, and Mr. Campbell, the librarian, attended as a deputation from the central committee. The meeting was presided over by the Hon. and Very Rev. the Dean of Ripon. Mr. Hole explained that the committee of the Yorkshire Union had found that whilst Mechanics' and other Literary Institutes had been established in all the large, and in most of the small, market towns and larger villages, there were many places where the population was too small to sustain a regular institute with all the appliances of the more populous places, but that, nevertheless, there existed in many such places a desire to share in the advantages of literary societies. The Committee had therefore made

an appeal, which had been well responded to, so that they | a spirited revenge upon that stately body, by keeping its had been enabled to lend many places books; but as these duties, its opportunities, and its sins of omission and places were all wide of one another, they were anxious commission steadily before it. What is it going to do to try the plan in a more systematic manner, and it now that it has sunk all its money in land? Does it became a question with them, what district of York- expect the soil of Kensington, by a spontaneous effort, to shire was the most favourable for the experiment. produce museums and lecture-halls and galleries-that a The committee decided that it should be in an agricul- university for "the knowledge of common things," and tural one, partly because it was felt that the manufac-homes for the learned societies, are to spring up from the turing villages being more populous, many of them could ground, when, in harlequin fashion, it waves its wand? "I expects I growed," said Topsy, when asked who made sustain their Mechanics' Institute, but more especially that the plan should at first be carried out in the Ripon her; but the promised institutions of the West-end district, where there were numerous villages conveniently cannot be created so conveniently, and I want to know situated to act in union. It was proposed to make Top. where the Commissioners are to get the money. The cliffe the centre of a district, with Dishforth, Helperby, Chancelior of the Exchequer will button up his pockets Carlton, Sand Hutton, Rainton, Baldersby, and Skipton and pull tight his purse-strings if they venture to approach attached; and Kirklington the centre of another district. hin. The House of Commons are not likely to have The central committee had had made a number of suitable much consideration either for science or art or some boxes that answered the purpose of a box for transmitting time to come; unless, indeed, Messrs. Cole and Playfair the books, as well as of a bookcase for keeping them at could help our Napiers and Raglans to beat the Russians. each station. These boxes would, in the first instance, The public have taken their spare cash to the shop down be sent direct from the central library to the villages ap- at Sydenham; and, to speak the honest truth, in homely plying for them, on any place obtaining twenty-five phraseology, the Commission is in a regular hole, from subscribers, but the villages would afterwards receive which there seems no means of escape. I believe the them every six months from the district secretaries at intentions of its members are excellent, but the world Topcliffe and Kirklington, with the object of saving very properly looks at the acts of public bodies, and the expense in carriage. One penny a week, or one shilling more distinguished they are the more it expects. Who a quarter, was all that was asked, and for every twenty- could suppose that so many wise heads would commit the blunder of spending all their money in the purchase of five subscribers fifty volumes would be sent, and exchanged with entirely different books every six months. land-that they should fasten upon it with such eagerThe Hon. and Very Rev. the Dean of Ripou urgedness as to sacrifice everything else in obtaining it-and upon the meeting the importance of giving this plan that they should reduce theinselves to the miserable posiof the village libraries their most cordial and active tion of proprietors without capital for the useful occupasupport, as it would be both a blessing and a credit to tion of their property. It would not surprise me if we them, and offer up a new era in their social existence. had to get an Encumbered Estates' Act for KensingtonThe Rev. John Prior, rector of Kirklington, gave some gore-if we had to ask Parliament to interfere in rescuing the Commission from the consequences of its own folly. In account of the manner in which the plan had been responded to in his village and district, and stated that fact, the Commissioners may be said to have already delithey had already received two sections of books. Mr. berately put themselves in that position; for they cannot take another step without a grant of the public money.They Thomas Copley, district secretary of the Topeliffe associated villages, explained what had been done towards have gone to work like young spendthrifts, relying upon the introduction of the plan amongst the places he had their rich old aunt down in Westminster, who, for the credit of the family, would not see them brought to the visited. Topcliffe was prepared at once to take two sections of books, which would be issued to the members of sponging house; or like "the boy Jones," who, when his their institute without any charge beyond the institute eccentricities on land were put a stop to, on board ship subscription. Addresses were subsequently delivered by one day, a ter first lustily shouting out "Man overboard, Mr. Campbell, Mr. W. Williamson, Mr. Norman, and jumped into the sea that he might enjoy the luxury of "we can always being saved from drowning. They say others. sell the land for what we have paid for it." Let them try to do so, and they will find that everybody, even to "the disinterested" Mr. Kelk, will be ready to "bleed" them. That comes of having money which, as it were, belongs to nobody. Blackstone devotes a portion of his Commentaries to explain the rights to "treasure trove," "jetsam,” flotsam," the carcases of whales cast ashore, and other knotty points in the law of property. I wish he or some other learned pundit had laid down authoritatively what should be done with such sums as the shilling surplus of 1851. It surely would not have been recommended to illustrate there with the parable of the man who buried his talent in the earth. That the commission have done so, cannot, I think, be disputed. Where were they when Mr. Dargan, single-handed, was getting up the Dublin Exhibition. Did they hasten to render their assistance to this generous and patriotic man? Did they open up and maintain a friendly correspondence with the Irish Committee? Did they use their influence, which could be done cheaply, to help the undertaking? Did they even set the example of exhibiting? It is well known that they did nothing;-that the Prince and Lord Granville were the only members of the commission, who displayed a worthy interest on the occasion; and that, though a direct application was made for the magnificent series of works officially published in connexion with the Exhibibition in Hyde-park, they were refused, and only shown indirectly at Merrion-square through the Royal Dublin Society.

Home Correspondence.

THE ROYAL COMMISSION AND THE SURPLUS. SIR-It is surely high time that the Society and the public should know what the Royal Commissioners are doing up at Kensington-gore with the shilling surplus of the Great Exhibition. It is a long time since we have heard more of them than is conveyed through the formal announcements of the Court Circular-that they met, and that such and such members were present. As their meetings are generally held at Westminster, are we at liberty to conclude that the inconvenience of the site which they have selected is already experienced; or does the gingerbread architecture of the Houses of Parliament engage their attention, that they may reproduce it when they begin to build; or are they studying the laws of ventilation; or watching the progress of the Eastern question; or making intere t with members for a supplemental grant to buy the rest of the land they want before they cominence operations?

We surely are entitled to know what they are doing, and, if they are doing nothing, we might be told what mighty projects are in their minds, to which they cannot The give birth after so many months of gestation. Society, in the Council of which the scheme of the Great Exhibition originated, has not been well treated by the Commission, and I do hope that we may be able to take

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